Computer Animation

Computer Animation

Algorithms and Techniques

2nd Edition - September 27, 2007

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  • Authors: Rick Parent, Rick Parent
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080553856

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Description

Driven by the demands of research and the entertainment industry, the techniques of animation are pushed to render increasingly complex objects with ever-greater life-like appearance and motion. This rapid progression of knowledge and technique impacts professional developers, as well as students. Developers must maintain their understanding of conceptual foundations, while their animation tools become ever more complex and specialized. The second edition of Rick Parent's Computer Animation is an excellent resource for the designers who must meet this challenge. The first edition established its reputation as the best technically oriented animation text. This new edition focuses on the many recent developments in animation technology, including fluid animation, human figure animation, and soft body animation. The new edition revises and expands coverage of topics such as quaternions, natural phenomenon, facial animation, and inverse kinematics. The book includes up-to-date discussions of Maya scripting and the Maya C++ API, programming on real-time 3D graphics hardware, collision detection, motion capture, and motion capture data processing.

Key Features

  • New up-to-the-moment coverage of hot topics like real-time 3D graphics, collision detection, fluid and soft-body animation and more!
  • Companion site with animation clips drawn from research & entertainment and code samples
  • Describes the mathematical and algorithmic foundations of animation that provide the animator with a deep understanding and control of technique

Readership

Students studying computer animation in courses with an emphasis on understanding algorithms and programming. Technical directors, animators, artists, and game developers looking to understand the foundations of animation to improve studio work.

Table of Contents

  • 1. Introduction

    1.1 Perception
    1.2 The Heritage of Animation
    1.2.1 Early Devices
    1.2.2 The Early Days of “Conventional” Animation
    1.2.3 Disney
    1.2.4 Contributions of Others
    1.2.5 Other Media for Animation
    1.2.6 Principles of Animation
    1.2.7 Principles of Filmmaking
    1.3 Animation Production
    1.3.1 Sound
    1.4 Computer Animation Production
    1.4.1 Computer Animation Production Tasks
    1.4.2 Digital Editing
    1.4.3 Digital Video
    1.4.4 Digital Audio
    1.5 A Brief History of Computer Animation
    1.5.1 Early Activity (pre 1980)
    1.5.2 The Middle Years (The ‘80s)
    1.5.3 Animation Comes of Age (The mid-80’s and beyond)
    1.6 Chapter Summary
    References

    2. Technical Background

    2.1 Spaces and Transformations
    2.1.1 The Display Pipeline
    2.1.2 Homogeneous Coordinates and the Transformation Matrix
    2.1.3 Compound Transformation: Concatenating Transformation Matrices
    2.1.4 Basic Transformations
    2.1.5 Representing an Arbitrary Orientation
    2.1.6 Extracting Transformations from a Matrix
    2.1.7 Description of Transformations in the Display Pipeline
    2.1.8 Error Considerations
    2.2 Orientation Representation
    2.2.1 Fixed Angle Representation
    2.2.2 Euler Angle Representation
    2.2.3 Angle and Axis Representation
    2.2.4 Quaternion Representation
    2.2.5 Exponential Map Representation
    2.3 Chapter Summary
    References

    3. Interpolation

    3.1 Interpolating Values
    3.1.1 The Appropriate Function
    3.1.2 Summary
    3.2 Controlling the Motion of a Point Along a Curve
    3.2.1 Computing Arc Length
    3.2.2 Speed Control
    3.2.3 Ease-in/Ease-out
    3.2.4 General Distance-Time Functions
    3.2.5 Curve Fitting to Position-Time Pairs
    3.3 Interpolation of Orientations
    3.3.1 Interpolating Quaternions
    3.4 Working with Paths
    3.4.1 Path Following
    3.4.2 Orientation along a Path
    3.4.3 Smoothing a Path
    3.4.4 Determining a Path along a Surface
    3.4.5 Path Finding
    3.4.6 Summary
    3.5 Chapter Summary
    References

    4. Interpolation -Based Animation

    4.1 Key-Frame Systems
    4.2 Animation Languages
    4.2.1 Artist-Oriented Animation Languages
    4.2.2 Full Featured Programming Languages for Animation
    4.2.3 Articulation Variables
    4.2.4 Graphical Languages
    4.2.5 Actor-Based Animation Languages
    4.3 Deforming Objects
    4.3.1 Picking and Pulling
    4.3.2 Deforming an embedding space
    4.4 3D Shape Interpolation
    4.4.1 Matching Topology
    4.4.2 Star-Shaped Polyhedra
    4.4.3 Axial Slices
    4.4.4 Map to Sphere
    4.4.5 Recursive Subdivision
    4.4.6 Summary
    4.5 Morphing (2D)
    4.5.1 Coordinate Grid Approach
    4.5.2 Feature-Based Morphing
    4.6 Chapter Summary
    References

