Computational Methods in Reactor Shielding - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080286853, 9781483148137

Computational Methods in Reactor Shielding

1st Edition

Authors: James Wood
eBook ISBN: 9781483148137
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 450
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Computational Methods in Reactor Shielding deals with the mathematical processes involved in how to effectively control the dangerous effect of nuclear radiation. Reactor shielding is considered an important aspect in the operation of reactor systems to ensure the safety of personnel and others that can be directly or indirectly affected. Composed of seven chapters, the book discusses ionizing radiation and how it aids in the control and containment of radioactive substances that are considered harmful to all living things. The text also outlines the necessary radiation quantities and units that are needed for a systemic control of shielding and presents an examination of the main sources of nuclear radiation. A discussion of the gamma photon cross sections and an introduction to BMIX, a computer program used in illustrating a technique in identifying the gamma ray build-up factor for a reactor shield, are added. The selection also discusses various mathematical representations and areas of shielding theory that are being used in radiation shielding. The book is of great value to those involved in the development and implementation of systems to minimize and control the dangerous and lethal effect of radiation.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 The Shielding Problem

1.2 Scope of the Book

1.3 Background Knowledge

1.4 The Computer Programs

1.5 References

Chapter 2 Radiation Quantities and Units

2.1 Some Preliminary Considerations Relating to Radiological Protection

2.2 Recommended Radiation Levels

2.3 General Environmental Radiation Levels

2.4 Radiation Quantities and Units

2.5 Conversion of Radiation Intensity to Dose Equivalent Rate

2.6 A more Mathematical Treatment of the Basic Transport Quantities

2.7 The Albedo Concept

2.8 References

Chapter 3 Radiation Sources

3.1 Nuclear Reactors

Primary Radiation

Secondary Radiation

3.2 Radioactive Sources

3.3 Particle Accelerators

3.4 Reactor Coolant Activation

3.5 Miscellaneous Topics

3.6 References

Chapter 4 The Attenuation of Gamma Rays

4.1 Narrow Beam Attenuation

Photon Atomic Cross Sections

4.2 Broad Beam Attenuation

Buildup Factor: The Basic Idea

Empirical Formula for B(µr)

4.3 The Computer Program BMIX

4.4 Exercises for Program BMIX

4.5 References

Chapter 5 Applications of the Point Kernel Technique

5.1 The Mathematical Representation of Detector Response

5.2 Geometrical Transformations

5.3 Examples in the Use of the Point Kernel Technique

5.4 CASK: A Simple Shielding Program for Spherical Sources of Nuclear Radiation

5.5 Modification of Program CASK to Include a Line Source

5.6 Exercises for Program CASK

5.7 Exercises for Modified Form of CASK

5.8 References

Chapter 6 Neutron Attenuation

6.1 The Basic Strategy

6.2 Neutron Removal Cross Section

6.3 Theoretical Treatment of Fast Neutron Attenuation

Empirical Neutron Point Kernels

6.4 Removal Diffusion Theory

Spinney Removal Method

Multigroup Diffusion Equations

6.5 The Computer Program CADRE

6.6 Exercises for Program CADRE

6.7 Shield Optimization

6.8 References

Chapter 7 Transport Theory Methods

The Derivation of the Boltzmann Transport Equation

7.1 The Monte Carlo Method

Techniques for Random Sampling

The Estimation of Monte Carlo Error

Variance Reduction Techniques

Generating Random Numbers

The Computer Program TESR

Buffon's Needle Experiment

The Computer Program KLEIN

Monte Carlo Computer Program Monteray Mark I

Extended Version of Program Monteray

The Application of the Monte Carlo Method to Neutron Problems

The Computer Program ELSCAT

7.2 The Moments Method

The Boltzmann Equation for the Energy Flux

The P1 Equations

The Kernel for Compton Scattering

The Dimensionless Form of the Equations

The Moments of the Flux

Construction of Flux Distributions from the Moments

The Computer Program DBUF

7.3 References


Appendix A The Dirac Delta-Function

Appendix B Coordinate Systems, the Gradient Operator V, and the Laplacian Operator V2

Appendix C Selected Nuclear Data

Appendix D SI Units in Radiation and Radioactivity



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© Pergamon 1982
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About the Author

James Wood

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