Construction Calculations Manual

Construction Calculations Manual

1st Edition - September 19, 2011

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  • Author: Sidney Levy
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123822444

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Construction Calculations is a manual that provides end users with a comprehensive guide for many of the formulas, mathematical vectors and conversion factors that are commonly encountered during the design and construction stages of a construction project. It offers readers detailed calculations, applications and examples needed in site work, cost estimation, piping and pipefitting, and project management. The book also serves as a refresher course for some of the formulas and concepts of geometry and trigonometry. The book is divided into sections that present the common components of construction. The first section of the books starts with a refresher discussion of unit and systems measurement; its origin and evolution; the standards of length, mass and capacity; terminology and tables; and notes of metric, U.S, and British units of measurements. The following concepts are presented and discussed throughout the book: Conversion tables and formulas, including the Metric Conversion Law and conversion factors for builders and design professionals Calculations and formulas of geometry, trigonometry and physics in construction Rudiments of excavation, classification, use of material, measurement and payment Soil classification and morphology, including its physicochemical properties Formulas and calculations needed for soil tests and evaluations and for the design of retaining structures Calculations relating to concrete and masonry Calculations of the size/weight of structural steel and other metals Mechanical properties of wood and processing of wood products Calculations relating to sound and thermal transmission Interior finishes, plumbing and HVAC calculations Electrical formulas and calculations Construction managers and engineers, architects, contractors, and beginners in engineering, architecture, and construction will find this practical guide useful for managing all aspects of construction.

Key Features

  • Work in and convert between building dimensions, including metric
  • Built-in right-angle solutions
  • Areas, volumes, square-ups
  • Complete stair layouts
  • Roof, rafter and framing solutions
  • Circle: arcs, circumference, segments


  • Work in and convert between building dimensions, including metric
  • Built-in right-angle solutions
  • Areas, volumes, square-ups
  • Complete stair layouts
  • Roof, rafter and framing solutions
  • Circle: arcs, circumference, segments

Table of Contents

  • Introduction

    Section 1. The National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST)

    Appendix B: Units and Systems of Measurement: Their Origin, Development, and Present Status

