Properties and Manufacture

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Author: T. N. W. Akroyd
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155609

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Concrete describes the properties of concrete, its manufacture, and use in building and civil engineering construction. A scientific approach to the properties of materials and concrete has been united with a practical approach to methods of construction. The book begins with an introduction to the properties of concrete. Concrete is a constructional material which consists essentially of a binding agent and a mineral filler. The binding agent is a hydraulic cement which develops its strength when mixed with water. Separate chapters cover the manufacture and properties of concrete materials; mix design, i.e. proportioning of various constituents of concrete to produce the desired properties in both the plastic; concrete manufacturing; and quality control. Also discussed are the resistance of concrete to deterioration, surface treatment of concrete, and special concretes. This book is intended to be useful to the student and graduate engineer as well as a reference book for the site engineer. To this end the theoretical and practical considerations have been combined in a degree found necessary in the author's practical experience.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. The Properties of Concrete


    Properties of Plastic or Wet Concrete




    Properties of Hardened Concrete

    Strength of Concrete

    Elastic Properties of Concrete

    Shrinkage of Concrete


    Thermal Expansion


    Water tightness and Crack Control

    Thermal Conductivity

    2. Concrete Materials


    Portland Cement


    Chemistry of Portland Cement

    Cement Hydration


    Seeding of Cement

    Setting and Hardening

    Healing or Re-setting of Cement

    Types of Portland Cement

    Rapid Hardening Portland Cement

    Rapid Hardening Portland Cement

    Low Heat Portland Cement

    High Alumina Cement


    Chemistry of High Alumina Cement

    Hydration of High Alumina Cement


    Mixtures of High Alumina and Portland Cements

    Slag cements

    Blastfurnace Slag and Portland Cement Mixtures

    Portland Blast Furnace Cement

    Slag Sulphate Cement

    Trief Cement

    Special Cements

    Expanding Cements

    Hydrophobic Cements


    Petrological Classification

    Igneous Rocks

    Sedimentary Rocks

    Metamorphic Rocks

    Natural Sands and Gravels

    The Winning of Concrete Aggregates

    Concrete Aggregate Production

    The influence of Aggregates on Concrete

    Manufactured and Lightweight Aggregates

    Blastfurnace Slag Aggregate

    Broken Brick

    Clinker and Breeze

    Crusher Sand

    Expanded Shale and Clay Aggregates

    Foamed Slag

    Sintered Fly Ash







    Corrosion Inhibitors

    Workability and Air Entraining Agents

    Water Repelling Materials

    Pulverized Fuel Ash

    3. Mix Design

    Nominal Mixes

    Mix Proportioning Based on Strength and Workability



    Aggregate/Cement Ratio

    Specific Surface

    Angularity and Surface Factors

    Examples of Mix Design

    The Combination of Single-sized Aggregates

    Mix Design for High Alumina Cement

    Trial Mixes

    The Quantities of Materials Per Cubic Yard of Concrete

    Ordering Materials

    4. Manufacture of Concrete

    Handling Materials



    Batching Materials

    Mixing and Placing

    Operating a Mixer

    Conveying Concrete

    Pumping Concrete

    Pneumatic Placers

    Placing Concrete

    The compaction of Concrete

    Vibration of Concrete



    Steam Curing of Concrete

    Winter Concreting

    Use of Additives

    Heating the Concrete Materials

    Curing Environment

    5. Quality Control

    Field Control

    Statistics and Concrete Quality

    6. Resistance of Concrete to Deterioration

    Corrosion of Reinforcement

    Reaction Between Aggregate and Cement

    Reaction of Chemicals in Aggregates

    Resistance to Various Chemicals

    Resistance to sulphate attack

    Concrete in Sulphate

    Bearing Soils

    Concrete in Sea Water

    Resistance to Soft Moorland Waters

    Resistance to Sewage

    Resistance to Freezing

    Freezing of Green Concrete

    Physics of Saturated Concrete

    Mechanism of Disintegration

    Resistance to Erosion and Abrasion

    Resistance to Fire

    Heat-resistant Concrete

    7. Surface Treatment of Concrete

    Surface Treatment of in Situ Concrete

    Finish Left by Formwork

    Exposed aggregate finish

    Requirement for Surface-treated Concrete

    Precast Facing Concrete

    The Production of Precast Facing Slabs

    8. Special Concretes

    Gap-graded concrete

    The Characteristics of Gap-graded Concrete

    Lightweight Concrete

    Structural Lightweight Concrete



    Lightweight Concrete

    Insulation Concrete

    Concrete for Atomic Radiation Shielding

    Heavy aggregates


    Dry-lean Concrete

    Pre-packed or Grouted Concrete

    Vacuum Concrete

    Ready-mixed concrete

    Horizontal Drum Truck-mixer

    The Inclined Drum Agitator-truck

    Specification for Ready Mixed Concrete



Product details

  • No. of pages: 346
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155609

About the Author

T. N. W. Akroyd

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