Computer Programming

Computer Programming

Made Simple

1st Edition - June 30, 1986

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  • Author: J. Maynard
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483183220

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Description

Computer Programming: Made Simple, New Edition focuses on the processes, principles, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in computer programming. The publication first takes a look at the introduction to computer structure, backing store, input, and output devices, and logic and flowcharting. Discussions focus on flowcharting, file organization, sequencing, and security, magnetic disc devices, optical character recognition, keyboard, encoders, optical mark reading, input and output unit, and backing store. The manuscript then ponders on operating systems, data and numbers, introduction to COBOL, and word types and constants. The text examines arithmetic statements, MULTIPLY and DIVIDE statements, program control, data classes in COBOL, editing, and data transfer. Topics include READ and WRITE statements, types of editing, PICTURE clause, file labeling, BLOCK CONTAINS clause, PERFORM and STOP statements, and MULTIPLY, DIVIDE, and COMPUTE statements. The book also tackles microprocessors, arrays, and subscripts, loops and subroutines, and program control. The publication is a dependable source of data for computer programmers and researchers interested in computer programming.

Table of Contents


  • Prefaces

    Acknowledgement

    Part 1: Introduction to Computer Systems

    1 Introduction

    2 Computer Structure

    Input Unit

    Backing Store

    Memory Unit

    Output Unit

    Program

    Exercises

    3 Input Devices

    Punched Cards

    Punched Paper Tape

    Keyboard

    Magnetic Ink Character Recognition

    Optical Character Recognition

    Optical Mark Reading

    Encoders

    Exercises

    4 Output Devices

    Printing

    Line Printers

    Exercises

    5 Backing Store Devices

    Backing Store Devices

    Magnetic Tape Devices

    Magnetic Disc Devices

    Hard Discs

    Floppy Discs

    File Organization

    File Sequencing

    File Security

    Exercises

    6 Logic and Flowcharting

    Flowcharting

    Flowcharting Symbols

    Exercises

    7 Program Specification Analysis

    Program Specifications

    Introduction

    Input

    Output

    Throughput

    Exercises

    8 Operating Systems

    The Supervisor

    Program Scheduling

    Operator Communication

    JCL Interpretation

    Compilers

    Compiler Functions

    Operating Systems

    Library Maintenance

    Sorting

    Utilities

    Error Recovery

    Software

    Exercises

    9 Data and Numbers

    Data Sets and Numbers

    Structures

    Arrays

    Number Systems

    The Decimal System

    The Binary System

    The Octal System

    The Hexadecimal System

    Number Notations

    Exercises

    Part 2: COBOL Programming Language

    10 Introduction to COBOL

    Language Structure

    The COBOL Character Set

    Punctuation

    Program Divisions

    Exercises

    11 Word Types and Constants

    Reserved Words

    Keywords

    Optional Words

    Connectives

    Names

    Data Names

    Condition Names

    Procedure Names

    Constants

    Literal Constants

    Figurative Constants

    General Format Notation

    Exercises

    12 The COBOL Coding Form

    Sequence Numbers

    Continuation of Lines

    Area A and B

    Blank Lines

    Exercises

    13 Arithmetic Statements

    ROUNDED Option

    GIVING Option

    SIZE ERROR Option

    The ADD Statement

    The SUBTRACT Statement

    Exercises

    14 Multiply and Divide

    The MULTIPLY Statement

    The DIVIDE Statement

    The COMPUTE Statement

    Arithmetic Expressions

    Exercises

    15 Program Flow

    Procedure Name

    The GO TO Statement

    The ALTER Statement

    Exercises

    16 Program Control

    The PERFORM Statement

    Embedded PERFORM Statement

    The EXIT Statement

    The STOP Statement

    Exercises

    17 The Data Di vision

    Data Division—Organization

    Organization of External Data

    Description of External Data

    The DATA DIVISION

    Data Division Entries

    Level Numbers

    Special Level Numbers

    Exercises

    18 File Descriptions—1

    BLOCK CONTAINS Clause

    RECORD CONTAINS Clause

    Recording Mode

    Fixed-Length Recording Mode

    Variable-Length Recording Mode

    Undefined-Length Recording Mode

    Spanned-Length Recording Mode

    RECORDING MODE Clause

    F Mode

    V Mode

    Other Modes

    Exercises

    19 File Descriptions—2

    File Labelling

    Generation Numbers

    LABEL RECORDS Clause

    VALUE OF Clause

    DATA RECORDS Clause

    Data-Record Descriptions

    The FD in Use

    Exercises

    20 Data Classes in COBOL

    Alphabetic Class

    Numeric Class

    Alphanumeric Class

    Data Description

    General Rules

    Data-Name Clause

    Exercises

    21 Data Description—1

    PICTURE Clause

    Symbols Used in the PICTURE Clause

    Other Combinations of PICTURE Characters

    Symbol Repetition

    The PICTURE Clause in Use

    The USAGE Clause

    Exercises

    22 Data Description—2

    Further Data-Description Entry Clauses

    The OCCURS Clause

    Subscripting

    Redefinition

    The REDEFINES Clause

    Exercises

    23 Data Values

    Data-Item Content

    The VALUE IS Clause

    BLANK WHEN ZERO Clause

    Exercises

    24 Editing

    Types of Editing

    Editing in Use

    Exercises

    25 The Data Division in Use

    File Section Entries

    Working-Storage Section Entries

    Notes on Data Division Entries

    Exercises

    26 The Procedure Division

    Organization