    Appendix C: General Tables of Units of Measurement

    Section 2. Conversion Tables and Conversion Formulas

    2.0.0 Executive Order 12770—The Metric Conversion Law

    2.0.1 Inches to Feet Conversion Table

    2.0.2 Inches to Centimeter Conversion

    2.0.3 Centimeter to Inches Conversion

    2.0.4 Feet to Meters Conversion

    2.0.5 Meters to Feet Conversion

    2.0.6 Acres to Hectares Conversion

    2.0.7 Hectares to Acres Conversion

    2.0.8 Square Inch to Square Feet Conversion

    2.0.9 Square Feet to Square Inch Conversion

    2.0.10 Square Feet to Square Mile Conversion

    2.0.11 Square Mile to Square Feet Conversion

    2.0.12 Square Feet to Acres Conversion

    2.0.13 Acres to Square Feet Conversion

    2.0.14 Square Yard to Square Meter Conversion Table

    2.0.15 Square Meter to Square Yard Conversion Table

    2.0.16 Square Mile to Square Meter Conversion Table

    2.0.17 Square Meter to Square Mile Conversion Table

    2.0.18 Square Mile to Hectare Conversion Table

    2.0.19 Hectare to Square Mile Conversion Table

    2.0.20 Miles to Kilometers Conversion

    2.0.21 Kilometers to Miles Conversion

    2.0.22 Pounds to Kilograms Conversion

    2.0.23 Kilograms to Pounds Conversion

    2.0.24 Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion

    2.0.25 Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion

    2.0.26 Fahrenheit to Rankine Temperature Conversion

    2.0.27 Rankine to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion

    2.1.0 Converting Water from One Form to Another

    2.1.1 U.S. and Metric Lumber Length Conversion Table

    2.2.0 Conversion Factors—Energy, Volume, Length, Weight, Liquid

    2.3.0 Conversion of Liquids—Specific Gravity to Degrees Baume

    2.4.0 Volume-to-Weight Conversion Table

    2.5.0 Convert Old A.I.S.C. Structural Shapes to New Designations

    2.6.0 USA Mesh Size—Convert to International Particle Size (Microns)

    2.7.0 Converting Wire Gauge from

    2.8.0 Map of United States Showing Four Continental Times Zones

    2.8.1 Convert Time Zones—UTC to Four Standard U.S. Time Zones

    2.8.2 Convert Time Zones-UTC to Four Daylight U.S. Time Zones

    2.9.0 Convert Roman Numerals to Arabic Dates

    2.10.0 Converting Speed—Knots to MPH to Kilometers per Hour

    2.11.0 Conversion Factors for Builders and Design Professionals Who Cook

    Section 3. Calculations and Formulas—Geometry, Trigonometry, and Physics in Construction

    3.0.0 Useful Formulas—Water, Pressure, Heat, Cooling, Horsepower

    3.1.0 Basic Mathematics—Algebra

    3.1.1 What Are Roots?

    3.1.2 Area and Circumference of a Circle by Archimedes

    3.1.3 Explaining Exponential Functions—Concepts, Solutions

    3.2.0 General Geometric Formulas

    3.2.2 Volume of Pyramids

    3.2.3 Area of Prisms and Right Area Prisms

    3.2.4 Cylinder Volume Theorem

    3.2.5 Cone Volume Theorem

    3.2.6 Sphere Volume and Area Theorem

    3.2.8 Theorems That Apply to Parallelograms

    3.2.9 The Small Angle Formula

    Angular Sizes


    3.2.10 Geometric Surface Area Formulas for Cubes, Spheres, Cones

    3.2.11 Angles of an N-gon

    3.3.0 Basic Trigonometric Functions

    3.3.1 Trigonometry's Sine and Cosine

    3.3.2 Trigonometric Ratios

    3.3.3 Basic Trigonometry Formulas

    3.3.4 What Is the Pythagorean Theorem?

    3.3.5 Pythagorean and Quotient Identities

    Special Rules

    3.3.7 Law of Sines

    3.3.8 Law of Cosines

    3.3.9 Reciprocal Ratios

    3.3.10 Cofunctions

    3.3.11 A Table of Common Logarithms

    3.4.0 Physics—Basic Formulas

    3.4.1 Physics Concepts—Force, Pressure, and Energy

    3.4.2 Physics—Circular Motion

    3.4.3 Physics—Gravitation

    3.4.4 Physics—Work Energy Power


    3.4.5 Physics—Laws of Motion

    3.4.6 Physics—One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Motion

    3.4.7 Physics—Electricity

    3.5.0 Financial Formula Calculations—Net Present Value and Compounding

    3.6.0 Formulas for Calculating the Volume of Cylindrical Tanks

    3.7.0 Round Tank Volume Tables for One Foot of Depth—1 to 32 Feet in Diameter

    3.8.0 Capacity of Round Tanks—1 to 30 Feet in Diameter

    3.9.0 Capacity of Rectangular Tanks—1 to 6 Feet in Depth, 1 to 10 Feet in Length

    3.10.0 Testing for Hardness in Metal—Mohs, Brinell, Rockwell, Scleroscope, Durometer

    Section 4. Site Work

    4.0.0 The Rudiments of Excavation—Classification, Use of Materials, Measurement, and Payment

    4.1.0 The Unified Soil Classification and Constituents—Explained The “Word Picture” of Soil Grain Size

    4.1.1 ASTM and AASHTO Aggregate and Soil Terminology

    4.1.2 Field Method of Classification

    4.1.3 Sediment Classification According to United Soil Classification System

    4.1.4 USCS Classification Flowline

    4.1.5 Group Names for Gravelly Soils

    4.1.6 Group Names for Sandy Soils

    4.1.7 Calculations to Determine USCS Classification Based upon Percentage Passing through Sieve

    4.1.8 Correlation between AASHTO and USCS Systems

    4.1.9 Classification of Soil and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes AASHTO M-145-91 (2000) (Modified)

