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Comprehensive Utilization of Citrus By-products provides comprehensive knowledge and information on the development and utilization of citrus by-products, including the types, preparation, and determination of their main functional components. As one of the most popular fruits in the world, the processing of citrus fruits produces a great deal of citrus peel, a primary by-product. Current treatments of citrus peel pollute the environment and waste resources so eco-friendly solutions are sought.
This book reflects research, trends and attitudes in the field, presenting a wide overview including extraction processes for functional components; isolation and structural identification; synthesis of new compounds; and the research and development of citrus by-products, their biodegradable transformation, and processing equipment. This valuable reference book can be used by scientists, scholars, and students working on citrus, dietitians and nutritionists, citrus processing enterprises, and farmers from cooperative organizations related to citrus processing.
- Offers a comprehensive presentation of the functional components in citrus by-products and their utilization
- Illustrates the determination methods of, and extraction processes for, functional components, as well as the isolation, identification, and synthesis of new compounds
- Reviews the research and development of citrus by-products, their biodegradable transformation, and processing equipment
- Provides a valuable reference for scientists, scholars, and students working on citrus, dietitians and nutritionists, citrus processing enterprises, and farmers from cooperative organizations related to citrus processing
Scientists, scholars, and students working with or studying citrus; citrus processing enterprises; dietitians and nutritionists; farmers from cooperative organizations related to citrus processing
Chapter 1. Functional Components of Citrus Peel
- 1. Essential Oils
- 2. Monoterpenes
- 3. Pectin
- 4. Flavonoids
- 5. Limonoids
- 6. Carotenoids
- 7. Cellulose
- 8. Synephrine
- 9. Other Functional Components
Chapter 2. Methods for Determining the Functional Components of Citrus Peel
- 1. Chemical Analysis: Determination of Pectin Using a Gravimetric Method
- 2. Spectral Analysis: Determination of Total Flavonoids in Citrus Peel by AlCl3-UV-Visible Spectroscopy
- 3. Determination of Multi-Methoxyflavones in Citrus Peel by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (NY/T 2336-2013)
- 4. Determination of Aromatic Components in Citrus Peel by GC–MS
- 5. LC–MS (HPLC–MS)
- 6. HPLC-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Chapter 3. Extraction Processes of Functional Components From Citrus Peel
- 1. Classification and Extraction Processes of Essential Oils From Citrus Peel
- 2. Extraction Process of Pectin From Citrus Peel
- 3. Extraction Processes of Flavonoids From Citrus Peel
- 4. Extraction of Limonoid and its Analogs
- 5. Extraction Process of Synephrine From Citrus Peel
- 6. Extraction Process of Edible Cellulose Powder
- 7. Extraction Process of Seed Oil
Chapter 4. Isolation and Structural Identification of Flavonoids From Citrus
- 1. Technological Process for the Separation and Purification of Flavonoids From Citrus Peel
- 2. Structural Identification of Flavonoids From Citrus Peel
Chapter 5. Five Types of Semisynthetic Bioactive Flavonoids From Hesperidin
- 1. Synthesis Route of Bioactive Flavonoids
- 2. Synthesis of Bioactive Flavonoid Compounds
- 3. Key Points in Flavonoid Synthesis
Chapter 6. Drying of Citrus Peel and Processing of Foods and Feeds
- 1. Drying of Citrus Peel
- 2. Processed Foods of Citrus Peel
- 3. Production of Various Citrus Feed Additives
Chapter 7. Biotransformation of Citrus Peel
- 1. Production of Food
- 2. Production of High-Protein Feeds
- 3. Production of Ethanol, Mushroom Cultivation, and Preparation of Other Biological Products
Chapter 8. Production of Biodegradable Packages Using Citrus Peel
- 1. Technological Process
- 2. Key Operating Points
Chapter 9. Processing Equipment for Citrus Peel By-products
- 1. Drying Machines and Equipment
- 2. Recycling Equipment for Aromatic Substances in Citrus Juice
- 3. Typical Citrus Processing and Production Line
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2016
- 6th July 2016
- Academic Press
- Paperback ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
Yang Shan, professor, doctoral tutor of Central South University and Hunan University, Vice-president of Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, national "ten thousand project" science and technology innovation talent, Director of State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Citrus Comprehensive Utilization, Director of Citrus Processing Industry Technology Innovation Strategic Alliance, Director of Key Lab of Agro-product Safety Risk Evaluation (Changsha),
Ministry of Agriculture. The author has been engaged in the citrus processing research for decades; he has invented plenty of patented technologies and obtained remarkable achievements in the field of citrus processing. One prominent achievement is the invention of method to remove the peel and sac coating of citrus fruits by using enzymatic hydrolysis, which contributes to dramatically improving the quality of Chinese canned citrus.
Professor and Vice-president, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China
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