# Construction Calculations Manual

## 1st Edition

**Author:**Sidney Levy

**Paperback ISBN:**9780123822437

**eBook ISBN:**9780123822444

**Imprint:**Butterworth-Heinemann

**Published Date:**23rd September 2011

**Page Count:**700

## Description

Construction Calculations is a manual that provides end users with a comprehensive guide for many of the formulas, mathematical vectors and conversion factors that are commonly encountered during the design and construction stages of a construction project. It offers readers detailed calculations, applications and examples needed in site work, cost estimation, piping and pipefitting, and project management. The book also serves as a refresher course for some of the formulas and concepts of geometry and trigonometry.

The book is divided into sections that present the common components of construction. The first section of the books starts with a refresher discussion of unit and systems measurement; its origin and evolution; the standards of length, mass and capacity; terminology and tables; and notes of metric, U.S, and British units of measurements. The following concepts are presented and discussed throughout the book:

Conversion tables and formulas, including the Metric Conversion Law and conversion factors for builders and design professionals
Calculations and formulas of geometry, trigonometry and physics in construction
Rudiments of excavation, classification, use of material, measurement and payment
Soil classification and morphology, including its physicochemical properties
Formulas and calculations needed for soil tests and evaluations and for the design of retaining structures
Calculations relating to concrete and masonry
Calculations of the size/weight of structural steel and other metals
Mechanical properties of wood and processing of wood products
Calculations relating to sound and thermal transmission
Interior finishes, plumbing and HVAC calculations
Electrical formulas and calculations
Construction managers and engineers, architects, contractors, and beginners in engineering, architecture, and construction will find this practical guide useful for managing all aspects of construction.

## Key Features

- Work in and convert between building dimensions, including metric
- Built-in right-angle solutions
- Areas, volumes, square-ups
- Complete stair layouts
- Roof, rafter and framing solutions
- Circle: arcs, circumference, segments

## Readership

- Work in and convert between building dimensions, including metric
- Built-in right-angle solutions
- Areas, volumes, square-ups
- Complete stair layouts
- Roof, rafter and framing solutions
- Circle: arcs, circumference, segments

## Table of Contents

Introduction

Section 1. The National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST)

Appendix B: Units and Systems of Measurement: Their Origin, Development, and Present Status