    4.1.10 USDA Soil Textural Classification Chart

    4.2.0 Soil Taxonomy—Formative Elements and Names of Soil Suborders

    4.3.0 Calculating Soil Compaction Utilizing Various Methods Soil Testing—Types—Hand, Proctor, Nuclear Density, Sand Cone

    4.3.1 Relative Desirability of Soils as Compacted Fill

    4.3.2 Calculating the Bearing Capacity of Soils

    4.3.3 Calculating Vibration Control

    4.3.4 Calculating Earth-Moving Equipment Production

    4.3.5 Calculating Production of Roller-Type Compaction Equipment

    4.3.6 Compaction Equipment Types—Applications and Illustrations List of Compaction Measuring Devices by Type and Manufacturer Moisture Density Relation—Compaction Test—Proctor and Modified Proctor

    4.4.0 Calculating the Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content of Soil

    4.4.1 Calculating the In Situ Dry Density of Soil by the Sand Replacement Method

    4.5.0 Calculating the Percent of Slope Calculating Grade from a Map Calculating Grade by Measuring the Road Distance Calculating Grade by Using Slope Distance Formulas Showing Grade, Ratio, and Angle Relationships Chart Showing Slope Angles—0 Degrees to 80 Degrees

    4.5.1 Illustration of Slope Layback

    4.5.2 Common Stable Slope Ratios for Varying Soil/Rock Conditions

    4.5.3 Illustrations of Various Cut/Fill Configurations—Typical Fill, Benched Fill, Reinforced Fill

    4.5.4 Illustrations of Various Cut/Fill Configurations—Balanced Cut-Fill, Full Cut, Through Cut

    4.5.5 Calculating the Design of Gabion Retaining Walls to 20 Feet (6 Meters) in Height

    4.5.6 Calculating the Design of Common Types of Retaining Structures

    4.7.0 Material Density Chart—Ashes to Wood

    4.8.0 Calculating the Density of Rock, Sand, Till

    Section 5. Calculations Relating to Concrete and Masonry

    5.0.0 Standard American Concrete Institute (ACI) and Portland Cement Association (PCA) Divide the Production of Concrete into Seven (7) Basic Components and Ingredients

    5.0.1 Chemical Additives Provide Characteristics not Obtainable When Utilizing the Seven Basic Components Slump Maximum Aggregate Size Mxing Water and Air Content Estimation Water–Cement Ratio Cement Content Adjustments for Aggregate Moisture

