Contemporary Neurology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780407003088, 9781483182612

Contemporary Neurology

1st Edition

Editors: M.J.G. Harrison
eBook ISBN: 9781483182612
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 21st March 1984
Page Count: 656
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Description

Contemporary Neurology compiles a large series of papers on the commonest neurological problems. This book discusses the management of epilepsy, involuntary movements, nerve and muscle diseases, and multiple sclerosis. The areas on infections, cerebrovascular disease, trauma, intracranial pressure, and vertebral column are also elaborated. This text likewise describes medical procedures on how to do a lumbar and cisternal puncture. Other topics include headache in children, hyperventilation, dizziness, funny turns—neurological, dysarthria, facial pain, and nystagmus. The weakness of the legs, loss of memory, coma, brain death, complications of alcoholism, and stupor and akinetic mutism are also covered. This publication is valuable to clinicians and examination candidates preparing for the DPM, MRCP (UK) and Neurology/Psychiatry “Boards”.

Table of Contents


Contemporary Neurology

Preface

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Headache

Acute Single Episodes of Headache

Acute Recurrent Episodes of Headache

Headaches of Subacute Onset

Chronic Headache

Conclusion

Front Cover

References

Contemporary Neurology

Chapter 2. Headache in Children

Incidence

Acute Headache in A Previously Healthy Child

Recurrent Or Chronic Headaches

Unexplained Recurrent Headaches

Migraine

Tension Headache

Investigation in A Child with "Unexplained" Headaches

References

Chapter 3. Funny Turns-Neurological

Drop in Cerebral Perfusion

Basilar Ischaemia

Epilepsy

Breath-Holding Attacks in Children

Intermittent Obstructive Hydrocephalus

Trauma

Prostrating Vertigo

Cryptogenic Drop Attacks of Women

Narcolepsy

Metabolic Causes

Hyperventilation

Hysteria

Investigation and Management

References

Chapter 4. Funny Turns-Cardiac

Funny Turns Resulting From Cardiac Arrhythmias

Fainting

Carotid Sinus Syncope

Funny Turns in Patients with Pacemakers

Funny Turns That Do Not Involve Arrhythmias

Drugs

Cardiac Investigation of Patients with Funny Turn

References

Chapter 5. Hyperventilation

Diagnosis

Mechanisms of Action

Conclusion

References

Chapter 6. Dizziness

Children

Adults

Investigation

Management

References

Chapter 7. Dysarthria

Dysphonia

Dysphasia

The Causes of Dysarthria

Clinical Course

Dysarthria in Childhood

References

Chapter 8. Facial Pain

Infection

Ocular Causes

Dental Occlusion and Malfunction of the Temporomandibular Joint

Salivary Calculi

Trigeminal Neuralgia (Tic Douloureux)

Trigeminal Neuropathy

Trigeminal Nerve Lesions

Atypical Facial Pain

Cluster Headaches

Migraine Variants

Causalgia

References

Chapter 9. Nystagmus

Clinically Significant Nystagmus

Nomenclature

Commoner Types of Nystagmus

Rarer Types of Nystagmus

Other Abnormal Ocular Movements

Summary

References

Chapter 10. Pins and Needles

Clinical Features

Diffuse Pins and Needles

Pins and Needles Localized to the Limbs

Pins and Needles Localized to An Area of A Limb

Chapter 11. The Wasted Hand

The Median Nerve

The Ulnar Nerve

Combined Median and Ulnar Nerve Lesions

Brachial Plexus

Spinal Cord Disease

Clinical Summary

References

Chapter 12. Weakness of the Legs

Acute Paraplegia

Chronic Spastic Paraparesis

Unilateral Spastic Weakness

Foot Drop

Proximal Weakness: The Quadriceps Syndrome

Other Causes of Weakness of the Legs

Chapter 13. Loss of Memory

Neuropathology of Amnesia

Psychogenic Factors

Permanent Amnesic States

Treatment

Addendum

References

Chapter 14. Stupor and Akinetic Mutism

Depressive Stupor

Catatonic Stupor

Organic Stupor (Akinetic Mutism)

Psychogenic Stupor

Simulated Stupor

Pathophysiology

Conclusion

References

Chapter 15. Coma

Diffuse Disorders

Localized Brain Disease

Plan of Treatment

References

Chapter 16. Brain Death

Clinical Criteria

Eeg

Cerebral Circulation

Conclusion

References

Chapter 17. Complications of Alcoholism

Intoxication Phenomena

Withdrawal Phenomena

Toxic and Deficiency Disorders

"Functional" Disorders with An Alcoholic Component

References

Management of Epilepsy

Chapter 18. Blackouts

Chapter 19. Emergency Treatment of Seizures

Single Seizure

Frequent Seizures

Chapter 20. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Aetiological Factors

Clinical Features

Differential Diagnosis

Overall Management

Eeg Investigation

Drug Treatment

Surgery For Epilepsy

Prognosis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 21. Surgery For Epilepsy

Indications

Resective Surgery

Functional Neurosurgery

Involuntary Movements

Chapter 22. Parkinson's Disease

Is There A Premorbid Parkinsonian Personality?

