Comprehensive Renewable Energy

Comprehensive Renewable Energy

1st Edition - April 12, 2012
There is a Newer Edition Available
  • Editor-in-Chief: Trevor Letcher
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080878720

Purchase options

Purchase options
Delivery may take up to 10 days
Sales tax will be calculated at check-out

Institutional Subscription

Free Global Shipping
No minimum order

Description

Comprehensive Renewable Energy, Eight Volume Set, winner of a 2012 PROSE Award for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the only work of its type at a time when renewable energy sources are seen increasingly as realistic alternatives to fossil fuels. As the majority of information published for the target audience is currently available via a wide range of journals, seeking relevant information (be that experimental, theoretical, and computational aspects of either a fundamental or applied nature) can be a time-consuming and complicated process. Comprehensive Renewable Energy, Eight Volume Set, is arranged according to the most important themes in the field (photovoltaic technology; wind energy technology; fuel cells and hydrogen technology; biomass and biofuels production; hydropower applications; solar thermal systems: components and applications; geothermal energy; ocean energy), and as such users can feel confident that they will find all the relevant information in one place, with helpful cross-referencing between and within all the subject areas, to broaden their understanding and deepen their knowledge. It is an invaluable resource for teaching as well as in research. Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect and in print.

Key Features

  • Editor-in Chief, Professor Ali Sayigh (Director General of WREN (World Renewable Energy Network) and Congress Chairman of WREC (World Renewable Energy Congress, UK) has assembled an impressive, world-class team of Volume Editors and Contributing Authors. Each chapter has been painstakingly reviewed and checked for consistent high quality. The result is an authoritative overview which ties the literature together and provides the user with a reliable background information and citation resource.
  • The field of renewable energy counts several journals that are directly and indirectly concerned with the field. There is no reference work that encompasses the entire field and unites the different areas of research through deep foundational reviews. Comprehensive Renewable Energy fills this vacuum, and can be considered the definitive work for this subject area. It will help users apply context to the diverse journal literature offering and aid them in identifying areas for further research.
  • Research into renewable energy is spread across a number of different disciplines and subject areas. These areas do not always share a unique identifying factor or subject themselves to clear and concise definitions. This work unites the different areas of research and allows users, regardless of their background, to navigate through the most essential concepts with ease, saving them time and vastly improving their understanding.
  • There are more than 1000 references from books, journals and the internet within the eight volumes. It is full of color charts, illustrations and photographs of real projects and research results from around the world.
  • The only reference work available that encompasses the entire field of renewable energy and unites the different areas of research through deep foundational reviews.
  • Allows readers, regardless of their background, to navigate through the most essential concepts with ease, saving them time and vastly improving their understanding

Readership

Undergraduates, postgraduates, researchers, faculty, government and corporate employees working in materials and energy sciences

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief

    Editor-in-Chief Biography

    Volume Editors

    Volume Editors Biography

    Preface

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Volume 1. Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    Renewable Energy

    1.01. Renewable Energy Policy and Incentives

    1.01.1. Types of Mechanism and Their Use

    1.01.2. Impact on Deployment

    1.01.3. Ensuring Investor Certainty

    1.01.4. Potential for Harmonizing Support Schemes

    1.01.5. Conclusion

    Photovoltaic Solar Energy

    1.02. Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology

    1.02.1. Introduction

    1.02.2. Guide to the Reader

    1.02.3. Conclusion

    References

    Glossary

    1.03. Solar Photovoltaics Technology

    1.03.1. A Look at Policies, Progress, and Prognosis

    1.03.2. A Glimpse at the Industry, the World, and the Markets

    1.03.3. The Technologies

    1.03.4. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    1.04. History of Photovoltaics

    1.04.1. Harnessing Solar Energy – A New Invention?

    1.04.2. What Was the Catalyst for Photovoltaic Development?

    1.04.3. A Photovoltaic Modern Historical Timeline

    1.04.4. Current Photovoltaic Technologies

    1.04.5. Photovoltaics – Where We Are Now?

    References

    Economics and Environment

    1.05. Historical and Future Cost Dynamics of Photovoltaic Technology

    1.05.1. Introduction: Observed Reductions in the Cost of Photovoltaics

    1.05.2. What Caused the 700× Reduction in the Cost of PV?

    1.05.3. Using Learning Curves to Predict Costs

    1.05.4. Nonincremental Cost-Reducing Developments

    1.05.5. Modeling Nonincremental Changes in PV

    1.05.6. Future Progress and Development

    References

    1.06. Feed-In Tariffs and Other Support Mechanisms for Solar PV Promotion

    1.06.1. Introduction

    1.06.2. Overview of Support Mechanisms for Renewable Electricity

    1.06.3. Singapore

    1.06.4. United States

    1.06.5. European Union (Germany and Spain)

    1.06.6. Common Features of Best Practice Promotion Schemes

    1.06.7. Conclusion and Outlook

    References

    1.07. Finance Mechanisms and Incentives for Photovoltaic Technologies in Developing Countries

    1.07.1. Background: Photovoltaics, Rural Electrification, and Millennium Development Goals

    1.07.2. PV in Developing Countries: Current Situation

    1.07.3. Current Costs of PV in Developing Countries

    1.07.4. Ownership, Organization, and Local Participation

    1.07.5. Financing Channels for PV in Rural Renewable Energy

    1.07.6. PV Tariff Setting and Incentives for Rural Electrification

    1.07.7. Finance Instruments to Promote PV Systems in Rural Areas in Developing Countries

    1.07.8. Innovative Financing Mechanisms for Rural Renewable Energy

    1.07.9. Financial Risk Management

    1.07.10. Conclusions

    References

    1.08. Environmental Impacts of Photovoltaic Life Cycles

    1.08.1. Introduction

    1.08.2. Background

    1.08.3. Life Cycle of Photovoltaics

    1.08.4. Life-Cycle Inventory

    1.08.5. Energy Payback Times and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    1.08.6. Criteria Pollutant and Heavy Metal Emissions