    5.1.0 Portland Cement—ASTM Types

    5.1.1 Cement Composition

    5.1.2 Physical Properties of Portland Cement

    5.1.3 Blended Portland Cement

    5.1.4 Modified Portland Cement (Expansive Cement)

    5.2.0 Types of Cement and What They Do

    5.3.0 Concrete Compressive Strengths—U.S. and Metric

    5.4.0 Sieve Analysis Defining Coarse and Fine Aggregates

    5.4.1 Air-Entraining Admixtures


    5.4.3 Fly Ash

    5.4.4 Silica Fume

    5.4.5 Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

    5.5.0 Structural Concrete Components—Calculations to Achieve High-Strength Concrete

    5.6.0 Lightweight Concrete Mix Design—Calculations Utilizing Perlite

    5.7.0 Set-Retarding Admixtures Delay Hydration of Cement

    5.10.0 Calculate the Size and Weight of Concrete Reinforcing Bars

    5.10.1 Reinforcing Bar Designations–Size and Diameter—U.S. and Metric

    5.10.2 Welded Wire Mesh Designations—U.S. and Metric

    5.11.0 Embedded Anchor Bolt—Diameter, Length, Hook, and Thread Sizes—Plain Finish

    5.11.1 Embedded Anchor Bolts—Diameter, Length, Hook, and Thread Sizes—Galvanized

    5.12.0 Brick Sizes—Nominal versus Actual Size

    5.12.1 Diagrams of Modular and Nonmodular Bricks

    5.12.2 Brick Positions in a Wall

    5.12.3 Calculate the Number of Bricks in a Wall Calculate the Number of Bricks for Your Project

    5.12.4 Percentages to Add for Various Bond Patterns

    5.12.5 Types of Brick—by Material

    5.12.6 Chart Reflecting Nominal Size, Joint Thickness, Actual Size—Modular/Nonmodular Bricks

    5.12.7 Chart Reflecting Nominal Size, Joint Thickness, Actual Size—Other Brick Sizes

    5.12.8 Nominal Modular Size of Brick and Number of Courses in 16 Inches

    5.12.9 Calculate Vertical Coursing Height Based upon Number of Units

    5.12.10 Calculate Horizontal Coursing Based upon Number of Units

    5.12.11 Horizontal Coursing—Soft and Hard Metric Dimensioning

    5.14.0 Mortar Mixes—ASTM Minimums

    5.14.1 Mixture Calculations for Types N, M, S, O, K Mortar

    5.14.2 Mixture Calculations for Straight Lime Mortar

    5.14.3 Mixture Calculations for Glass Block Mortar

    5.14.4 Mixture Calculations for Waterproof Portland Cement

    5.15.0 Typical Properties of Colorless Coatings for Brick Masonry

    Section 6. Calculating the Size/Weight of Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Metals

    6.0.0 Ingredients of Steel

    6.0.1 Structural Steel in the Construction Industry

    6.0.2 ASTM Designations for Most Common Types of Steel in Construction

    Home > Useful Information > Materials, Preparation, and Testing

    6.0.3 Worldwide National Standards for Steel Quick Review of U.S. Metric Conversions to Assist When Reviewing Steel Sizes EN, DIN, JIS Standards Tolerance on JIS Dimension and Shape of WF Beams

    6.1.0 Approximate Minimum Mechanical Properties of Some Steels

    6.2.0 Common Structural Shapes for U.S. Steel Sections

    6.2.1 How Steel Wide-Flange Beams Are Identified

    6.2.2 How Steel Channels Are Identified

    6.2.3 How Steel Angles Are Identified

    6.2.4 Cross Sections of Standard Structural Steel Members

    6.3.0 Calculating the U.S. Weight and Size of Wide-Flange Beams-4"×4" to 36"×16"

    6.3.1 Calculating the Metric Weight and Size of Wide-Flange Beams W4s to W36s

    6.3.2 Calculating the Weight and Size of I Beams and Junior Beams

    6.4.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Square High-Strength Steel Sections

    6.4.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Square High-Strength Steel Sections

    6.5.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Rectangular High-Strength Steel Sections

    6.5.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Rectangular High-Strength Steel Sections

    6.6.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Round High-Strength Steel Sections

    6.6.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Round High-Strength Steel Sections

    Metric Dimenstions and Section Properties of Round HSS

    6.6.2 Calculating the Weight of Standard, Extra Strong, and Double Strong Steel Pipes

    6.7.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Steel C Channels Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. A-36 and A-36 Modified C Channels Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Channels—Ship and Car

    6.7.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Steel C Channels Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Channel, Box, Rectangular, and Square Tubing

    6.8.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of Structural Steel Angles

    6.9.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of Universal Mill Plates