Appendix C: General Tables of Units of Measurement

Section 2. Conversion Tables and Conversion Formulas

2.0.0 Executive Order 12770—The Metric Conversion Law

2.0.1 Inches to Feet Conversion Table

2.0.2 Inches to Centimeter Conversion

2.0.3 Centimeter to Inches Conversion

2.0.4 Feet to Meters Conversion

2.0.5 Meters to Feet Conversion

2.0.6 Acres to Hectares Conversion

2.0.7 Hectares to Acres Conversion

2.0.8 Square Inch to Square Feet Conversion

2.0.9 Square Feet to Square Inch Conversion

2.0.10 Square Feet to Square Mile Conversion

2.0.11 Square Mile to Square Feet Conversion

2.0.12 Square Feet to Acres Conversion

2.0.13 Acres to Square Feet Conversion

2.0.14 Square Yard to Square Meter Conversion Table

2.0.15 Square Meter to Square Yard Conversion Table

2.0.16 Square Mile to Square Meter Conversion Table

2.0.17 Square Meter to Square Mile Conversion Table

2.0.18 Square Mile to Hectare Conversion Table

2.0.19 Hectare to Square Mile Conversion Table

2.0.20 Miles to Kilometers Conversion

2.0.21 Kilometers to Miles Conversion

2.0.22 Pounds to Kilograms Conversion

2.0.23 Kilograms to Pounds Conversion

2.0.24 Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion

2.0.25 Celsius to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion

2.0.26 Fahrenheit to Rankine Temperature Conversion

2.0.27 Rankine to Fahrenheit Temperature Conversion

2.1.0 Converting Water from One Form to Another

2.1.1 U.S. and Metric Lumber Length Conversion Table

2.2.0 Conversion Factors—Energy, Volume, Length, Weight, Liquid

2.3.0 Conversion of Liquids—Specific Gravity to Degrees Baume

2.4.0 Volume-to-Weight Conversion Table

2.5.0 Convert Old A.I.S.C. Structural Shapes to New Designations

2.6.0 USA Mesh Size—Convert to International Particle Size (Microns)

2.7.0 Converting Wire Gauge from

2.8.0 Map of United States Showing Four Continental Times Zones

2.8.1 Convert Time Zones—UTC to Four Standard U.S. Time Zones

2.8.2 Convert Time Zones-UTC to Four Daylight U.S. Time Zones

2.9.0 Convert Roman Numerals to Arabic Dates

2.10.0 Converting Speed—Knots to MPH to Kilometers per Hour

2.11.0 Conversion Factors for Builders and Design Professionals Who Cook

Section 3. Calculations and Formulas—Geometry, Trigonometry, and Physics in Construction

3.0.0 Useful Formulas—Water, Pressure, Heat, Cooling, Horsepower

3.1.0 Basic Mathematics—Algebra

3.1.1 What Are Roots?

3.1.2 Area and Circumference of a Circle by Archimedes

3.1.3 Explaining Exponential Functions—Concepts, Solutions

3.2.0 General Geometric Formulas

3.2.2 Volume of Pyramids

3.2.3 Area of Prisms and Right Area Prisms

3.2.4 Cylinder Volume Theorem

3.2.5 Cone Volume Theorem

3.2.6 Sphere Volume and Area Theorem

3.2.8 Theorems That Apply to Parallelograms

3.2.9 The Small Angle Formula

Angular Sizes

Summary

3.2.10 Geometric Surface Area Formulas for Cubes, Spheres, Cones

3.2.11 Angles of an N-gon

3.3.0 Basic Trigonometric Functions

3.3.1 Trigonometry's Sine and Cosine

3.3.2 Trigonometric Ratios

3.3.3 Basic Trigonometry Formulas

3.3.4 What Is the Pythagorean Theorem?

3.3.5 Pythagorean and Quotient Identities

Special Rules

3.3.7 Law of Sines

3.3.8 Law of Cosines

3.3.9 Reciprocal Ratios

3.3.10 Cofunctions

3.3.11 A Table of Common Logarithms

3.4.0 Physics—Basic Formulas

3.4.1 Physics Concepts—Force, Pressure, and Energy

3.4.2 Physics—Circular Motion

3.4.3 Physics—Gravitation

3.4.4 Physics—Work Energy Power

Power

3.4.5 Physics—Laws of Motion

3.4.6 Physics—One-, Two-, and Three-Dimensional Motion

3.4.7 Physics—Electricity

3.5.0 Financial Formula Calculations—Net Present Value and Compounding

3.6.0 Formulas for Calculating the Volume of Cylindrical Tanks

3.7.0 Round Tank Volume Tables for One Foot of Depth—1 to 32 Feet in Diameter

3.8.0 Capacity of Round Tanks—1 to 30 Feet in Diameter

3.9.0 Capacity of Rectangular Tanks—1 to 6 Feet in Depth, 1 to 10 Feet in Length

3.10.0 Testing for Hardness in Metal—Mohs, Brinell, Rockwell, Scleroscope, Durometer

Section 4. Site Work

4.0.0 The Rudiments of Excavation—Classification, Use of Materials, Measurement, and Payment

4.1.0 The Unified Soil Classification and Constituents—Explained

4.1.0.1 The “Word Picture” of Soil Grain Size

4.1.1 ASTM and AASHTO Aggregate and Soil Terminology

4.1.2 Field Method of Classification

4.1.3 Sediment Classification According to United Soil Classification System

4.1.4 USCS Classification Flowline

4.1.5 Group Names for Gravelly Soils

4.1.6 Group Names for Sandy Soils

4.1.7 Calculations to Determine USCS Classification Based upon Percentage Passing through Sieve

4.1.8 Correlation between AASHTO and USCS Systems

4.1.9 Classification of Soil and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures for Highway Construction Purposes AASHTO M-145-91 (2000) (Modified)