    1.08.7. Life-Cycle Risk Analysis

    1.08.8. Conclusion

    References

    1.09. Overview of the Global PV Industry

    1.09.1. Introduction

    1.09.2. Development of the Photovoltaic Industry

    1.09.3. The Photovoltaic Industry in 2010

    1.09.4. Outlook

    References

    Glossary

    1.10. Vision for Photovoltaics in the Future

    1.10.1. Photovoltaics Today

    1.10.2. Future Market Development

    1.10.3. The EPIA Vision for 2050

    1.10.4. Future Changes in Electricity Systems

    1.10.5. Future Market Segmentation

    1.10.6. Future Share of On-Grid/Off-Grid Applications

    1.10.7. Future Technological Trends

    1.10.8. Recommendations

    1.10.9. Conclusion

    References

    1.11. Storage Options for Photovoltaics

    1.11.1. Introduction

    1.11.2. Grid Flexibility and Reliability

    1.11.3. Energy Storage and Conventional Power Systems

    1.11.4. Solar Electricity and Energy Storage

    1.11.5. Energy Storage Technologies

    1.11.6. Power Quality Storage Technologies

    1.11.7. Bridging Power Storage Technologies: Batteries

    1.11.8. Energy Management Storage Technologies

    1.11.9. Conclusions

    References

    Resource and Potential

    1.12. Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    1.12.1. Introduction

    1.12.2. Fundamentals of Solar Radiation

    1.12.3. Fuel for Solar Energy Collectors

    1.12.4. Measuring Solar Radiation

    1.12.5. Modeling Solar Radiation

    1.12.6. Converting Solar Radiation Data to Application-Specific Data

    1.12.7. Measured and Model Data Set Properties

    1.12.8. Model Estimate Uncertainties

    1.12.9. Developing Solar Radiation Resource Databases

    1.12.10. Applications: Calculating Solar Radiation for Flat-Plate and Concentrating Collectors

    1.12.11. Future Directions

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    1.13. Prediction of Solar Irradiance and Photovoltaic Power

    1.13.1. Introduction

    1.13.2. Applications of Irradiance and PV Power Forecasts

    1.13.3. Models for the Prediction of Solar Irradiance and PV Power

    1.13.4. Concepts for Evaluation of Irradiance and Power Forecasts

    1.13.5. Evaluation and Comparison of Different Approaches for Irradiance Forecasting

    1.13.6. Example of a Regional PV Power Prediction System

    1.13.7. Summary and Outlook

    References

    Glossary

    Basics

    1.14. Principles of Solar Energy Conversion

    1.14.1. Introduction

    1.14.2. The PV Effect

    1.14.3. Solar Cells in Circuits

    1.14.4. Solar Resource

    1.14.5. Absorption Profile of a Solar Cell

    1.14.6. Semiconductors

    1.14.7. Generation and Recombination

    1.14.8. Thermal Energy into Chemical Energy

    1.14.9. Generalized Planck

    1.14.10. Detailed Balance

    1.14.11. Intrinsic Loss Mechanisms in Solar Cells

    1.14.12. Exceeding the Shockley–Queisser Limiting Efficiency

    1.14.13. Summary

    References

    Glossary

    1.15. Thermodynamics of Photovoltaics

    1.15.1. Introduction

    1.15.2. Thermodynamics of Thermal Radiation

    1.15.3. Concentration of Solar Radiation

    1.15.4. Upper Bounds for Thermal Radiation Energy Conversion

    1.15.5. Models of Monogap Solar PV Converters

    1.15.6. Models of Omnicolor Solar Converters

    1.15.7. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Technology

    1.16. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    1.16.1. General Introduction

    1.16.2. Current Status of Silicon Solar Cell Technology

    1.16.3. Influence of Basic Parameters

    1.16.4. Strategies for Improvement

    1.16.5. High-Efficiency Cell Structures on p-type Silicon

    1.16.6. High-Efficiency Structures on n-type Silicon

    1.16.7. Conclusion

    References

    1.17. Thin-Film Silicon PV Technology

    1.17.1. Introduction

    1.17.2. Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cell Structures

    1.17.3. Challenges of Thin-Film Si PV Technology

    1.17.4. Fabrication of Thin-Film Si Modules

    1.17.5. Applications

    1.17.6. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    1.18. Chalcopyrite Thin-Film Materials and Solar Cells

    1.18.1. Introduction

    1.18.2. Material Properties

    1.18.3. Deposition Methods

    1.18.4. Device Structure

    1.18.5. Device Properties

    1.18.6. Outlook

    References

    1.19. Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film

    1.19.1. Introduction

    1.19.2. Brief History of CdTe PV Devices

    1.19.3. Attempts Toward Initial Commercial Modules

    1.19.4. Review of Present Commercial Industry/Device Designs

    1.19.5. General CdTe Material Properties

    1.19.6. Layer-Specific Process Description for Superstrate CdTe Devices

    1.19.7. Where Is the Junction?

    1.19.8. Considerations for Large-Scale Deployment

    1.19.9. Conclusion

    References

    1.20. Plastic Solar Cells

    1.20.1. Introduction

    1.20.2. Fundamentals

    1.20.3. Materials for OSCs

    1.20.4. Driving Efficiency

    1.20.5. Stability of OSCs

    1.20.6. Production Methods

    1.20.7. Summary and Outlook

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    1.21. Mesoporous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    1.21.1. Introduction

    1.21.2. Mesoporous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    1.21.3. Future Outlook

    References

    1.22. Multiple Junction Solar Cells

    1.22.1. Introduction

    1.22.2. Key Issues for Realizing High-Efficiency MJ Solar Cells

    1.22.3. High-Efficiency InGaP/GaAs/Ge 3-Junction Solar Cells and their Space Applications

    1.22.4. Low-Cost Potential of Concentrator MJ Solar Cell Modules and High-Efficiency Concentrator InGaP/GaAs/Ge 3-Junction Solar Cell Modules and Terrestrial Applications

    1.22.5. Most Recent Results of MJ Cells

    1.22.6. Future Directions

    References

    1.23. Application of Micro- and Nanotechnology in Photovoltaics

    1.23.1. Introduction

    1.23.2. Application of Micro and Nanotechnologies to Conventional PV

    1.23.3. Nanoarchitectures

    1.23.4. Quantum Structures

    1.23.5. Outlook

    1.23.6. Conclusions

    References

    1.24. Upconversion

    1.24.1. Introduction

    1.24.2. Single Threshold Solar Cells

    1.24.3. Upconversion-Assisted Solar Cells: Equivalent Circuits

    1.24.4. Solar Concentration

    1.24.5. Definition of Upconversion Efficiency

    1.24.6. Practical Implementation

    1.24.7. Prospects

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    1.25. Downconversion

    1.25.1. Introduction

    1.25.2. Equivalent Circuits

    1.25.3. Practical Applications

    1.25.4. Prospects

    References

    Glossary

    1.26. Down-Shifting of the Incident Light for Photovoltaic Applications

    1.26.1. Introduction

    1.26.2. The Down-Shifting Concept

    1.26.3. Luminescent Down-Shifters Applied for Solar Cells

    1.26.4. Simulation Approach – Modeling of the Spectral Response

    1.26.5. Rare Earth-Based Down-Shifting Layers

    1.26.6. Quantum Dots-Based Down-Shifting Layers

    1.26.7. Organic Dyes-Based Down-Shifting Layers

    1.26.8. Commercial Applications and Patents

    1.26.9. Conclusions

    References

    1.27. Luminescent Solar Concentrator

    1.27.1. Introduction

    1.27.2. Theory of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    1.27.3. Materials for Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    1.27.4. Luminescent Solar Concentrator System Designs and Achieved Results