The Prodromal Phase

The Classic Presentation

Unusual Presentations

References

Chapter 23. Tics and Spasms

Definitions

History

Tics

Spasms

Differential Diagnosis of Tics and Spasms

References

Chapter 24. Tremor

Characteristics and Classification of Tremor

Some Factors Influencing Tremor

Measurement of Tremor

Normal (Physiological) Tremor

Pathological Tremor

Mechanisms of Tremor

References

Chapter 25. Surgery For Involuntary Movements

Tremor

Hemifacial Spasm

References

Nerve and Muscle

Chapter 26. Muscle Diseases

Introduction

Muscular Dystrophy

Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (Cpeo)

Myotonic Disorders

The Periodic Paralyses

Endocrine Myopathies

Chronic Renal Failure

Malignant Hyperpyrexia

Myopathies Due to Identified Biochemical Defects

References

Chapter 27. Drug-Induced Disorders of Muscle

General Mechanisms

Clinical Presentations

Clofibrate

Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid

Corticosteroids

Beta-Adrenergic Blockers

Myotonia

Malignant Hyperpyrexia

Myasthenie Syndromes

Conclusion

References

Chapter 28. Painful Disorders of Muscle

Pain Mechanisms

Painful Myopathies

Acute Inflammatory Myopathies

Polymyalgia Rheumatica

Acute Alcoholic Myopathy

Painful Drug-Induced Myopathies

Myopathies of Metabolic Bone Disease

Myopathies Due to Defects in Muscle Energy Metabolism

Idiopathic Paroxysmal Myoglobinurias

Muscle Pain Syndromes of Unknown Aetiology

References

Chapter 29. Peripheral Neuropathy

Does The Patient Have A Peripheral Neuropathy

The Clinical Significance of Neurophysiological Abnormality

The Pathological Significance of Neurophysiological Abnormality

Aspects of Some Common Neuropathies

Acute Single Episodes of Headache

Difficulty in Diagnosis

References

Chapter 30. Acute Inflammatory Poly Neuropathy

Pathology

Clinical Features

Clinical Immunology

Management

References

Chapter 31. Entrapment Neuropathy

Compression Neuropathy

Entrapment Neuropathy

Clinical Features

References

Chapter 32. The Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Clinical Features

Associated Conditions

Electrophysiological Abnormalities

Treatment

Pathology

References

Chapter 33. Neuromuscular Syndromes Associated with Malignant Disease

Malignant Cachexia

Primary Disorders of Muscle

Muscular Weakness of Neuropathic Origin

Muscular Weakness Due to Endocrine Disorders

Conclusion

References

Multiple Sclerosis

Chapter 34. Acute Optic Neuritis

Definition

Pathology

Symptoms

Signs

Special Investigations

Diagnosis

Course and Prognosis

Management

References

Chapter 35. Immunological Aspects of Multiple Sclerosis

Histological Evidence of An Immunological Reaction

Histocompatibility Types and MS

CSF

Evidence For Autoimmunity in MS

General Immune Responsiveness in MS

Immune Responses to Specific Infective Agents in MS

Linoleic Acid and The Immune Response in MS

Immunological Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 36. New Treatments For Multiple Sclerosis

Immunosuppression

Fatty Acids

Other Dietary Measures

Hyperbaric Oxygen

Immunopotentiation

Myelin Basic Protein Desensitization

Plasmapheresis

Conclusion

References

Chapter 37. Spinal Cord Stimulation

Modern Developments

Experimental Studies

Spinal Cord Stimulation For Pain

The Stimulator

SCS in Neurological Disease

SCS in Peripheral Vascular Disease

Neurophysiological Assessment

How Does SCS Work?

Complications

Conclusions

References

Infections

Chapter 38. Meningitis

Microbial Diagnosis

Antimicrobial Drug Treatment

Other Aspects of Management

Aseptic Meningitis

References

Chapter 39. Tuberculous Meningitis

Pathophysiology

Clinical Features

Tuberculous Spinal Arachnoiditis

Tuberculoma

Tuberculous Serous Meningitis

Tuberculous Encephalopathy

Other Investigations

Diagnosis

Treatment

References

Chapter 40. Intracerebral Abscess

Who Gets Them?

