Chapter Two: Instructions: Language of the Computer
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Operations of the Computer Hardware 2.3 Operands of the Computer Hardware 2.4 Representing Instructions in the Computer2.5 Logical Operations 2.6 Instructions for Making Decisions 2.7 Supporting Procedures in Computer Hardware 2.8 Communicating with People 2.9 MIPS Addressing for 32-bit Immediates and Addresses 2.10 Starting a Program 2.11 How Compilers Optimize 2.12 How Compilers Work: An Introduction 2.13 A C Sort Example to Put It All Together 2.14 Implementing an Object Oriented Language 2.15 Arrays versus Pointers 2.16 Real Stuff: IA-32 Instructions 2.17 Fallacies and Pitfalls 2.18 Concluding Remarks 2.19 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 2.20 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Saving our Environment with Data
Chapter Three: Arithmetic for Computers
3.1 Introduction 3.2 Signed and Unsigned Numbers 3.3 Addition and Subtraction 3.4 Multiplication 3.5 Division 3.6 Floating Point3.7 Real Stuff: Floating Point in the IA-32 3.8 Fallacies and Pitfalls 3.9 Concluding Remarks 3.10 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 3.11 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Reconstructing the Ancient World
Chapter Four: Assessing and Understanding Performance
4.1 Introduction4.2 CPU Performance and Its Factors 4.3 Evaluating Performance 4.4 Real Stuff: Two SPEC Benchmarks and the Performance of Recent Intel Processors 4.5 Fallacies and Pitfalls 4.6 Concluding Remarks 4.7 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 4.8 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Moving People Faster and More Safely
Chapter Five: The Processor: Datapath and Control
5.1 Introduction5.2 Logic Design Conventions 5.3 Building a Datapath 5.4 A Simple Implementation Scheme 5.5 A Multicycle Implementation 5.7 Exceptions 5.8 Microprogramming: Simplifying Control Design 5.9 An Introduction to Digital Design Using a Hardware Design Language 5.10 Real Stuff: The Organization of Recent Pentium Implementations 5.11 Fallacies and Pitfalls 5.12 Concluding Remarks 5.13 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 5.14 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Empowering the Disabled
Chapter Six: Enhancing Performance with Pipelining
6.1 An Overview of Pipelining 6.2 A Pipelined Datapath 6.3 Pipelined Control 6.4 Data Hazards and Forwarding 6.5 Data Hazards and Stalls 6.6 Branch Hazards6.7 Using a Hardware Description Language to Describe and Model a Pipeline 6.8 Exceptions 6.9 Advanced Pipelining: Extracting More Performance 6.10 Real Stuff: The Pentium 4 Pipeline 6.11 Fallacies and Pitfalls 6.12 Concluding Remarks 6.13 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 6.14 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Mass Communications without Gatekeepers
Chapter Seven: Large and Fast: Exploiting Memory Hierarchy
7.1 Introduction 7.2 The Basics of Caches 7.3 Measuring and Improving Cache Performance 7.4 Virtual Memory 7.5 A Common Framework for Memory Hierarchies7.6 Real Stuff: A Pentium P4 and the AMD Opteron Memory Hierarchies 7.7 Fallacies and Pitfalls 7.8 Concluding Remarks 7.9 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 7.10 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Saving the World’s Art Treasures
Chapter Eight: Storage, Networks, and Other Peripherals
8.1 Introduction8.2 Disk Storage and Dependability 8.3 Networks 8.4 Buses: Connecting I/O Devices to Processor and Memory 8.5 Interfacing I/O Devices to the Memory, Processor, and Operating System 8.6 I/O Performance Measures: Examples from Disk and File Systems 8.7 Designing an I/O System 8.8 Real Stuff: A Typical Desktop I/O System 8.9 Fallacies and Pitfalls 8.10 Concluding Remarks 8.11 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 8.12 Exercises Computers in the Real World: Saving Lives Through Better Diagnosis All of the folling material appears on the CD Chapter Nine: Multiprocessors 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Programming Multiprocessors 9.3 Multiprocessors Connected by a Single Bus 9.4 Multiprocessors Connected by a Network 9.5 Clusters 9.6 Network Topologies 9.7 Multiprocessors Inside a Chip and Multithreading 9.8 Real Stuff: The Google Cluster of PCs 9.9 Fallacies and Pitfalls 9.10 Concluding Remarks 9.11 Historical Perspective and Further Reading 9.12 Exercises Appendix A: Assemblers, Linkers, and the SPIM Simulator A.1 Introduction A.2 Assemblers A.3 Linkers A.4 Loading A.5 Memory Usage A.6 Procedure Call Convention A.7 Exceptions and Interrupts A.8 Input and Output A.9 SPIM A.10 MIPS R2000 Assembly Language A.11 Concluding Remarks A.12 Exercises Appendix B: The Basics of Logic Design B.1 Introduction B.2 Gates, Truth Tables, and Logic Equations B.3 Combinational Logic B.4 Clocks B.5 Memory Elements B.6 Finite State Machines B.7 Timing Methodologies B.8 Field Programmable Devices B.9 Concluding Remarks B.10 Exercises Appendix C: Mapping Control to Hardware C.1 Introduction C.2 Implementing Combinational Control Units C.3 Implementing Finite State Machine Control C.4 Implementing the Next-State Function with a Sequencer C.5 Translating a Microprogram to Hardware C.6 Concluding Remarks C.7 Exercises Appendix D: A Survey of RISC Architectures for Desktop, Server, and Embedded Computers D.1 Introduction D.2 Addressing Modes and Instruction Formats D.3 Instructions: The MIPS Core Subset D.4 Instructions: Multimedia Extensions of the Desktop/Server RISCs D.5 Instructions: Digital Signal-Processing Extensions of the Embedded RISCs D.6 Instructions: Common Extensions to MIPS Core D.7 Instructions Unique to MIPS64 D.8 Instructions Unique to Alpha D.9 Instructions Unique to SPARC v.9 D.10 Instructions Unique to PowerPC D.11 Instructions Unique to PA-RISC 2.0 D.12 Instructions Unique to ARM D.13 Instructions Unique to Thumb D.14 Instructions Unique to SuperH D.15 Instructions Unique to M32R D.16 Instructions Unique to MIPS16 D.17 Concluding Remarks D.18 Acknowledgements D.19 References
This best selling text on computer organization has been thoroughly updated to reflect the newest technologies. Examples highlight the latest processor designs, benchmarking standards, languages and tools.