    Statement Types

    Conditional Statements

    Imperative Statements

    Compiler-Directing Statements

    Exercises

    27 Conditions

    Class Condition

    Sign Condition

    Relation Condition

    Condition Names

    Compound Conditions

    Exercises

    28 The IF Statement

    Nested IF Statements

    Exercises

    29 Data Manipulation—1

    The MOVE Statement

    Alphanumeric to Alphanumeric

    Numeric to Numeric

    Numeric to Alphanumeric

    Alphanumeric to Numeric

    Exercises

    30 Data Manipulation—2

    The EXAMINE Statement

    UNTIL FIRST Option

    ALL Option

    LEADING Option

    TALLY

    REPLACING Option

    The TRANSFORM Statement

    Exercises

    31 Preparing Data Files

    The OPEN Statement

    The CLOSE Statement

    Exercises

    32 Data Transfer

    The READ Statement

    INTO Option

    The WRITE Statement

    Print Files

    Printing by Channel

    Exercises

    33 Communication with the Computer Operator

    The DISPLAY Statement

    The ACCEPT Statement

    Exercises

    34 File Processing

    File Matching

    Exercises

    35 Processing Print Files

    Printing on Plain Stationery

    Printing on Pre-Printed Stationery

    Stationery Line-up

    36 Qualification

    CORRESPONDING Option

    Exercises

    37 Table Handling

    PERFORM VARYING Option

    Exercises

    38 Table Searching

    Keys in Serial Order

    Table Optimization

    Exercises

    39 Subroutines

    Parameters

    The ENTRY Statement

    The CALL Statement

    Exercises

    40 Program Termination

    Program Controls

    Exercises

    41 Documentation Aids

    The COPY Statement

    Mixed Programming Languages

    Exercises

    42 The Sort Feature

    Sorting

    Using the SORT Statement

    Exercises

    43 Program Testing Facilities

    The TRACE Statement

    The EXHIBIT Statement

    The DEBUG Statement

    Exercises

    44 Eject and Skip

    The EJECT Statement

    The SKIP Statement

    Exercises

    45 The Identification Division

    Required Entries

    Optional Entries

    Exercise

    46 The Environment Division—1

    The Environment Division

    The Configuration Section

    Special Names

    Exercise

    47 The Environment Division—2

    Input-Output Section

    The FILE-CONTROL Paragraph

    The I-O-CONTROL Paragraph

    Exercises

    Revision Questions Sets 1-4

    Part 3: FORTRAN Programming Language

    48 Introduction

    Time-Sharing Computer Systems

    FORTRAN Coding

    49 Constants and Variables

    Constants

    Integer Constant

    Real Constant

    Double-Precision Constant

    Complex Constant

    Alpha or Literal Constant

    File-Name Constant

    Logical Constant

    Variables

    Initial Value (Time-Sharing)

    Initial Value (Non- Time-Sharing)

    Exercises

    50 The Assignment Statement

    Arithmetic Expressions

    The Assignment Statement in Use

    Exercises

    51 Program Control Statements

    The GO TO Statement

    The Computed GO TO Statement

    The Assigned GO TO Statement

    Exercises

    52 Program Decisions and Loops

    Additional Program-Control Statements

    Relational Expressions

    The DO Statement

    Exercises

    53 Arrays

    Variable Subscripting

    The DATA Statement

    Exercises

    54 Input and Output Statements

    The INPUT Statement

    The PRINT Statement

    Formatting

    Exercises

    55 Backing Store Handling

    File Layout

    Outputting Data

    Inputting Data

    Arrays and Files

    Exercises

    56 Subroutines

    Passing Parameters

    Arrays in Subroutines

    Exercises

    57 Functions

    Built-In Functions

    Functions in Use

    User-Defined Functions

    Exercises

    Revision Questions. Set 5

    Part 4: BASIC Programming Language

    58 Introduction

    Instruction Format

    BASIC Statements

    59 Constants and Variables

    Data

    Numbers

    Texts

    Variables

    Numeric Variables

    String Variables

    Exercises

    60 The LET Statement

    Expressions

    Order of Evaluation

    Strings

    Functions

    Exercises

    61 Further Functions

    More Intrinsic Functions

    Exercises

    62 Inputting Data

    DATA and READ Statements

    The INPUT Statement

    Exercises

    63 The PRINT Statement

    The TAB Feature

    PRINT USING

    Blank Lines

    Exercises

    64 Program Control

    The GO TO Statement

    The IF THEN Statement

    Extensions to the IF THEN Statement

    The ON ... GO TO Statement

    Exercises

    65 Loops and Subroutines

    The FOR and NEXT Statements

    The GOSUB Statement

    Exercises

    66 Arrays and Subscripts

    Arrays

    Subscripts

    Exercises

    Revision Questions. Set 6

    Part 5: The Microprocessor Explained

    67 The Home Computer

    Random Access Memory—RAM

    Read Only Memory—ROM

    Programmable Read Only Memory—PROM

    Erasable PROM—EPROM

    68 The Home Computer I/O System

    Input

    Output

    Backing Storage

    Other Input I Output

    69 The Bus System

    Revision Questions. Set 7

    Appendix One: Glossary of Terms Used

    Appendix Two: COBOL—List of Reserved Words

    Appendix Three: Answers to Exercises

    Exercises: Part One

    Exercises: Part Two

    Revision Questions: Sets 1-4

    Exercises: Part Three

    Revision Questions: Set 5

    Exercises: Part Four

    Revision Questions: Set 6

    Revision Questions: Set 7

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 406
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Made Simple 1986
  • Published: June 30, 1986
  • Imprint: Made Simple
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483183220

About the Author

J. Maynard

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