4.1.10 USDA Soil Textural Classification Chart

4.2.0 Soil Taxonomy—Formative Elements and Names of Soil Suborders

4.3.0 Calculating Soil Compaction Utilizing Various Methods

4.3.0.1 Soil Testing—Types—Hand, Proctor, Nuclear Density, Sand Cone

4.3.1 Relative Desirability of Soils as Compacted Fill

4.3.2 Calculating the Bearing Capacity of Soils

4.3.3 Calculating Vibration Control

4.3.4 Calculating Earth-Moving Equipment Production

4.3.5 Calculating Production of Roller-Type Compaction Equipment

4.3.6 Compaction Equipment Types—Applications and Illustrations

4.3.6.1 List of Compaction Measuring Devices by Type and Manufacturer

4.3.6.2 Moisture Density Relation—Compaction Test—Proctor and Modified Proctor

4.4.0 Calculating the Maximum Dry Density and Optimum Moisture Content of Soil

4.4.1 Calculating the In Situ Dry Density of Soil by the Sand Replacement Method

4.5.0 Calculating the Percent of Slope

4.5.0.1 Calculating Grade from a Map

4.5.0.2 Calculating Grade by Measuring the Road Distance

4.5.0.3 Calculating Grade by Using Slope Distance

4.5.0.4 Formulas Showing Grade, Ratio, and Angle Relationships

4.5.0.5 Chart Showing Slope Angles—0 Degrees to 80 Degrees

4.5.1 Illustration of Slope Layback

4.5.2 Common Stable Slope Ratios for Varying Soil/Rock Conditions

4.5.3 Illustrations of Various Cut/Fill Configurations—Typical Fill, Benched Fill, Reinforced Fill

4.5.4 Illustrations of Various Cut/Fill Configurations—Balanced Cut-Fill, Full Cut, Through Cut

4.5.5 Calculating the Design of Gabion Retaining Walls to 20 Feet (6 Meters) in Height

4.5.6 Calculating the Design of Common Types of Retaining Structures

4.7.0 Material Density Chart—Ashes to Wood

4.8.0 Calculating the Density of Rock, Sand, Till

Section 5. Calculations Relating to Concrete and Masonry

5.0.0 Standard American Concrete Institute (ACI) and Portland Cement Association (PCA) Divide the Production of Concrete into Seven (7) Basic Components and Ingredients