    1.27.5. The Future Development of Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    1.27.6. Conclusion

    References

    1.28. Thermophotovoltaics

    1.28.1. Introduction

    1.28.2. Thermophotovoltaic System

    1.28.3. TPV Cells

    1.28.4. TPV Concepts

    1.28.5. TPV Systems

    1.28.6. TPV Market Potential

    1.28.7. Summary and Outlook

    References

    Glossary

    1.29. Intermediate Band Solar Cells

    1.29.1. Introduction

    1.29.2. Theoretical Model of the Intermediate Band Solar Cell

    1.29.3. The Impurity-Based Approach or ‘Bulk IBSC’

    1.29.4. The QD-IBSC

    1.29.5. Summary

    References

    1.30. Plasmonics for Photovoltaics

    1.30.1. Introduction

    1.30.2. Background

    1.30.3. Surface Plasmons

    1.30.4. Nanoparticle Fabrication

    1.30.5. Applications of Plasmonics in PV

    1.30.6. Potential of Plasmonics for Third-Generation Solar Cells

    1.30.7. Future Outlook

    1.30.8. Conclusion

    References

    Glossary

    1.31. Artificial Leaves

    1.31.1. The Design of Natural Photosynthesis

    1.31.2. Design Principles of Natural Photosynthesis

    1.31.3. The Design of an Artificial Leaf

    1.31.4. Outlook: The Construction of a Fuel-Producing Solar Cell

    References

    Further reading

    Glossary

    Applications

    1.32. Design and Components of Photovoltaic Systems

    1.32.1. Introduction

    1.32.2. PV Cells and Modules

    1.32.3. Balance of System

    1.32.4. PV System Design

    1.32.5. Conclusions

    References

    1.33. BIPV in Architecture and Urban Planning

    1.33.1. Introduction

    1.33.2. Photovoltaics in the Urban Planning Process

    1.33.3. Steps in the Design Process with BIPV

    1.33.4. BIPV in Architecture

    1.33.5. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Further Reading

    1.34. Product-Integrated Photovoltaics

    1.34.1. Introduction

    1.34.2. Overview of Existing PIPV

    1.34.3. Designing Products with Integrated PV

    1.34.4. Technical Aspects of PIPV

    1.34.5. System Design and Energy Balance

    1.34.6. Costs of PIPV

    1.34.7. Environmental Aspects of PIPV

    1.34.8. Human Factors of PIPV

    1.34.9. Design and Manufacturing of PIPV

    1.34.10. Outlook on PIPV and Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    1.35. Very Large-Scale Photovoltaic Systems

    1.35.1. What is Very Large-Scale Photovoltaic System?

    1.35.2. Evaluation of the VLS-PV from Various Aspects

    1.35.3. Progress in VLS-PV

    1.35.4. Future for the VLS-PV

    1.35.5. Conclusion

    References

    1.36. Concentration Photovoltaics

    1.36.1. Introduction

    1.36.2. Historical Review

    1.36.3. Standardization of CPV Systems and Components

    1.36.4. ISFOC CPV Demonstration Power Plants

    1.36.5. CPV Characterization and Rating

    1.36.6. Production Results

    1.36.7. Outlook

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    1.37. Solar Power Satellites

    1.37.1. Background and Historical Development

    1.37.2. Power-Beaming Fundamentals

    1.37.3. Why Put Solar in Space?

    1.37.4. Is Geosynchronous the Right Orbit?

    1.37.5. The Economic Case

    1.37.6. Beaming Power to Space: A First Step to SPS?

    1.37.7. Summary Points to Ponder

    References

    1.38. Performance Monitoring

    1.38.1. Introduction

    1.38.2. Defining Photovoltaic Performance

    1.38.3. Module Energy Prediction

    1.38.4. PV Systems – Performance Prediction

    1.38.5. PV Module Performance Monitoring in Practice

    1.38.6. PV System Performance Monitoring in Practice

    1.38.7. Summary

    References

    Glossary

    1.39. Standards in Photovoltaic Technology

    1.39.1. History

    1.39.2. Standards for Performance Determination of PV Devices

    1.39.3. Reliability Testing of PV Modules

    1.39.4. Energy Performance and Energy Rating

    1.39.5. Concentrating PV Standards

    1.39.6. Outlook

    1.39.7. Conclusion

    Appendix

    References

    Volume 2. Wind Energy

    2.01. Wind Energy – Introduction

    2.01.1. Introduction

    2.01.2. Pros and Cons of Wind Energy

    2.01.3. Brief Content Presentation

    2.01.4. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.02. Wind Energy Contribution in the Planet Energy Balance and Future Prospects

    2.02.1. Introduction

    2.02.2. Energy Consumption around the Planet

    2.02.3. Electrical Power and Electrical Generation

    2.02.4. Fossil Fuel Status of Our Planet

    2.02.5. The Role of RES and Fossil Fuels in the Energy Future of Our Planet

    2.02.6. Wind Power Status in the World Market

    2.02.7. Time Evolution of the Major Wind Power Markets

    2.02.8. Forecasting the Wind Power Time Evolution

    2.02.9. The Future and Prospects of Wind Energy

    2.02.10. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.03. History of Wind Power