    6.10.0 Bar Size Tees—Calculating Their Weight and Size

    6.11.0 Cold and Hot Rolled Rounds—Calculating Their Weight and Size

    6.12.0 Aluminum Structural Angles—Calculate Their Weight and Size

    6.12.2 Aluminum Structural Beams—Calculate Their Weight and Size

    6.14.0 Sheet and Coil Steel—Types and Uses

    Sheet and Coil Selection Guide

    6.14.1 Calculating the Weight of Various Types of Carbon, Stainless, and Galvanized Sheet Steel

    6.14.2 Calculating the Weight of Low-Carbon, Hot-Dipped, Galvanized Roof Deck

    6.14.3 Converting Gauge Inches to Decimals for Sheet Steel, Aluminum, Stainless Steel

    6.15.0 Carbon Steel Expanded Metal Grating—ASTM A1011

    6.15.1 Carbon Steel Catwalk Expanded Metal Grating—ASTMA569/569M

    6.16.0 Aluminum Rectangular Bar Grating

    6.16.1 Aluminium I Bar and Rec Bar Grating

    6.16.2 Aluminum Plank Sections and Pattern Availability

    Section 7. Lumber—Calculations to Select Framing and Trim Materials

    7.0.1 How Lumber Is Cut from a Log Affects Its Grain, Drying Process, and Waste Factor

    7.0.2 The Physical Properties of Wood–Illustrated

    Courtest: Western Wood Products Association

    Framing Lumber

    Section 8. Fasteners for Wood and Steel—Calculations for Selection

    8.1.0 Nail Sizes—Common Wire Nails

    8.1.1 Bright Common Nails, Box Nails, Annular Nails—Length and Diameter in United States and Metric

    8.1.2 Nail Sizes—Common Wire Spikes

    8.1.3 Nail Sizes—Casing Nails

    8.1.4 Nail Sizes—Finishing Nails

    8.1.5 Nail Sizes—Deformed Shank Nails

    8.1.6 Nail Sizes—Roofing Nails

    8.1.7 Nail Sizes—Joist Hanger Nails

    8.1.8 Cut Nails—Various Configurations

    8.2.0 Instructions on Nail Selection and Usage for Exposed Wood Structures

    Section 9. Calculations to Determine the Effectiveness and Control of Thermal and Sound Transmission

    9.0.1 Heat Transmission Modes

    9.0.2 Definitions and Thermal Property Symbols

    9.0.3 R- and U-Values—Measuring the Resistance to the Flow of Heat and the Measure of Heat Conductivity

    9.0.4 Basic Types of Insulation—Where Applicable—Installation Methods—Advantages

    9.1.0 Sample R-Value of Materials

    9.1.1 Sample R-Value Calculations for Masonry Wall Assemblies

    9.1.2 R-Values for Blanket-Batt Insulation

    9.1.3 Calculating the R-Values for Wall Assemblies

    9.1.4 Properties of Solid Unit Masonry and Concrete Walls

    9.1.5 Properties of Hollow Unit Masonry Walls

    9.2.0 Exterior Brick and Block Cavity Wall R-Values

    9.2.1 An Exterior Masonry Wall Assembly with a Total R-Value of 20.21

    9.2.2 An Exterior Masonry Wall Assembly with a Total R-Value of 28.21

    9.2.3 Concrete Block Walls Utilizing Perlite Cavity Fill as an Insulator

    9.3.0 Effective R-Values on Wood-Metal Framing Assemblies

    9.3.1 Metal Framing Factors

    9.3.2 Standard Air Film R-Values

    9.4.0 Framed Wall Assemblies—U-factors for Size/Spacing of Wood-Metal Studs

    9.5.0 Acoustics 101—Reflection, Absorption, Isolation—the Methods by Which Sound Can be Identified, Measured, and Controlled