As with previous editions, a MIPs processor is the core used to present the fundamentals of hardware technologies at work in a computer system. The book presents an entire MIPS instruction set—instruction by instruction—the fundamentals of assembly language, computer arithmetic, pipelining, memory hierarchies and I/O.
A new aspect of the third edition is the explicit connection between program performance and CPU performance. The authors show how hardware and software components--such as the specific algorithm, programming language, compiler, ISA and processor implementation--impact program performance. Throughout the book a new feature focusing on program performance describes how to search for bottlenecks and improve performance in various parts of the system. The book digs deeper into the hardware/software interface, presenting a complete view of the function of the programming language and compiler--crucial for understanding computer organization. A CD provides a toolkit of simulators and compilers along with tutorials for using them.
For instructor resources click on the grey "companion site" button found on the right side of this page. This new edition represents a major revision. New to this edition:
- Entire Text has been updated to reflect new technology
- 70% new exercises.
- Includes a CD loaded with software, projects and exercises to support courses using a number of tools
- A new interior design presents defined terms in the margin for quick reference
- A new feature, "Understanding Program Performance" focuses on performance from the programmer's perspective
- Two sets of exercises and solutions, "For More Practice" and "In More Depth," are included on the CD
- "Check Yourself" questions help students check their understanding of major concepts
- "Computers In the Real World" feature illustrates the diversity of uses for information technology *More detail below...
Undergraduate students in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Electrical Engineering courses in Computer Organization, Computer Design, ranging from Sophomore required courses to Senior Electives
Professional digital system designers, programmers, application developers, and system software developers.
- No. of pages:
- © Morgan Kaufmann 2005
- 7th August 2004
- Morgan Kaufmann
- eBook ISBN:
“The choice of ‘Real Stuff’ is judicious. The ‘Computers in the Real World’ sections are interesting to read and should widen the horizons of the too often too tech-oriented Sophomores and Juniors. On the whole this is a very solid book and the success of the third edition is assured as has been the success of its two predecessors.” –Jean-Loup Baer, University of Washington “I am very impressed with the new sections 'Computers in the Real World.' It is very interesting and speaks to the students who would like to feel a connection between classroom materials and real-world applications. I am very pleased with the manuscript for the third edition. This revision is well-updated and a comprehensive introduction to the hardware and software fundamentals.” –David Brooks, Harvard University “The logical development and explanations and examples were always great to begin with. The ‘Historical Perspectives’ have become even better-- they are part of the book that I enjoy most.” –David Harris, Harvey Mudd
ACM named David A. Patterson a recipient of the 2017 ACM A.M. Turing Award for pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry. David A. Patterson is the Pardee Chair of Computer Science, Emeritus at the University of California Berkeley. His teaching has been honored by the Distinguished Teaching Award from the University of California, the Karlstrom Award from ACM, and the Mulligan Education Medal and Undergraduate Teaching Award from IEEE. Patterson received the IEEE Technical Achievement Award and the ACM Eckert-Mauchly Award for contributions to RISC, and he shared the IEEE Johnson Information Storage Award for contributions to RAID. He also shared the IEEE John von Neumann Medal and the C & C Prize with John Hennessy. Like his co-author, Patterson is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Computer History Museum, ACM, and IEEE, and he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Silicon Valley Engineering Hall of Fame. He served on the Information Technology Advisory Committee to the U.S. President, as chair of the CS division in the Berkeley EECS department, as chair of the Computing Research Association, and as President of ACM. This record led to Distinguished Service Awards from ACM, CRA, and SIGARCH.
Pardee Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, USA
ACM named John L. Hennessy a recipient of the 2017 ACM A.M. Turing Award for pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry. John L. Hennessy is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Stanford University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1977 and was, from 2000 to 2016, its tenth President. Prof. Hennessy is a Fellow of the IEEE and ACM; a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science, and the American Philosophical Society; and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his many awards are the 2001 Eckert-Mauchly Award for his contributions to RISC technology, the 2001 Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award, and the 2000 John von Neumann Award, which he shared with David Patterson. He has also received seven honorary doctorates.
Departments of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Stanford University, USA