    2.03.1. Sails

    2.03.2. Early Wind Devices and Applications

    2.03.3. Persian Vertical Axis Designs

    2.03.4. The Introduction of Windmills into Europe

    2.03.5. Horizontal Axis Machines

    2.03.6. Post and Tower Mills

    2.03.7. Technological Developments

    2.03.8. Theory and Experiment: The Early Science

    2.03.9. The End of Windmills

    2.03.10. The American Wind Pump

    2.03.11. Electrical Power from the Wind

    2.03.12. Large Machines

    2.03.13. The Smith-Putnam Machine

    2.03.14. Postwar Programs

    2.03.15. The Mother of All Modern Wind Turbines

    2.03.16. Ulrich Hütter

    2.03.17. The Battle of the Blades: Two versus Three

    2.03.18. Large Two-Bladed Wind Turbines

    2.03.19. The California Wind Rush

    2.03.20. Other Manufacturers

    2.03.21. Large Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    2.03.22. Organizations: BWEA, EWEA, and IEA

    Further Reading

    2.04. Wind Energy Potential

    2.04.1. Introduction

    2.04.2. Wind Characteristics

    2.04.3. Wind Measurements

    2.04.4. Analysis of Wind Regimes

    2.04.5. Dynamic Study of Wind Speed

    2.04.6. Wind Energy

    2.04.7. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    2.05. Wind Turbines

    2.05.1. Introduction

    2.05.2. Evolution of Modern Wind Turbines

    2.05.3. Basic Principles

    2.05.4. Classifications of Wind Turbines

    2.05.5. Rotor Performance Curves

    References

    Further Reading

    2.06. Energy Yield of Contemporary Wind Turbines

    2.06.1. From Wind Power to Useful Wind Energy

    2.06.2. Wind Potential Evaluation for Energy Generation Purposes

    2.06.3. Power Curves of Contemporary Wind Turbines

    2.06.4. Estimating the Energy Production of a Wind Turbine

    2.06.5. Parameters Affecting the Power Output of a Wind Turbine

    2.06.6. The Impact of Technical Availability on Wind Turbine Energy Output

    2.06.7. Selecting the Most Appropriate Wind Turbine

    2.06.8. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.07. Wind Parks Design, Including Representative Case Studies

    2.07.1. Introduction

    2.07.2. The Selection of the Wind Park’s Installation Site

    2.07.3. The Wind Potential Evaluation

    2.07.4. The Selection of the Wind Turbine Model

    2.07.5. The Micro-Siting of a Wind Park

    2.07.6. The Calculation of the Annual Electricity Production

    2.07.7. Social Approval of the Wind Park

    2.07.8. The Wind Park Integration in Local Networks

    2.07.9. Economic Analysis

    2.07.10. Presentation of Characteristic Case Studies

    2.07.11. Epilog

    References

    Further Reading

    2.08. Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbines

    2.08.1. Introduction

    2.08.2. Momentum Theory

    2.08.3. Advanced Aerodynamic Modeling

    2.08.4. CFD Computations of Wind Turbine Rotors

    2.08.5. CFD in Wake Computations

    2.08.6. Rotor Optimization Using BEM Technique

    2.08.7. Noise from Wind Turbines

    References

    Further Reading

    2.09. Mechanical-Dynamic Loads

    2.09.1. Introduction

    2.09.2. Dynamic Analyses

    2.09.3. Load Cases

    2.09.4. Loads

    2.09.5. Case Studies: Examples of Load Modeling in the Integrated Analyses

    2.09.6. Conclusions

    Appendix A: Environmental Conditions

    Appendix B: Wind Theory

    Appendix C: Wave Theory

    References

    Glossary

    2.10. Electrical Parts of Wind Turbines

    2.10.1. Introduction

    2.10.2. Power Control

    2.10.3. Electricity Production

    2.10.4. Lightning Protection

    2.10.5. Small Wind Turbines

    2.10.6. Outlook

    2.10.7. Wind Turbine Industry

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.11. Wind Turbine Control Systems and Power Electronics

    2.11.1. Control Objectives

    2.11.2. Wind Turbine Modeling

    2.11.3. Control

    2.11.4. Fault Accommodation

    2.11.5. Hardware

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.12. Testing, Standardization, Certification in Wind Energy

    2.12.1. Introduction

    2.12.2. Standards with Design Requirements for Wind Turbines

    2.12.3. Testing Methods for Wind Turbines and Wind Plants

    2.12.4. Certification in the Wind Industry

    2.12.5. Conclusions

    References

    IEC Standards (to be purchased via IEC or the National Standardization Institutes)

    Relevant Websites

    2.13. Design and Implementation of a Wind Power Project

    2.13.1. Introduction

    2.13.2. Project Management

    2.13.3. Finding Good Wind Sites

    2.13.4. Feasibility Study

    2.13.5. Project Development

    2.13.6. Micro-Siting

    2.13.7. Estimation of Power Production

    2.13.8. Planning Tools

    2.13.9. Choice of Wind Turbines

    2.13.10. Economics of Wind Power Plants

    2.13.11. Documentation

    2.13.12. Building a Wind Power Plant

    2.13.13. Operation

    2.13.14. Business Models

    2.13.15. Summary and Conclusion

    References

    Further Reading

    2.14. Offshore Wind Power Basics

    2.14.1. Introduction

    2.14.2. Offshore Wind Energy Status

    2.14.3. Offshore Wind Farms – Basic Features

    2.14.4. Offshore Wind Farm Design, Installation, and Maintenance

    2.14.5. Offshore Wind Energy Economic Considerations

    2.14.6. Environmental and Social Issues

    2.14.7. Future Trends and Prospects

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.15. Wind Energy Economics

    2.15.1. Introduction

    2.15.2. Basic Financial Issues

    2.15.3. Cost and Performance Issues

    2.15.4. Onshore Wind

    2.15.5. Analysis of Offshore Costs

    2.15.6. Electricity-Generating Costs

    2.15.7. External Costs

    2.15.8. Variability Costs

    2.15.9. Total Cost Estimates

    2.15.10. Future Price Trends

    2.15.11. Conclusions

    References

    2.16. Environmental-Social Benefits/Impacts of Wind Power

    2.16.1. Introduction – Scope and Objectives

    2.16.2. Main Environmental Benefits of Wind Power

    2.16.3. Main Social Benefits of Wind Power

    2.16.4. Environmental Behavior of Wind Energy

    2.16.5. Methods and Tools for Environmental Impact Assessment

    2.16.6. Noise Impact

    2.16.7. Wind Turbines’ Visual Impact and Aesthetics

    2.16.8. Impacts in Fauna and Flora and Microclimate

    2.16.9. Other Environmental Impacts

    2.16.10. Offshore Environmental Impacts

    2.16.11. Mitigation Measures – Conclusions

    2.16.12. Social Acceptability of Wind Power Projects

    2.16.13. The Public Attitude Toward Offshore Wind Parks

    2.16.14. Future Trends in Wind Parks’ Social and Environmental Impacts Assessment

    2.16.15. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    2.17. Wind Energy Policy

