Computers and the Cybernetic Society - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780120590469, 9781483272009

Computers and the Cybernetic Society

2nd Edition

Authors: Michael A. Arbib
eBook ISBN: 9781483272009
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1984
Page Count: 512
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Description

Computers and the Cybernetic Society, Second Edition examines the impact of computers on the cybernetic society and covers topics such as expert systems, management applications, and office automation. The idea of a computer program is considered, along with data banks and the movement and storage of information. Advances in computer technology are also discussed.

Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the interaction between computer developments and social pressures. The interplay between the exciting possibilities of computer networking and the social implications of computer technology is highlighted by focusing on planning networks and public information networks. The next two chapters provide a basic understanding of computers and programming by describing key concepts such as computer graphics, networks, microcomputers, and program design. The next five chapters give a comprehensive overview of the impact of computers on the cybernetic society. The final chapter explains how hardware works and describes the circuitry that computers use to execute a program at the level of machine-language instructions.

This monograph is intended for both students and instructors in the fields of computer science and cybernetics.

Table of Contents


1 Social Issues in the Cybernetic Society

Introduction

The Computer Revolution

The Design of Social Systems in a Free Society

Networks in National and International Politics

Public-Information Networks

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

2 About Computers and Programs

2.1 The Idea of a Program

Programming a Simple Robot

Programs in Perspective

A Digital Wristwatch

Bugs and Learning

A Walk through the Computer Center

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

2.2 Moving and Storing Information

The Shape of a Computer System

Coding

Payroll Job

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

2.3 Translators, Operating Systems, and Time-Sharing

Translators

Operating Systems

Time-Sharing

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

3 Advances in Computer Technology

3.1 Graphics and Networks

Computer Graphics

The Squiral Nebula

Computer Networks

Computer Conferencing

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

3.2 The Shrinking Machine and Personal Computers

Hardware Trends and Microcomputers

New Uses for Microcomputers

The Shrinking Machine

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

3.3 Writing and Rewriting Large Programs

Large Programs

Top-Down Design

Programming Teams

Program Validation

Rewriting

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

4 The Rise of the Data Bank

4.1 Data-Base Management

A Data Base for Airline Reservations

The Problem of Security

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

4.2 Computers, Cash, and Crime

The Checkless Society

A Sampler of Computer Crimes

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

4.3 Data Banks and Privacy

The Need to Control Data Banks

The Privacy Act of 1974

Implications and Developments

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

5 Artificial and Natural Intelligence

5.1 Brains, Minds, and Computers

An Overview of the Brain

Cooperative Computation

Control of Movement

Sight

Brain Technology

Mind and Mechanism

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

5.2 Robotics and Planning

Scene Analysis

Planning

Recursion

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

5.3 Natural Language Understanding and Expert Systems

Syntax and Semantics

Talking about the Blocks World

Speech Understanding

Expert Systems

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

6 Simulating Complex systems

6.1 The Idea of Simulation

The State of a System

Negative Feedback

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

6.2 Prey and Predators

Isolated Species

Putting the Species Together

Solving the Problem

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

6.3 Management Simulation

Fundamentals of Systems Dynamics

The Compound-Interest Model

The Inventory Management Model

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

6.4 World Simulation

Garbage In/Garbage Out

The Limits to Growth

A Regional Approach to Global Planning

The Danger of Despair

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

7 Learning and Working

7.1 Computers in Education

Drill and Practice CAI

Tutorial CAI

Dialog-Inquiry CAI

The Computer as an Aid to Discovery

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

7.2 Information Flow in the Cybernetic Society

Making the News Responsive

Computers and Communication

The Computerized Library

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

7.3 Automation in Industry and the Office

The Industrial Revolution

From Assembly Line to Automation

Automation and the Unions

Cars and Computers

Office Automation

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

8 Networks and Politics

8.1 Networks for Planning

The Idea of a Planning Network

Networks for Local Planning

Networks for Distributed Planning

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

8.2 Democracy in the Computer Age

What Is Democracy?

Decisions Take Time and Knowledge

Information Networks

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

8.3 Computers in War and Peace

Guided Missiles

Sensor Arrays

Some Moral Issues

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

8.4 A Brain for Planet Earth

Grand Aims and Realistic Subgoals

The Diversity of Nation-States

From Regional Simulations to Global Networks

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

9 Down and Up from Machine Language

9.1 How Hardware Works

Instructions and Data in Memory

An Instruction Set

Getting Information in and out of Memory

How the Computer Follows a Program

The FETCH Cycle for (109) = ADD 37

The EXECUTE Cycle for ADD 37

The FETCH Cycle for (110) = JMP 114

The EXECUTE Cycle for JMP 114

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

9.2 Programming and Compiling

Adding 100 Numbers

Compiling

Summary

Glossary Words

Exercises

Suggestions for Further Reading

Glossary

Name Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
512
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1984
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272009

About the Author

Michael A. Arbib

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