    5. Kinematic Linkages

    5.1 Hierarchical Modeling
    5.1.1 Data structure for hierarchical modeling
    5.1.2 Local Coordinate Frames
    5.2 Forward Kinematics
    5.3 Inverse Kinematics
    5.3.1 Solving a Simple System by Analysis
    5.3.2 The Jacobian
    5.3.3 Numeric Solutions to Inverse Kinematics
    5.3.4 Summary
    5.4 Chapter Summary
    References

    6. Motion Capture

    6.1 Motion Capture Technologies
    6.2 Processing the Images
    6.3 Camera Calibration
    6.4 3D Position Reconstruction
    6.4.1 Multiple Markers
    6.4.2 Multiple Cameras
    6.5 Fitting to the Skeleton
    6.6 Output from Motion Capture Systems
    6.7 Manipulating Motion Capture Data
    6.7.1 Processing the Signals
    6.7.2 Retargeting the Motion
    6.7.3 Combining Motions
    6.8 Chapter Summary
    References

    7. Physically Based Animation

    7.1 Basic Physics - A Review
    7.1.1 Simulating a spring-mass-damper system
    7.2 Spring Meshes
    7.2.1 Flexible Objects
    7.2.2 Virtual Springs
    7.3 Particle Systems
    7.3.1 Particle Generation
    7.3.2 Particle Attributes
    7.3.3 Particle Termination
    7.3.4 Particle Animation
    7.3.5 Particle Rendering
    7.3.6 Particle System Representation
    7.3.7 Forces on Particles
    7.3.8 Particle Life Span
    7.4 Rigid Body Simulation
    7.4.1 Bodies in Free Fall
    7.4.2 Bodies in Collision
    7.4.3 Dynamics of Linked Hierarchies
    7.4.4 Summary
    7.5 Enforcing Soft and Hard Constraints
    7.5.1 Energy Minimization
    7.5.2 Space-Time Constraints
    7.6 Chapter Summary
    References

    8. Fluids: Liquids & Gases

    8.1 Specific Fluid Models
    8.1.1 Models of Water
    8.1.2 Models of Clouds
    8.1.3 Models of Fire
    8.1.4 Summary
    8.2 Computational Fluid Dynamics
    8.2.1 General Approaches to Modeling Fluids
    8.2.2 CFD Equations
    8.3 Chapter Summary
    References

    9. Modeling and Animating Human Figures

    9.1 Overview of Virtual Human Representation
    9.1.1 Representing Body Geometry
    9.1.2 Geometry Data Acquisition
    9.1.3 Geometry Deformation
    9.1.4Surface Detail
    9.1.5 Layered Approach to Human Figure Modeling
    9.2 Reaching and Grasping
    9.2.1 Modeling the Arm
    9.2.2 The Shoulder Joint
    9.2.3 The Hand
    9.2.4 Coordinated Movement
    9.2.5 Reaching Around Obstacles
    9.2.6 Strength
    9.3 Walking
    9.3.1 The Mechanics of Locomotion
    9.3.2 The Kinematics of the Walk
    9.3.3 Using Dynamics to Help Produce Realistic Motion
    9.3.4 Forward Dynamic Control
    9.3.5 Summary
    9.4 Getting Dressed Up
    9.4.1 Cloth and Clothing
    9.4.2 Simple Draping
    9.4.3 Getting into Clothes
    9.4.4 Hair
    9.5 Chapter Summary
    References

    10. Facial Animation

    10.1 The Human Face
    10.1.1 Anatomic Structure
    10.1.2 The Facial Action Coding System
    10.2 Facial Models
    10.2.1 Creating a Continuous Surface Model
    10.2.2 Textures
    10.3 Animating the Face
    10.3.1 Parameterized Models
    10.3.2 Blend Shapes
    10.3.3 Muscle Models
    10.3.4 Expressions
    10.3.5 Summary
    10.4 Lip-Sync Animation
    10.4.1 Articulators of Speech
    10.4.2 Phonemes
    10.4.3 Coarticulation
    10.4.4 Prosody
    10.5 Chapter Summary
    References

    11. Modeling Behavior

    11.1 Knowing the Environment
    11.1.1 Vision
    11.1.2 Memory
    11.2 Aggregate Behavior
    11.3 Primitive Behaviors
    11.3.1 Flocking Behavior
    11.3.2 Prey-Predator Behavior
    11.4 Modeling Intelligent Behavior
    11.4.1 Autonomous Behavior
    11.4.2 Expressions and Gestures
    11.4.3 Modeling Individuality: Personality and Emotions
    11.5 Crowd Management
    11.5.1 Emergent Behavior
    11.5.2 Statistically Modeled Behavior
    11.5.3 Internal structure
    11.6 Chapter Summary
    References

    12. Special Models for Animation

    12.1 Implicit Surfaces
    12.1.1 Basic Implicit Surface Formulation
    12.1.2 Animation Using Implicitly Defined Objects
    12.1.3 Collision Detection
    12.1.4 Deforming the Implicit Surface as a Result of Collision
    12.1.5 Level Set Methods
    12.1.6 Summary
    12.2 Plants
    12.2.1 A Little Bit of Botany
    12.2.2 L-Systems
    12.2.3 Animating Plant Growth
    12.2.4 Summary
    12.3 Subdivision Surfaces
    12.4 Chapter Summary
    References