    2.17.1. Introduction

    2.17.2. Energy and the Economy

    2.17.3. Fossil Fuel and Nuclear Options for Reducing CO2 Emissions

    2.17.4. Renewable Alternatives to Fossil Fuels

    2.17.5. The Economics of Wind Energy in Electricity Generation

    2.17.6. Discussion

    References

    Further Reading

    2.18. Wind Power Integration

    2.18.1. Introduction

    2.18.2. Overview of Conventional Electrical Power Systems

    2.18.3. The Distinctive Characteristics of Wind Energy

    2.18.4. Wind Power and Power System Interaction

    2.18.5. Planning and Operation of Wind Power Electrical Systems

    2.18.6. Integration of Wind Energy into MGs

    2.18.7. Questions Related to the Extra Costs of Wind Power Integration

    2.18.8. Requirements for Wind Energy Integration into Electrical Networks

    2.18.9. Wind Power Forecasting

    2.18.10. Future Trends

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    2.19. Stand-Alone, Hybrid Systems

    2.19.1. Introduction

    2.19.2. Historical Development of Wind Stand-Alone Energy Systems

    2.19.3. Contribution of Wind in Stand-Alone Energy Systems

    2.19.4. System Configuration

    2.19.5. Stand-Alone Hybrid Systems Configurations

    2.19.6. Energy Storage in Wind Stand-Alone Energy Systems

    2.19.7. Design, Simulation, and Evaluation Software Tools for Wind-Based Hybrid Energy Systems

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    2.20. Wind Power Industry and Markets

    2.20.1. Global Market Development

    2.20.2. Trends in the Development of Wind Turbines

    2.20.3. Main Drivers behind the Wind Power Development

    2.20.4. Market Development in Europe

    2.20.5. Development of Wind Power in North America

    2.20.6. Wind Power Development in Asia

    2.20.7. Offshore Wind Power Development

    2.20.8. Wind Turbine Manufacturers

    References

    2.21. Trends, Prospects, and R&D Directions in Wind Turbine Technology

    2.21.1. Brief Description of Wind Power Time Evolution

    2.21.2. The Current Wind Turbine Concept

    2.21.3. Size Evolution of Wind Turbines

    2.21.4. Pitch versus Stall and Active-Stall Wind Turbines

    2.21.5. Direct-Drive versus Gearbox

    2.21.6. Blade Design and Construction

    2.21.7. Innovative Concepts

    2.21.8. Environmental Impact Reduction

    2.21.9. Offshore Wind Parks

    2.21.10. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbines

    2.21.11. Small Wind Turbines

    2.21.12. Building-Integrated Wind Turbines

    2.21.13. Wind Energy Cost Time Evolution

    2.21.14. Research in the Wind Energy Sector

    2.21.15. Wind Energy Technological Problems and R&D Directions

    2.21.16. Financial Support of Wind Energy Research Efforts

    2.21.17. Conclusions

    Appendix A Wind Energy Projects Funded by FP5 (1998–2002)

    Appendix B Wind Energy Projects Funded by FP6 (2002–06)

    Appendix C Wind Energy Projects Funded by FP7 (Since 2007)

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    2.22. Special Wind Power Applications

    2.22.1. Introduction – The Water Demand Problem

    2.22.2. Desalination Processes and Plants

    2.22.3. Energy Requirements of Desalination Processes

    2.22.4. Integrated Systems of RES with Desalination Plants

    2.22.5. RO–Wind Desalination

    2.22.6. Wind–RO Configuration Possibilities

    2.22.7. Implementation of Projects

    2.22.8. Implementation of Projects with Hybrid Energy Systems

    2.22.9. Economic Considerations in RES-Based Desalination

    2.22.10. Examples of Wind-Based Desalination Applications – Case Studies

    2.22.11. Technological Developments and Future Trends in Hybrid Desalination Systems

    2.22.12. Telecommunication Stations

    2.22.13. The Wind Power-Based T/C Station

    2.22.14. Applications of Wind Energy in T/C Stations

    2.22.15. Wind Water Pumping Systems

    2.22.16. Water Pumping System Applications

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Volume 3. Solar Thermal Systems: Components and Applications