5.0.1 Chemical Additives Provide Characteristics not Obtainable When Utilizing the Seven Basic Components

5.0.1.1 Slump

5.0.1.2 Maximum Aggregate Size

5.0.1.3 Mxing Water and Air Content Estimation

5.0.1.4 Water–Cement Ratio

5.0.1.5 Cement Content

5.0.1.6 Adjustments for Aggregate Moisture

5.1.0 Portland Cement—ASTM Types

5.1.1 Cement Composition

5.1.2 Physical Properties of Portland Cement

5.1.3 Blended Portland Cement

5.1.4 Modified Portland Cement (Expansive Cement)

5.2.0 Types of Cement and What They Do

5.3.0 Concrete Compressive Strengths—U.S. and Metric

5.4.0 Sieve Analysis Defining Coarse and Fine Aggregates

5.4.1 Air-Entraining Admixtures

References

5.4.3 Fly Ash

5.4.4 Silica Fume

5.4.5 Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag

5.5.0 Structural Concrete Components—Calculations to Achieve High-Strength Concrete

5.6.0 Lightweight Concrete Mix Design—Calculations Utilizing Perlite

5.7.0 Set-Retarding Admixtures Delay Hydration of Cement

5.10.0 Calculate the Size and Weight of Concrete Reinforcing Bars

5.10.1 Reinforcing Bar Designations–Size and Diameter—U.S. and Metric

5.10.2 Welded Wire Mesh Designations—U.S. and Metric

5.11.0 Embedded Anchor Bolt—Diameter, Length, Hook, and Thread Sizes—Plain Finish

5.11.1 Embedded Anchor Bolts—Diameter, Length, Hook, and Thread Sizes—Galvanized

5.12.0 Brick Sizes—Nominal versus Actual Size

5.12.1 Diagrams of Modular and Nonmodular Bricks

5.12.2 Brick Positions in a Wall

5.12.3 Calculate the Number of Bricks in a Wall

5.12.3.1 Calculate the Number of Bricks for Your Project

5.12.4 Percentages to Add for Various Bond Patterns

5.12.5 Types of Brick—by Material

5.12.6 Chart Reflecting Nominal Size, Joint Thickness, Actual Size—Modular/Nonmodular Bricks

5.12.7 Chart Reflecting Nominal Size, Joint Thickness, Actual Size—Other Brick Sizes

5.12.8 Nominal Modular Size of Brick and Number of Courses in 16 Inches

5.12.9 Calculate Vertical Coursing Height Based upon Number of Units

5.12.10 Calculate Horizontal Coursing Based upon Number of Units

5.12.11 Horizontal Coursing—Soft and Hard Metric Dimensioning

5.14.0 Mortar Mixes—ASTM Minimums

5.14.1 Mixture Calculations for Types N, M, S, O, K Mortar

5.14.2 Mixture Calculations for Straight Lime Mortar

5.14.3 Mixture Calculations for Glass Block Mortar

5.14.4 Mixture Calculations for Waterproof Portland Cement

5.15.0 Typical Properties of Colorless Coatings for Brick Masonry

Section 6. Calculating the Size/Weight of Structural Steel and Miscellaneous Metals

6.0.0 Ingredients of Steel

6.0.1 Structural Steel in the Construction Industry

6.0.2 ASTM Designations for Most Common Types of Steel in Construction

Home > Useful Information > Materials, Preparation, and Testing

6.0.3 Worldwide National Standards for Steel

6.0.3.1 Quick Review of U.S. Metric Conversions to Assist When Reviewing Steel Sizes

6.0.3.2 EN, DIN, JIS Standards

6.0.3.3 Tolerance on JIS Dimension and Shape of WF Beams

6.1.0 Approximate Minimum Mechanical Properties of Some Steels

6.2.0 Common Structural Shapes for U.S. Steel Sections

6.2.1 How Steel Wide-Flange Beams Are Identified

6.2.2 How Steel Channels Are Identified

6.2.3 How Steel Angles Are Identified

6.2.4 Cross Sections of Standard Structural Steel Members

6.3.0 Calculating the U.S. Weight and Size of Wide-Flange Beams-4"×4" to 36"×16"

6.3.1 Calculating the Metric Weight and Size of Wide-Flange Beams W4s to W36s

6.3.2 Calculating the Weight and Size of I Beams and Junior Beams

6.4.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Square High-Strength Steel Sections

6.4.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Square High-Strength Steel Sections

6.5.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Rectangular High-Strength Steel Sections

6.5.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Rectangular High-Strength Steel Sections

6.6.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Round High-Strength Steel Sections

6.6.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Round High-Strength Steel Sections

Metric Dimenstions and Section Properties of Round HSS

6.6.2 Calculating the Weight of Standard, Extra Strong, and Double Strong Steel Pipes

6.7.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Steel C Channels

6.7.0.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. A-36 and A-36 Modified C Channels

6.7.0.2 Calculating the Weight and Size of U.S. Channels—Ship and Car

6.7.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Steel C Channels

6.7.1.1 Calculating the Weight and Size of Metric Channel, Box, Rectangular, and Square Tubing

6.8.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of Structural Steel Angles