    9.5.1 Reverberation Time Creating a Buildup of Noise

    9.5.2 Isolation—Measured by Sound Transmission Class (STC)

    9.5.3 Impact Insulation Class—IIC—Blocking Noise from Being Transmitted Floor-to-Floor

    9.5.4 More Sound Absorption Factors for Building Materials and Finishes

    9.5.5 Absorption Coefficients for Various Wall and Floor Coverings

    9.6.0 Checklist for Masking Open Space Systems

    9.6.1 Use of Loudspeakers and Formula for Installation Spacing

    9.7.0 Decibel Levels of Some Common Sounds

    9.7.1 ANSI Recommended Levels for Various Types of Occupancy

    9.7.2 Decibel Comparison Chart of Environmental Noises

    9.7.3 OSHA Daily Permissible Noise-Level Exposure

    9.7.4 Perceptions of Increases in Noise Levels

    9.7.5 Sound Levels of Music

    9.8.0. Sound Transmission Coefficient (STC) of Various Types of Insulated Partitions

    STC Ratings For Masonry Walls

    Section 10. Interior Finishes

    10.1.0 Gypsum Drywall Panels—Types, Thickness, Width, Length

    10.1.1 Wall Framing and Drywall Panel Measurements—U.S. and Metric

    10.1.2 Gypsum Wall Panel Coverage Calculator

    10.1.3 Fastener/Compound/Tape Calculator

    10.1.4 Drywall Finishing Guide

    10.2.0 Calculations to Determine Sealer and Filler Yield

    Wallcovering BasicsCoversion Table

    10.3.0 Understanding Wall Coverings—Types and Usage

    10.3.1 Basic Types of Fabric-Backed Vinyl Wall Coverings

    10.3.2 Formulas for Estimating Wall Covering Quantities

    Estimating Commercial Square Footage

    10.3.3 Calculating How Much Wallpaper Is Required

    10.3.4 Wall Covering Adhesives

    10.4.0 General Information to Calculate Various Types of Floor and Wall Tiles

    10.4.1 Calculating Requirements for Ceiling Tile

    10.4.2 Painting Ceilings and Walls

    10.5.0 Types of Carpeting

    10.5.1 Calculating the Amount of Carpet Required—Rooms 8–35 Feet in Length and 13–20 Feet in Width

    10.6.0 Solid Hardwood Flooring

    10.6.1 Janka Wood Hardness Scale for Wood Flooring Species

    10.6.2 Laminate Flooring

    10.7.0 Finishing of Interior Wood

    10.7.1 Opaque, Transparent Finishes, Stains

    10.7.2 Fillers and Sealers

    10.7.3 Finishes for Floors

    10.7.4 Finishes for Items Used for Food

    10.7.5 Finishes for Butcher Blocks and Cutting Boards

    10.7.6 Wood Cleaners and Brighteners

    10.7.7 Paint Strippers

    10.8.0 Characteristics of Selected Woods for Painting

    10.9.0 When Calculating and Measuring for Interior Trim and Millwork—Learn Tool Basics

    Section 11. Plumbing and HVAC Calculations

    11.0.0 Water Supply Force Units (WSFUs) Established by the Uniform Plumbing Code Determines the Water Supply Required for Proper Functioning of Plumbing Fixtures. Developing Plumbing Fixtures that Conserve Water, at an Economic Cost, is the Biggest Challenge Facing the Construction Industry Today

    11.0.1 Mean Daily Residential Water Use as Determined at 12 Study Sites

    11.0.3 Calculate Water Usage of Various Types of Low- and High-Volume Toilets

    11.0.4 Reported Savings Due to Use of Low-Flow Toilets in Four Studies

    11.1.0 Evolution of Low-Flow Toilet Testing Procedures

    11.1.1 Three Common Types of Toilet Construction and Related Efficiencies

    11.2.0 The National Efficiency Standards and Specifications for Residential and Commercial Water Using Fixtures Enacted in 1992 and updated in 2005—Relating to Residential Fixtures

    11.2.1 Current and Proposed Residential Dishwasher Standards

    11.2.2 Current and Proposed Commercial Plumbing Fixture Water Usage Rates

    11.2.3 Current and Proposed Commercial Clothes Washers Water/Energy Usage Rates

    11.2.4 Commercial Dishwashers—Only Current Energy Star, Water Sense Specifications Prevail

    11.2.5 Automatic Commercial Ice Makers—No Current Standards—Proposed Only for 2010

    11.3.0 U.S. Green Building Council LEED (R)—Plumbing Fixture Water Efficiency Goals

    Innovative Waste Water Technologies: WE Credit 2, 1-Point



    Example Case:

    11.3.1 Preexisting State and Local Standards for Water-Efficient Plumbing Fixtures

    11.3.2 Projected Reduction in Walter Consumption 2010–2020—With and Without Daily Savings

    11.4.0 Where Does Our Water Come From? Volume of Earth's Oceans

    11.5.0 How Much Water Do We Use on Average?

    11.5.1 Create a Personal Water Usage Chart

    11.6.0 Calculating the Size of Storage and Heat Pump Water Heaters

    11.6.1 Calculating the Cost of a Demand, Storage, or Heat Pump Water Heater

    11.7.0 HVAC—Understanding and Calculating Relative Humidity

    11.7.1 HVAC—Understanding and Calculating Dewpoint

    11.7.2 Methods of Calculating Heating Efficiency—Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

    11.7.3 How Much Moisture Can the Air “Hold”?

    11.7.4 General Heating Formulas—Energy Required to Heat, Offset Losses

    11.7.5 General Heating Formulas—Energy Required to Heat Air Flow

    11.7.6 Formula to Convert Actual CFM (ACFM) to Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM)

    11.8.0 Estimated Average Fuel Conversion Efficiency of Common Heating Appliances

    11.8.1 Reading Those Gas Meters

    11.9.0 Calculating Home Heating Energy—Gas versus Electric Resistance Heating

    11.10.0 Comparing Fuel Costs of Heating and Cooling Systems—Gas, Electric, Kerosene, Wood, Pellets

    Comparing Fuel Costs of Heating and Cooling Systems

    11.11.0 Residential Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) Savings versus Electric, Gas, and Fuel Oil

    11.11.1 Paybacks for Residential GSHP Economics

    11.11.2 Commercial Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) Savings versus Electric, Gas, Fuel Oil

    11.11.3 Paybacks for Commercial GSHP Economics

    Section 12. Electrical Formulas and Calculations

    12.0.0 Converting Watts to Volts

    12.0.1 Converting Watts to Amps

    12.0.2 Converting Amps to Watts

    12.0.3 Converting Horsepower to Amps

    12.0.4 Converting KVA to Amps

    12.0.5 Converting Kw to Amps

    12.0.6 Symbols for Electrical Terms

    12.1.0 Ohm's Law

    12.1.1 Resistors Networks—Terminology and How Identified

    12.1.2 Inductor Networks—Terminology and How Identified

    12.1.3 Capacitor Networks—Terminology and How Identified

    12.1.4 Watt's Law

    12.1.5 Calculating Reactance

    12.1.6 Resonance in RLC Series Circuit—Explanation and Formula

    12.1.7 Bandwidth and Quality Factor

    12.1.8 Wavelength–Explained

    12.1.9 Frequency and Time–Explained

    12.1.10 Impedance of a Circuit—Formula and Rules for Circuits with Both Capacitive and Inductive Reactances

    12.2.0 Rules for Amp Draw per Horsepower at Voltage Ranging from 115 V to 575 V

    12.2.1 How to Figure Out the Phase for a Certain Circuit Number

    12.3.0 Typical Wattage of Various Appliances

    12.3.1 Typical Start-up and Running Wattage for Tools and Equipment

    12.3.2 Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use

    12.3.3 Appliance Energy Use Chart Based on an Operating Cost of $0.095 per KWh

    12.3.4 Recommended Product Specifications Proposed by the State of Florida

    12.3.5 Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Ratings Explained—EER, SEER, COP, HSPF, AFUE

    12.4.0 Electric Generators—Understanding Your Power Needs

    12.4.1 Electric Generator and Power Generator Safety

    12.4.2 Typical Specifications for a Residential Emergency Generator

    12.4.3 The Left-Hand Generator Rule

    12.4.4 The Right-Hand Generator Rule

    12.5.0 Dielectrics and Dielectric Constants of Various Materials

    12.5.1 Wire Gauges Table—AWG Gauge—Ft/Ohm Calculations

    12.5.2 Wire Gauge Comparison Chart—AWG—Strandings/Wire Diameter, Overall Diameter

    12.5.3 Resistance in Ohms per 1000 Feet of Conductor—Aluminium and Copper Solid and Concentric Stranding of Class B and Class C Strandings

    12.5.4 Copper to Aluminium Conversion Tables

    12.5.5 Conduit inside Diameters and Electrical Conductor Areas—U.S. to Metric Conversion

    12.5.6 Conduit Weight Comparisons—Rigid, EMT, PVC

    12.5.7 Recommended Power and Ground Cable Sizes—By Power and Distance

    12.6.0 Types of Transformers

    12.6.1 Dry-Type Transformers—KVA Ratings—Single- and Three-Phase

    12.7.0 Enclosure Types for All Locations


Product details

  • No. of pages: 700
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 2011
  • Published: September 19, 2011
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123822444

About the Author

Sidney Levy

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