    Solar Thermal Systems

    3.01. Solar Thermal Systems

    3.01.1. The Sun

    3.01.2. Energy-Related Environmental Problems

    3.01.3. Environmental Characteristics of Solar Energy

    3.01.4. Solar Radiation

    3.01.5. The Solar Resource

    References

    Glossary

    3.02. The Solar Resource

    3.02.1. Introduction

    3.02.2. Sun–Earth Astronomical Relations

    3.02.3. Solar Constant

    3.02.4. Solar Spectrum

    3.02.6. Models of Broadband Solar Radiation on Horizontal and Tilted Surfaces

    3.02.7. Evaluation of Models

    3.02.8. Models of Solar Spectral Radiation

    3.02.9. Net Solar Radiation

    3.02.10. Networks of Solar Radiation Stations – Solar Atlases

    3.02.11. Utility Tools for Solar Radiation Calculations

    3.02.12. Instruments for Measuring Solar Radiation

    Appendix A: Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation

    Appendix B: Radiometric Terminology

    Appendix C: The Sun as a Blackbody

    Appendix D: Physical Constants and Conversion Factors

    References

    Glossary

    3.03. History of Solar Energy

    3.03.1. Introduction

    3.03.2. The Early Times

    3.03.3. The Middle Ages

    3.03.4. The Twentieth Century

    3.03.5. The First Scientific Solar Energy Meetings

    3.03.6. Evacuated-Tube Collectors

    3.03.7. Heat Pipes

    3.03.8. Desalination with Solar Energy

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Components

    3.04. Low Temperature Stationary Collectors

    3.04.1. Introduction

    3.04.2. Optical Analysis

    3.04.3. Thermal Analysis

    3.04.4. Collector Performance Determination

    References

    3.05. Low Concentration Ratio Solar Collectors

    3.05.1. Introduction

    3.05.2. Flat-Plate Collectors with Diffuse Reflectors

    3.05.3. Reverse Flat-Plate Collectors

    3.05.4. Compound Parabolic Collectors (CPC)

    3.05.5. Concentrating Evacuated Tube Collectors

    3.05.6. Integrated Collector Storage Systems

    References

    Glossary

    3.06. High Concentration Solar Collectors

    3.06.1. Introduction

    3.06.2. General Considerations of High-Concentration Solar Collectors

    3.06.3. Parabolic Trough Collectors

    3.06.4. Central Receiver Systems

    3.06.5. Linear Fresnel Collectors

    3.06.6. Solar Dish

    3.06.7. Criteria for the Choice of Technology

    References

    3.07. Thermal Energy Storage

    3.07.1. Introduction

    3.07.2. Methods for TES

    3.07.3. Economics of TES

    3.07.4. Case Studies

    References

    Glossary

    3.08. Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Collectors

    3.08.1. Introduction

    3.08.2. Aspects of PV/T Collectors

    3.08.3. PV/T Collector Performance

    3.08.4. Application of PV/T Collectors

    3.08.5. Epilog

    References

    3.09. Solar Selective Coatings

    3.09.1. Introduction

    3.09.2. Classes of Selective Absorbers

    3.09.3. Characterization of Selective Surfaces

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    3.10. Glazings and Coatings

    3.10.1. Introduction

    3.10.2. Thermal and Optical Properties of Glazing and Coatings

    3.10.3. Low-Emittance Coatings

    3.10.4. Glass and Windows

    3.10.5. Evacuated Glazing

    3.10.6. Transparent Insulation

    3.10.7. Chromogenic Materials and Devices

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    3.11. Modeling and Simulation of Passive and Active Solar Thermal Systems

    3.11.1. Introduction

    3.11.2. Passive Solar Design Techniques and Systems

    3.11.3. PV/T Systems and Building-Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal (BIPV/T) Systems

    3.11.4. Near-Optimal Design of Low-Energy Solar Homes

    3.11.5. Active Solar Systems

    3.11.6. The f-Chart Method

    3.11.7. Utilizability Method

    3.11.8. The ¯Φ, f-Chart Method

    3.11.9. Modeling and Simulation of Solar Energy Systems

    3.11.10. Limitations of Simulations

    References

    Applications

    3.12. Solar Hot Water Heating Systems

    3.12.1. Toward a Sustainable Energy System

    3.12.2. Technologies for Solar Hot Water Systems

    3.12.3. Design Principles of Solar Thermal Systems

    3.12.4. Summary and Conclusion

    References

    3.13. Solar Space Heating and Cooling Systems

    3.13.1. Active Systems

    3.13.2. Space Heating and Service Hot Water

    3.13.3. Solar Cooling

    3.13.4. Heat Storage Systems

    3.13.5. Module and Array Design

    3.13.6. Differential Temperature Controller

    References

    3.14. Solar Cooling and Refrigeration Systems

    3.14.1. Introduction

    3.14.2. Solar-Powered Cooling

    3.14.3. Need for Solar-Powered Cooling

    3.14.4. Solar-Powered Cooling Technologies

    3.14.5. Relative Comparison of Solar Cooling Technologies

    3.14.6. Application of Solar Cooling System

    3.14.7. Integration with Solar Hot Water and Solar Tthermal Systems for Cost-Effectiveness

    5.14.8. Conclusions

    References

    3.15. Solar-Assisted Heat Pumps

    3.15.1. Introduction to the Concept of Solar-Assisted Heat Pumps

    3.15.2. Heat Pump Fundamentals

    3.15.3. Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System

    3.15.4. Solar-Assisted Heat Pump System with Seasonal Storage

    References

    3.16. Solar Desalination

    3.16.1. Introduction

    3.16.2. Solar Thermal Desalination Systems

    3.16.3. Photovoltaics-Driven Desalination Systems

    3.16.4. Solar Stills

    3.16.5. Solar Humidification–Dehumidification

    3.16.6. Solar Membrane Distillation

    3.16.7. Technologies Selection Guidelines

    3.16.8. Solar Desalination Applications

    3.16.9. Lessons Learned

    3.16.10. Economics

    3.16.11. Market

    3.16.12. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    3.17. Industrial and Agricultural Applications of Solar Heat

    3.17.1. Introduction

    3.17.2. Characteristics of Industrial and Agricultural Energy Use

    3.17.3. Selection of Appropriate Solar Collector and Energy Storage Technologies

    3.17.4. System Component Layouts

    3.17.5. Solar Hot Water Industrial and Agricultural Process Heat System Design

    3.17.6. Solar Drying Technologies

    3.17.7. Solar Furnaces

    3.17.8. Greenhouses

    3.17.9. Heating and Ventilation of Industrial and Agricultural Buildings

    3.17.10. Solar Cooking

    3.17.11. Solar Desalination

    3.17.12. Solar Refrigeration

    References

    Glossary

    3.18. Concentrating Solar Power

    3.18.1. Introduction

    3.18.2. General Principles of Concentrating Systems

    3.18.3. Power Conversion Systems

    3.18.4. Cogeneration

    3.18.5. Examples

    3.18.6. Economical Aspects

    3.18.7. Environmental Aspects

    3.18.8. Future Potential

    References

    3.19. Passive Solar Architecture

    3.19.1. Introduction

    3.19.2. Role of Solar Architecture in Urban Buildings

    3.19.3. Control Systems for Solar Architecture

    3.19.4. Conclusion and Future Prospects

    References

    Glossary

    Volume 4. Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technology

    4.01. Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technology – Introduction

    4.01.1. Introduction

    4.01.2. Volume Introduction

    4.01.3. Introduction to Basic Electrochemistry

    4.01.4. Conclusions

    References

    4.02. Current Perspective on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    4.02.1. Space Applications of Hydrogen

    4.02.2. Space Applications of Fuel Cells

    4.02.3. Other Current Uses of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    References

    4.03. Hydrogen Economics and Policy

    4.03.1. Introduction

    4.03.2. The Hydrogen Energy Chain – Technological Characterizations and Economic Challenges

    4.03.3. Hydrogen within the Whole-Energy-System Context

    4.03.4. Developing Policies to Support Hydrogen

    4.03.5. Conclusion

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    4.04. Hydrogen Safety Engineering

    4.04.1. Introduction

    4.04.2. Hazards Related to Hydrogen Properties

    4.04.3. Regulations, Codes, and Standards and Hydrogen Safety Engineering

    4.04.4. Unignited Releases of Hydrogen

    4.04.5. Hydrogen Fires

    4.04.6. Pressure Effects of Hydrogen Unscheduled Releases

    4.04.7. Deflagrations and Detonations

    4.04.8. Safety Strategies and Accident Mitigation Techniques

    4.04.9. Future Progress and Development

    4.04.10. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    4.05. Hydrogen Storage