Making The Diagnosis

Outcome and Complications

Conclusion

References

Chapter 41. Opportunistic Infections

Bacteria

Fungi

Viruses

Conclusion

References

Chapter 42. Encephalitis

Clinical Features

Investigations

Diagnosis

Treatment

Conclusion

References

Chapter 43. Tetanus

Pathogenesis

Prophylaxis

Diagnosis

Grading of Severity

Time Course

Specific Treatment

Symptomatic Treatment

References

Chapter 44. Neurosyphilis

Asymptomatic Neurosyphilis

Meningovascular Neurosyphilis

Parenchymatous Neurosyphilis

Congenital Neurosyphilis

Treatment

References

Cerebrovascular Disease

Chapter 45. The Young Stroke

Inherited Causes

Congenital Vascular Anomalies

Moyamoya Syndrome

Trauma

Infections

Cardiac Disease

Haematological Disorders

Inflammatory Arterial Diseases

Pregnancy

Oral Contraceptives

Metabolic Disorders

Migraine

Neoplasia

Cortical Venous Thrombosis

Atheroma and Hypertension

Management

References

Chapter 46. Giant Cell Arteritis

Clinical Features

Investigations

Treatment

Summary

References

Chapter 47. Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow

Carbon Dioxide

Oxygen

Metabolic Demand

Age and Dementia

Blood Pressure and Hypertension

Ischaemia

Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

Raised Intracranial Pressure

Haematocrit, Viscosity, and Oxygen Carriage

Conclusion

References

Chapter 48. Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

Aneurysms

Arteriovenous Malformations

Treatment

References

Chapter 49. Prevention of Stroke

Stroke

Transient Ischaemic Attacks

Summary

References

Chapter 50. Surgery For Ischaemic Stroke

Carotid Endarterectomy

References

Trauma

Chapter 51. Head Injuries

Definitions

Epidemiology

Pathology

Complications of Head Injury

Less Seriously Injured Patients

Prognosis

References

Chapter 52. Subdural Haematoma

Pathology

Relationship of Pathology to Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis

Treatment

Bilateral Subdural Haematoma

References

Chapter 53. Nerve Repair

Surgical Anatomy and Microanatomy

Evolution of Present-Day Methods of Nerve Repair

Interfascicular Nerve Grafting

The Future

References

Intracranial Pressure

Chapter 54. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

What Is Normal ICP

What Is Elevated ICP

What Are The Clinical Correlates of Raised ICP

What Is The Incidence of Raised ICP

What Harm Does Raised ICP Do

How Do You Monitor ICP and Display and Process The Information?

What Are The Risks of IP Monitoring?

What Are The Indications For ICP Monitoring and How May It Help The Patient?

What Should Be Done If ICP Increases

References

Chapter 55. The Detection of Intracranial Tumors

Plain Skull X-Rays

Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography

Isotope Studies

Angiography

Contrast Media in the CSF

Conclusion

References

Chapter 56. Brain Tumors

Pathological Classification

Incidence and Epidemiology

Clinical Presentation

Natural History of Common Brain Tumors

Special Investigations

Summary

References

Chapter 57. The Management of Cerebral Oedema

The Pathological Nature of Cerebral Oedema

Causes of Cerebral Oedema

Progress and Resolution of Cerebral Oedema

Effects of Cerebral Oedema

Treatment of Cerebral Oedema

Conclusion

References

Chapter 58. Adult Communicating Hydrocephalus

Basic Concepts

Pathology of Idiopathic NPH

Presenting Symptoms

Differential Diagnosis

Diagnostic Tests

References

Vertebral Column

Chapter 59. Spinal Cord Compression

Important Factors in Diagnosis

Investigation

Diagnosis

Summary

Chapter 60. Lumbar Canal Stenosis

The Anatomy and Pathology of Lumbar Canal Stenosis

Clinical Aspects

Treatment

References

Chapter 61. Spina Bifida

Classification and Pathology

Incidence and Aetiology

Assessment and Management of Spina Bifida Occulta

Assessment and Management of Spina Bifida Aperta

References

Chapter 62. Congenital Abnormalities of the CNS

Distribution

Antenatal Diagnosis

Problems of Classification

Anencephalus

Hydrocephalus

Meningocele

Meningomyelocele and Myelocele

Spinal Dysraphism

Encephalocele

Porencephaly

Megalencephaly

Other Conditions

Conclusion

References

Procedures

Chapter 63. How to Do A Lumbar Puncture

Preparation

Procedure

Hazards

Chapter 64. How to Do A Cisternal Puncture

Method

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
656
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483182612

About the Editor

M.J.G. Harrison