Computer Architecture

5th Edition

A Quantitative Approach: Fifth Multimedia Edition


Computer Architecture

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Table of Contents

Foreword ix

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xxiii

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Quantitative Design and Analysis

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Classes of Computers 5

1.3 Defining Computer Architecture 11

1.4 Trends in Technology 17

1.5 Trends in Power and Energy in Integrated Circuits 21

1.6 Trends in Cost 27

1.7 Dependability 33

1.8 Measuring, Reporting, and Summarizing Performance 36

1.9 Quantitative Principles of Computer Design 44

1.10 Putting It All Together: Performance, Price, and Power 52

1.11 Fallacies and Pitfalls 55

1.12 Concluding Remarks 59

1.13 Historical Perspectives and References 61

Case Studies and Exercises by Diana Franklin 61

Chapter 2 Memory Hierarchy Design

2.1 Introduction 72

2.2 Ten Advanced Optimizations of Cache Performance 78

2.3 Memory Technology and Optimizations 96

2.4 Protection: Virtual Memory and Virtual Machines 105

2.5 Crosscutting Issues: The Design of Memory Hierarchies 112

2.6 Putting It All Together: Memory Hierachies in the

ARM Cortex-A8 and Intel Core i7 113

2.7 Fallacies and Pitfalls 125

2.8 Concluding Remarks: Looking Ahead 129

2.9 Historical Perspective and References 131

Case Studies and Exercises by Norman P. Jouppi,

Naveen Muralimanohar, and Sheng Li 131

Chapter 3 Instruction-Level Parallelism and Its Exploitation

3.1 Instruction-Level Parallelism: Concepts and Challenges 148

3.2 Basic Compiler Techniques for Exposing ILP 156

3.3 Reducing Branch Costs with Advanced Branch Prediction 162

3.4 Overcoming Data Hazards with Dynamic Scheduling 167

3.5 Dynamic Scheduling: Examples and the Algorithm 176

3.6 Hardware-Based Speculation 183

3.7 Exploiting ILP Using Multiple Issue and Static Scheduling 192



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Morgan Kaufmann
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About the authors

John Hennessy

John L. Hennessy is the tenth president of Stanford University, where he has been a member of the faculty since 1977 in the departments of electrical engineering and computer science. Hennessy is a Fellow of the IEEE and ACM; a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Science, and the American Philosophical Society; and a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Among his many awards are the 2001 Eckert-Mauchly Award for his contributions to RISC technology, the 2001 Seymour Cray Computer Engineering Award, and the 2000 John von Neumann Award, which he shared with David Patterson. He has also received seven honorary doctorates.

David Patterson

David A. Patterson is the Pardee Chair of Computer Science, Emeritus at the University of California Berkeley. His teaching has been honored by the Distinguished Teaching Award from the University of California, the Karlstrom Award from ACM, and the Mulligan Education Medal and Undergraduate Teaching Award from IEEE. Patterson received the IEEE Technical Achievement Award and the ACM Eckert-Mauchly Award for contributions to RISC, and he shared the IEEE Johnson Information Storage Award for contributions to RAID. He also shared the IEEE John von Neumann Medal and the C & C Prize with John Hennessy. Like his co-author, Patterson is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Computer History Museum, ACM, and IEEE, and he was elected to the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Silicon Valley Engineering Hall of Fame. He served on the Information Technology Advisory Committee to the U.S. President, as chair of the CS division in the Berkeley EECS department, as chair of the Computing Research Association, and as President of ACM. This record led to Distinguished Service Awards from ACM, CRA, and SIGARCH.