    4.05.1. Introduction

    4.05.2. Containment Vessels

    4.05.3. Theory and Principles of Design

    4.05.4. Codes and Standards and Best Practices

    References

    4.06. Hydrogen Storage

    4.06.1. Introduction

    4.06.2. Physical Hydrogen Storage

    4.06.3. Metal Hydrides

    4.06.4. Chemical Hydrides

    4.06.5. Complex Hydrides

    4.06.6. Pending Issues

    References

    4.07. Alkaline Fuel Cells

    4.07.1. Introduction

    4.07.2. General Principles and Fundamentals of Alkaline Cells

    4.07.3. Alkaline Fuel Cells Developed with Liquid Electrolytes

    4.07.4. Alkaline Fuel Cell Based on Anion Exchange Membranes

    4.07.5. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    4.08. PEM Fuel Cells

    4.08.1. Introduction

    4.08.2. Features of the PEMFC

    4.08.3. Electrodes and Catalysts

    4.08.4. Humidification and Water Management

    4.08.5. Pressurized versus Air-Breathing Stacks

    4.08.6. Operating Temperature and Stack Cooling

    4.08.7. Applications for Small-Scale Portable Power Generation Markets (500 W–5 kW)

    4.08.8. Applications for Stationary Power and Cogeneration

    4.08.9. Applications for Transport

    4.08.10. Hydrogen Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems and the Role of PEMFCs

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    4.09. Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells

    4.09.1. Introduction

    4.09.2. Carbonate Fuel Cell Chemistry and System Configuration

    4.09.3. Cell Stack and Power Plant Design

    4.09.4. Advantages of MCFC Power Plants

    4.09.5. Applications of MCFC Power Plants

    4.09.6. Future Advanced MCFC Applications

    4.09.7. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    4.10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    4.10.1. Introduction

    4.10.2. Conclusion

    References

    Glossary

    4.11. Biological and Microbial Fuel Cells

    4.11.1. Introduction

    4.11.2. Fuel Cells and Biological Fuel Cells

    4.11.3. Microbial Fuel Cells

    4.11.4. Conclusions

    References

    4.12. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Transport

    4.12.1. Introduction

    4.12.2. Choice of Fuel Cell Technology

    4.12.3. Hydrogen Production, Usage, and Infrastructure

    4.12.4. Hydrogen Vehicles

    4.12.5. Legislation

    4.12.6. Conclusions

    References

    4.13. H and Fuel Cells as Controlled Renewables

    4.13.1. Terrestrial Applications

    4.13.2. Traditional Inverter Safe Operating Area

    4.13.3. Enabling Poor Voltage Regulation Systems

    4.13.4. Analysis for 250 kW Grid-Connected Fuel Cell

    4.13.5. Experimental Study of a Two-Switch MS-VSI

    4.13.6. Summary

    4.13.7. Test Characterization of a H2 PEM Fuel Cell for Road Vehicle Applications

    4.13.8. Summary

    4.13.9. A H2 PEM Fuel Cell and High Energy Dense Battery Hybrid Energy Source for an Urban Electric Vehicle

    4.13.10. Summary

    Appendix I Model Data and Component Specifications

    Appendix II Zebra Equivalent Circuit Model

    Acknowledgments

    References

    4.14. Future Perspective on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

    4.14.1. Overview

    4.14.2. Why Hydrogen?

    4.14.3. Hydrogen for Transport

    4.14.4. Stationary Power

    4.14.5. The Efficiency Debate

    4.14.6. From Here to There

    4.14.7. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Volume 5. Biomass and Biofuel Production

    Biomass and Biofuels

    5.01. Biomass and Biofuels – Introduction

    5.01.1. Background

    5.01.2. Basic Technology

    5.01.3. Widespread Deployment of Biomass and Biofuels

    5.01.4. Issues, Constraints, and Limitations

    5.01.5. Technology Solutions – New Processes

    5.01.6. Technology Solutions – New Feedstocks

    5.01.7. Expanding the Envelope

    5.01.8. Recent Developments

    5.01.9. The Way Forward for Biomass and Biofuels

    References

    5.02. Historical Perspectives on Biofuels

    5.02.1. Introduction

    5.02.2. Early Engine Developments

    5.02.3. Ethanol

    5.02.4. Vegetable Oil-Based Fuels

    Conclusion

    References

    Case Studies

    5.03. Bioethanol Development in Brazil

    5.03.1. Background

    5.03.2. Continuing Industry Growth

    5.03.3. Social and Environmental Responsibility

    5.03.4. Looking to the Future

    References

    5.04. Biomass Power Generation

    5.04.1. Why Is There a Trend to Build Stand-Alone Biomass Power Plants?

    5.04.2. Is Biomass Power Generation Sustainable?

    5.04.3. Life-Cycle Analysis

    5.04.4. How Does Biomass Power Generation Pay?

    5.04.5. Legislation and Regulation

    5.04.6. What Technology Choices Are Available?

    5.04.7. Potential Biofuels

    5.04.8. Health and Safety

    5.04.9. Material Handling and Fuel Processing

    5.04.10. Combustion

    5.04.11. Environmental Impact

    5.04.12. Conclusions

    References

    5.05. Biomass Co-Firing

    5.05.1. Introduction

    5.05.2. Available Biomass Materials

    5.05.3. Combustion Technology

    5.05.4. Co-firing Methods

    5.05.5. Global Overview of Biomass Co-firing Plant

    5.05.6. Health and Safety Issues Associated with Co-firing

    5.05.7. Technical Issues regarding Biomass Co-firing

    5.05.8. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Issues, Constraints & Limitations

    5.06. A Global Bioenergy Market

    5.06.1. Bioenergy

    5.06.2. Biofuels, Biomass, and Bioenergy: Definitions

    5.06.3. Limitations

    5.06.4. Bioenergy Markets and Trade

    5.06.5. A Global Bioenergy Market? The Extent of Bioenergy Markets

    5.06.6. Barriers to Bioenergy Trade

    5.06.7. Discussion: The Future of Bioenergy Trade

    References

    5.07. Biomass CHP Energy Systems

    5.07.1. Introduction

    5.07.2. Biomass CHP Options

    5.07.3. Bioenergy System Aspects

    5.07.4. Biomass CHP Technology System Aspects

    5.07.5. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    5.08. Ethics of Biofuel Production