6.9.0 Calculating the Weight and Size of Universal Mill Plates

6.10.0 Bar Size Tees—Calculating Their Weight and Size

6.11.0 Cold and Hot Rolled Rounds—Calculating Their Weight and Size

6.12.0 Aluminum Structural Angles—Calculate Their Weight and Size

6.12.2 Aluminum Structural Beams—Calculate Their Weight and Size

6.14.0 Sheet and Coil Steel—Types and Uses

Sheet and Coil Selection Guide

6.14.1 Calculating the Weight of Various Types of Carbon, Stainless, and Galvanized Sheet Steel

6.14.2 Calculating the Weight of Low-Carbon, Hot-Dipped, Galvanized Roof Deck

6.14.3 Converting Gauge Inches to Decimals for Sheet Steel, Aluminum, Stainless Steel

6.15.0 Carbon Steel Expanded Metal Grating—ASTM A1011

6.15.1 Carbon Steel Catwalk Expanded Metal Grating—ASTMA569/569M

6.16.0 Aluminum Rectangular Bar Grating

6.16.1 Aluminium I Bar and Rec Bar Grating

6.16.2 Aluminum Plank Sections and Pattern Availability

Section 7. Lumber—Calculations to Select Framing and Trim Materials

7.0.1 How Lumber Is Cut from a Log Affects Its Grain, Drying Process, and Waste Factor

7.0.2 The Physical Properties of Wood–Illustrated

Courtest: Western Wood Products Association

Framing Lumber

Section 8. Fasteners for Wood and Steel—Calculations for Selection

8.1.0 Nail Sizes—Common Wire Nails

8.1.1 Bright Common Nails, Box Nails, Annular Nails—Length and Diameter in United States and Metric

8.1.2 Nail Sizes—Common Wire Spikes

8.1.3 Nail Sizes—Casing Nails

8.1.4 Nail Sizes—Finishing Nails

8.1.5 Nail Sizes—Deformed Shank Nails

8.1.6 Nail Sizes—Roofing Nails

8.1.7 Nail Sizes—Joist Hanger Nails

8.1.8 Cut Nails—Various Configurations

8.2.0 Instructions on Nail Selection and Usage for Exposed Wood Structures

Section 9. Calculations to Determine the Effectiveness and Control of Thermal and Sound Transmission

9.0.1 Heat Transmission Modes

9.0.2 Definitions and Thermal Property Symbols

9.0.3 R- and U-Values—Measuring the Resistance to the Flow of Heat and the Measure of Heat Conductivity

9.0.4 Basic Types of Insulation—Where Applicable—Installation Methods—Advantages

9.1.0 Sample R-Value of Materials

9.1.1 Sample R-Value Calculations for Masonry Wall Assemblies

9.1.2 R-Values for Blanket-Batt Insulation

9.1.3 Calculating the R-Values for Wall Assemblies

9.1.4 Properties of Solid Unit Masonry and Concrete Walls

9.1.5 Properties of Hollow Unit Masonry Walls

9.2.0 Exterior Brick and Block Cavity Wall R-Values

9.2.1 An Exterior Masonry Wall Assembly with a Total R-Value of 20.21

9.2.2 An Exterior Masonry Wall Assembly with a Total R-Value of 28.21

9.2.3 Concrete Block Walls Utilizing Perlite Cavity Fill as an Insulator

9.3.0 Effective R-Values on Wood-Metal Framing Assemblies

9.3.1 Metal Framing Factors

9.3.2 Standard Air Film R-Values

9.4.0 Framed Wall Assemblies—U-factors for Size/Spacing of Wood-Metal Studs

9.5.0 Acoustics 101—Reflection, Absorption, Isolation—the Methods by Which Sound Can be Identified, Measured, and Controlled