    App A. Rendering Issues

    A.1 Double Buffering
    A.2 Compositing
    A.2.1 Compositing without Pixel Depth Information
    A.2.2 Compositing with Pixel Depth Information
    A.3 Displaying Moving Objects: Motion Blur
    A.4 Drop Shadows
    A.5 Billboarding and Impostors
    A.6 Summary
    References

    App B. Background Information and Techniques

    B.1 Vectors and Matrices
    B.1.1 Inverse Matrix and Solving Linear Systems
    B.1.2 Singular Value Decomposition
    B.2 Geometric Computations
    B.2.1 Components of a Vector
    B.2.2 Length of a Vector
    B.2.3 Dot Product of Two Vectors
    B.2.4 Cross Product of Two Vectors
    B.2.5 Vector and Matrix Routines
    B.2.6Closest Point between Two Lines in Three-Space
    B.2.7 Area Calculations
    B.2.8 The Cosine Rule
    B.2.9 Barycentric Coordinates
    B.2.10 Computing Bounding Shapes
    B.3 Transformations
    B.3.1 Transforming a Point Using Vector-Matrix Multiplication
    B.3.2 Transforming a Vector Using Vector-Matrix Multiplication
    B.3.3 Axis-Angle Rotations
    B.3.4 Quaternions
    B.4 Denevit and Hartenberg Representation for Linked Appendages
    B.4.1 Denavit-Hartenberg Notation
    B.4.2 A Simple Example
    B.4.3 Including a Ball-and-Socket Joint
    B.4.4 Constructing the Frame Description
    B.5 Interpolating and Approximating Curves
    B.5.1 Equations: Some Basic Terms
    B.5.2 Simple Linear Interpolation: Geometric and Algebraic Forms
    B.5.3 Parameterization by Arc Length
    B.5.4 Computing Derivatives
    B.5.5 Hermite Interpolation
    B.5.6 Catmull-Rom Spline
    B.5.7 Four-Point Form
    B.5.8 Blended Parabolas
    B.5.9 Bezier Interpolation/Approximation
    B.5.10 De Casteljau Construction of Bezier Curves
    B.5.11 Tension, Continuity, and Bias Control
    B.5.12 B-Splines
    B.5.13 Fitting Curves to a Given Set of Points
    B.6 Randomness
    B.6.1 Noise
    B.6.2 Turbulence
    B.6.3 Random Number Generator
    B.7 Physics Primer
    B.7.1 Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
    B.7.2 Circular Motion
    B.7.3 Newton’s Laws of Motion
    B.7.4 Inertia and Inertial Reference Frames
    B.7.5 Center of Mass
    B.7.6 Torque
    B.7.7 Equilibrium: Balancing Forces
    B.7.8 Gravity
    B.7.9 Centripetal Force
    B.7.10 Contact Forces
    B.7.11 Centrifugal Force
    B.7.12 Work and Potential Energy
    B.7.13 Kinetic Energy
    B.7.14Conservation of Energy
    B.7.15 Conservation of Momentum
    B.7.16 Oscillatory Motion
    B.7.17 Damping
    B.7.18 Angular Momentum
    B.7.19 Inertia Tensors
    B.8 Numerical Integration Techniques
    B.8.1 Function Integration for Arc Length Computation
    B.8.2 Updating Function Values
    B.8.3 Updating Position
    B.9 Standards for Moving Pictures
    B.9.1 In the Beginning, There Was Analog
    B.9.2 In the Digital World
    B.10 Camera Calibration
    References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 594
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Morgan Kaufmann 2007
  • Published: September 27, 2007
  • Imprint: Morgan Kaufmann
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080553856

About the Authors

Rick Parent

Rick Parent is a Professor Emeritus in the Computer Science and Engineering Department of Ohio State University (OSU). As a graduate student, Rick worked at the Computer Graphics Research Group (CGRG) at OSU under the direction of Charles Csuri. In 1977, he received his Ph.D. from the Computer and Information Science (CIS) Department, majoring in Artificial Intelligence. For the next three years, he worked at CGRG first as a Research Associate, and then as Associate Director. In 1980 he co-founded and was President of The Computer Animation Company. In 1985, he joined the faculty of the CIS Department (now the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, or CSE) at Ohio State. Rick's research interests include various aspects of computer animation with special focus on animation of the human figure.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Ohio State

Rick Parent

Rick Parent is a Professor Emeritus in the Computer Science and Engineering Department of Ohio State University (OSU). As a graduate student, Rick worked at the Computer Graphics Research Group (CGRG) at OSU under the direction of Charles Csuri. In 1977, he received his Ph.D. from the Computer and Information Science (CIS) Department, majoring in Artificial Intelligence. For the next three years, he worked at CGRG first as a Research Associate, and then as Associate Director. In 1980 he co-founded and was President of The Computer Animation Company. In 1985, he joined the faculty of the CIS Department (now the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, or CSE) at Ohio State. Rick's research interests include various aspects of computer animation with special focus on animation of the human figure.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Ohio State

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