Computational Methods in Reactor Shielding

Computational Methods in Reactor Shielding

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Author: James Wood
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483148137

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Computational Methods in Reactor Shielding deals with the mathematical processes involved in how to effectively control the dangerous effect of nuclear radiation. Reactor shielding is considered an important aspect in the operation of reactor systems to ensure the safety of personnel and others that can be directly or indirectly affected. Composed of seven chapters, the book discusses ionizing radiation and how it aids in the control and containment of radioactive substances that are considered harmful to all living things. The text also outlines the necessary radiation quantities and units that are needed for a systemic control of shielding and presents an examination of the main sources of nuclear radiation. A discussion of the gamma photon cross sections and an introduction to BMIX, a computer program used in illustrating a technique in identifying the gamma ray build-up factor for a reactor shield, are added. The selection also discusses various mathematical representations and areas of shielding theory that are being used in radiation shielding. The book is of great value to those involved in the development and implementation of systems to minimize and control the dangerous and lethal effect of radiation.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 Introduction

    1.1 The Shielding Problem

    1.2 Scope of the Book

    1.3 Background Knowledge

    1.4 The Computer Programs

    1.5 References

    Chapter 2 Radiation Quantities and Units

    2.1 Some Preliminary Considerations Relating to Radiological Protection

    2.2 Recommended Radiation Levels

    2.3 General Environmental Radiation Levels

    2.4 Radiation Quantities and Units

    2.5 Conversion of Radiation Intensity to Dose Equivalent Rate

    2.6 A more Mathematical Treatment of the Basic Transport Quantities

    2.7 The Albedo Concept

    2.8 References

    Chapter 3 Radiation Sources

    3.1 Nuclear Reactors

    Primary Radiation

    Secondary Radiation

    3.2 Radioactive Sources

    3.3 Particle Accelerators

    3.4 Reactor Coolant Activation

    3.5 Miscellaneous Topics

    3.6 References

    Chapter 4 The Attenuation of Gamma Rays

    4.1 Narrow Beam Attenuation

    Photon Atomic Cross Sections

    4.2 Broad Beam Attenuation

    Buildup Factor: The Basic Idea

    Empirical Formula for B(µr)

    4.3 The Computer Program BMIX

    4.4 Exercises for Program BMIX

    4.5 References

    Chapter 5 Applications of the Point Kernel Technique

    5.1 The Mathematical Representation of Detector Response

    5.2 Geometrical Transformations

    5.3 Examples in the Use of the Point Kernel Technique

    5.4 CASK: A Simple Shielding Program for Spherical Sources of Nuclear Radiation

    5.5 Modification of Program CASK to Include a Line Source

    5.6 Exercises for Program CASK

    5.7 Exercises for Modified Form of CASK

    5.8 References

    Chapter 6 Neutron Attenuation

    6.1 The Basic Strategy

    6.2 Neutron Removal Cross Section

    6.3 Theoretical Treatment of Fast Neutron Attenuation

    Empirical Neutron Point Kernels

    6.4 Removal Diffusion Theory

    Spinney Removal Method

    Multigroup Diffusion Equations

    6.5 The Computer Program CADRE

    6.6 Exercises for Program CADRE

    6.7 Shield Optimization

    6.8 References

    Chapter 7 Transport Theory Methods

    The Derivation of the Boltzmann Transport Equation

    7.1 The Monte Carlo Method

    Techniques for Random Sampling

    The Estimation of Monte Carlo Error

    Variance Reduction Techniques

    Generating Random Numbers

    The Computer Program TESR

    Buffon's Needle Experiment

    The Computer Program KLEIN

    Monte Carlo Computer Program Monteray Mark I

    Extended Version of Program Monteray

    The Application of the Monte Carlo Method to Neutron Problems

    The Computer Program ELSCAT

    7.2 The Moments Method

    The Boltzmann Equation for the Energy Flux

    The P1 Equations

    The Kernel for Compton Scattering

    The Dimensionless Form of the Equations

    The Moments of the Flux

    Construction of Flux Distributions from the Moments

    The Computer Program DBUF

    7.3 References


    Appendix A The Dirac Delta-Function

    Appendix B Coordinate Systems, the Gradient Operator V, and the Laplacian Operator V2

    Appendix C Selected Nuclear Data

    Appendix D SI Units in Radiation and Radioactivity


Product details

  • No. of pages: 450
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483148137

About the Author

James Wood

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