9.5.1 Reverberation Time Creating a Buildup of Noise

9.5.2 Isolation—Measured by Sound Transmission Class (STC)

9.5.3 Impact Insulation Class—IIC—Blocking Noise from Being Transmitted Floor-to-Floor

9.5.4 More Sound Absorption Factors for Building Materials and Finishes

9.5.5 Absorption Coefficients for Various Wall and Floor Coverings

9.6.0 Checklist for Masking Open Space Systems

9.6.1 Use of Loudspeakers and Formula for Installation Spacing

9.7.0 Decibel Levels of Some Common Sounds

9.7.1 ANSI Recommended Levels for Various Types of Occupancy

9.7.2 Decibel Comparison Chart of Environmental Noises

9.7.3 OSHA Daily Permissible Noise-Level Exposure

9.7.4 Perceptions of Increases in Noise Levels

9.7.5 Sound Levels of Music

9.8.0. Sound Transmission Coefficient (STC) of Various Types of Insulated Partitions

STC Ratings For Masonry Walls

Section 10. Interior Finishes

10.1.0 Gypsum Drywall Panels—Types, Thickness, Width, Length

10.1.1 Wall Framing and Drywall Panel Measurements—U.S. and Metric

10.1.2 Gypsum Wall Panel Coverage Calculator

10.1.3 Fastener/Compound/Tape Calculator

10.1.4 Drywall Finishing Guide

10.2.0 Calculations to Determine Sealer and Filler Yield

Wallcovering BasicsCoversion Table

10.3.0 Understanding Wall Coverings—Types and Usage

10.3.1 Basic Types of Fabric-Backed Vinyl Wall Coverings

10.3.2 Formulas for Estimating Wall Covering Quantities

Estimating Commercial Square Footage

10.3.3 Calculating How Much Wallpaper Is Required

10.3.4 Wall Covering Adhesives

10.4.0 General Information to Calculate Various Types of Floor and Wall Tiles

10.4.1 Calculating Requirements for Ceiling Tile

10.4.2 Painting Ceilings and Walls

10.5.0 Types of Carpeting

10.5.1 Calculating the Amount of Carpet Required—Rooms 8–35 Feet in Length and 13–20 Feet in Width

10.6.0 Solid Hardwood Flooring

10.6.1 Janka Wood Hardness Scale for Wood Flooring Species

10.6.2 Laminate Flooring

10.7.0 Finishing of Interior Wood

10.7.1 Opaque, Transparent Finishes, Stains

10.7.2 Fillers and Sealers

10.7.3 Finishes for Floors

10.7.4 Finishes for Items Used for Food

10.7.5 Finishes for Butcher Blocks and Cutting Boards

10.7.6 Wood Cleaners and Brighteners

10.7.7 Paint Strippers

10.8.0 Characteristics of Selected Woods for Painting

10.9.0 When Calculating and Measuring for Interior Trim and Millwork—Learn Tool Basics

Section 11. Plumbing and HVAC Calculations

11.0.0 Water Supply Force Units (WSFUs) Established by the Uniform Plumbing Code Determines the Water Supply Required for Proper Functioning of Plumbing Fixtures. Developing Plumbing Fixtures that Conserve Water, at an Economic Cost, is the Biggest Challenge Facing the Construction Industry Today

11.0.1 Mean Daily Residential Water Use as Determined at 12 Study Sites

11.0.3 Calculate Water Usage of Various Types of Low- and High-Volume Toilets

11.0.4 Reported Savings Due to Use of Low-Flow Toilets in Four Studies

11.1.0 Evolution of Low-Flow Toilet Testing Procedures

11.1.1 Three Common Types of Toilet Construction and Related Efficiencies

11.2.0 The National Efficiency Standards and Specifications for Residential and Commercial Water Using Fixtures Enacted in 1992 and updated in 2005—Relating to Residential Fixtures

11.2.1 Current and Proposed Residential Dishwasher Standards

11.2.2 Current and Proposed Commercial Plumbing Fixture Water Usage Rates

11.2.3 Current and Proposed Commercial Clothes Washers Water/Energy Usage Rates

11.2.4 Commercial Dishwashers—Only Current Energy Star, Water Sense Specifications Prevail

11.2.5 Automatic Commercial Ice Makers—No Current Standards—Proposed Only for 2010

11.3.0 U.S. Green Building Council LEED (R)—Plumbing Fixture Water Efficiency Goals

Innovative Waste Water Technologies: WE Credit 2, 1-Point

Intent:

Requirements:

Example Case:

11.3.1 Preexisting State and Local Standards for Water-Efficient Plumbing Fixtures

11.3.2 Projected Reduction in Walter Consumption 2010–2020—With and Without Daily Savings

11.4.0 Where Does Our Water Come From? Volume of Earth's Oceans

11.5.0 How Much Water Do We Use on Average?

11.5.1 Create a Personal Water Usage Chart

11.6.0 Calculating the Size of Storage and Heat Pump Water Heaters

11.6.1 Calculating the Cost of a Demand, Storage, or Heat Pump Water Heater

11.7.0 HVAC—Understanding and Calculating Relative Humidity

11.7.1 HVAC—Understanding and Calculating Dewpoint

11.7.2 Methods of Calculating Heating Efficiency—Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

11.7.3 How Much Moisture Can the Air “Hold”?

11.7.4 General Heating Formulas—Energy Required to Heat, Offset Losses

11.7.5 General Heating Formulas—Energy Required to Heat Air Flow

11.7.6 Formula to Convert Actual CFM (ACFM) to Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM)

11.8.0 Estimated Average Fuel Conversion Efficiency of Common Heating Appliances

11.8.1 Reading Those Gas Meters

11.9.0 Calculating Home Heating Energy—Gas versus Electric Resistance Heating

11.10.0 Comparing Fuel Costs of Heating and Cooling Systems—Gas, Electric, Kerosene, Wood, Pellets

Comparing Fuel Costs of Heating and Cooling Systems

11.11.0 Residential Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) Savings versus Electric, Gas, and Fuel Oil

11.11.1 Paybacks for Residential GSHP Economics

11.11.2 Commercial Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) Savings versus Electric, Gas, Fuel Oil

11.11.3 Paybacks for Commercial GSHP Economics

Section 12. Electrical Formulas and Calculations

12.0.0 Converting Watts to Volts

12.0.1 Converting Watts to Amps

12.0.2 Converting Amps to Watts

12.0.3 Converting Horsepower to Amps

12.0.4 Converting KVA to Amps

12.0.5 Converting Kw to Amps

12.0.6 Symbols for Electrical Terms

12.1.0 Ohm's Law

12.1.1 Resistors Networks—Terminology and How Identified

12.1.2 Inductor Networks—Terminology and How Identified

12.1.3 Capacitor Networks—Terminology and How Identified

12.1.4 Watt's Law

12.1.5 Calculating Reactance

12.1.6 Resonance in RLC Series Circuit—Explanation and Formula

12.1.7 Bandwidth and Quality Factor

12.1.8 Wavelength–Explained

12.1.9 Frequency and Time–Explained

12.1.10 Impedance of a Circuit—Formula and Rules for Circuits with Both Capacitive and Inductive Reactances

12.2.0 Rules for Amp Draw per Horsepower at Voltage Ranging from 115 V to 575 V

12.2.1 How to Figure Out the Phase for a Certain Circuit Number

12.3.0 Typical Wattage of Various Appliances

12.3.1 Typical Start-up and Running Wattage for Tools and Equipment

12.3.2 Estimating Appliance and Home Electronic Energy Use

12.3.3 Appliance Energy Use Chart Based on an Operating Cost of $0.095 per KWh

12.3.4 Recommended Product Specifications Proposed by the State of Florida

12.3.5 Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Ratings Explained—EER, SEER, COP, HSPF, AFUE

12.4.0 Electric Generators—Understanding Your Power Needs

12.4.1 Electric Generator and Power Generator Safety

12.4.2 Typical Specifications for a Residential Emergency Generator

12.4.3 The Left-Hand Generator Rule

12.4.4 The Right-Hand Generator Rule

12.5.0 Dielectrics and Dielectric Constants of Various Materials

12.5.1 Wire Gauges Table—AWG Gauge—Ft/Ohm Calculations

12.5.2 Wire Gauge Comparison Chart—AWG—Strandings/Wire Diameter, Overall Diameter

12.5.3 Resistance in Ohms per 1000 Feet of Conductor—Aluminium and Copper

12.5.3.1 Solid and Concentric Stranding of Class B and Class C Strandings

12.5.4 Copper to Aluminium Conversion Tables

12.5.5 Conduit inside Diameters and Electrical Conductor Areas—U.S. to Metric Conversion

12.5.6 Conduit Weight Comparisons—Rigid, EMT, PVC

12.5.7 Recommended Power and Ground Cable Sizes—By Power and Distance

12.6.0 Types of Transformers

12.6.1 Dry-Type Transformers—KVA Ratings—Single- and Three-Phase

12.7.0 Enclosure Types for All Locations

Index

## Details

- No. of pages:
- 700

- Language:
- English

- Copyright:
- © Butterworth-Heinemann 2012

- Published:
- 23rd September 2011

- Imprint:
- Butterworth-Heinemann

- Paperback ISBN:
- 9780123822437

- eBook ISBN:
- 9780123822444