    5.08.1. Introduction

    5.08.2. A Model for Sustainability Management Systems

    5.08.3. RTFO

    5.08.4. RED

    5.08.5. ISCC

    5.08.6. RSB

    5.08.7. RSPO

    5.08.8. RTRS

    5.08.9. CEN Standard on Biomass for Transport Biofuels

    5.08.10. ISO Standard on Biomass for Energy

    5.08.11. Various Standards in the Retail Sector

    5.08.12. International Labor Laws

    5.08.13. Indirect Land Use Change

    5.08.14. Conclusions

    References

    5.09. Life Cycle Analysis Perspective on Greenhouse Gas Savings

    5.09.1. Biofuel Potential

    5.09.2. Life Cycle Assessment

    5.09.3. Net Energy Balances for Biofuels

    5.09.4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Results

    5.09.5. Land Use Change

    5.09.6. Direct Land Use Change

    5.09.7. Indirect Land Use Change

    5.09.8. Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions

    5.09.9. Sources of Processing Energy

    5.09.10. Coproducts

    5.09.11. Future Biofuel Technologies

    5.09.12. Conclusions and Recommendations

    References

    Glossary

    Technology Solutions - New processes

    5.10. Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis

    5.10.1. Introduction

    5.10.2. Historical Development

    5.10.3. Basic Gasification Technology

    5.10.4. Gasifier Designs

    5.10.5. Gasifier Feedstock Supply

    5.10.6. Gas Processing

    5.10.7. Overview of Gasification Technology Options

    5.10.8. Pyrolysis

    5.10.9. Case Studies

    5.10.10. Recent and Future Developments

    5.10.11. Further Reading

    References

    5.11. Biomass to Liquids Technology

    5.11.1. Introduction

    5.11.2. The BtL Process

    5.11.3. A Brief History of FT

    5.11.4. Steps in Biomass Conversion to Liquids via FT

    5.11.5. Alternative BtL Fuel Options

    5.11.6. Timescales and Development of BtL Processes

    5.11.7. BtL Implementation Progress

    5.11.8. Outline of BtL Economics

    5.11.9. Environmental Issues

    5.11.10. Summary and Outlook

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    5.12. Intensification of Biofuel Production

    5.12.1. Biodiesel

    5.12.2. Bioethanol

    References

    5.13. Biofuels from Waste Materials

    5.13.1. Introduction

    5.13.2. Biodiesel Production from WVO

    5.13.3. Summary: Biodiesel from Waste

    5.13.4. Bioethanol Production from LCWs

    5.13.5. Summary: Bioethanol from Waste

    References

    Glossary

    Technology Solutions - Novel Feedstocks

    5.14. Woody Biomass

    5.14.1. Introduction

    5.14.2. Novel Short-Rotation Woody Crops/Short-Rotation Forestry for Bioenergy Applications

    5.14.3. Forestland-Derived Resources

    5.14.4. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    5.15. Potential for Yield Improvement

    5.15.1. Introduction

    5.15.2. History of Oilseed Rape Production

    5.15.3. Yield Potential

    5.15.4. Genetic Constraint to Yield Improvement

    5.15.5. Crop Management Constraint to Yield Improvement

    5.15.6. Genetic Approaches

    5.15.7. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Technology Solutions - Novel End Uses

    5.16. Renewable Fuels

    5.16.1. Introduction

    5.16.2. Competing Transport Energy Carriers

    5.16.3. Alcohol as Fuels for ICEs

    5.16.4. The Biomass Limit and Beyond

    5.16.5. Technologies to Increase the Use of Alcohols in the Vehicle Fleet

    5.16.6. Sustainable Organic Fuels for Transport

    5.16.7. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    5.17. Use of Biofuels in a Range of Engine Configurations

    5.17.1. Introduction

    5.17.2. Biofuel Blends with Fossil Fuels for Transport Use

    5.17.3. Engine Modifications for Biofuel Operation

    5.17.4. Biofuels and Bio-Oils in Stationary Engines

    5.17.5. Dual Fuel Operation

    5.17.6. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    Expanding the Envelope

    5.18. Biochar

    5.18.1. Introduction

    5.18.2. Archaeology and Soil Fertility Beginnings

    5.18.3. A New Focus: Carbon Sequestration

    5.18.4. Biochar Sources

    5.18.5. Biochar Properties

    5.18.6. Promising Biochar Scenarios and Synergies

    5.18.7. Challenges to Applying Biochar

    5.18.8. Future Progress and Development

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    5.19. Extracting Additional Value from Biomass

    5.19.1. Introduction

    5.19.2. The Current Position

    5.19.3. Future Development – Background

    5.19.4. The Future: Extending the Envelope by Exploiting Higher Value Metabolites

    5.19.5. Conclusion

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    5.20. Biomass to Chemicals

    5.20.1. Introduction

    5.20.2. Biodiesel: Conversion of Glycerine Coproduct and Other Side Streams

    5.20.3. Fuels from Fermentation Processes: Use of Biomass Raw Material, Fuel Production Intermediates, and Coproducts for Chemical Production

    5.20.4. Use of Bio-Alcohols as Chemicals and Chemical Intermediates

    5.20.5. Biochar (Solid Biofuel): Chemicals from Pyrolysis Oil

    5.20.6. Conclusions and Future Prospects

    References

    Glossary

    5.21. Bioenergy Policy Development

    5.21.1. Introduction

    5.21.2. Bioenergy Policy Development

    5.21.3. Application of Environmental Policy Options to Bioenergy

    5.21.4. A Way Forward

    5.21.5. Conclusions

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Volume 6. Hydro Power

    Hydro Power

    6.01. Hydro Power – Introduction

    6.01.1. Introduction

    6.01.2. Hydroelectricity Progress and Development

    6.01.3. Volume Presentation

    References

    Glossary

    Constraints of Hydropower Development

    6.02. Hydro Power

    6.02.1. Introduction

    6.02.2. How Hydropower Works

    6.02.3. History of Hydropower

    6.02.4. Hydropower Development in a Multipurpose Setting

    6.02.5. Negative Attributes of Hydropower Project

    6.02.6. Renewable Electricity Production

    6.02.7. Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    6.03. Management of Hydropower Impacts through Construction and Operation

    6.03.1. Introduction

    6.03.2. Reservoir Water Quality

    6.03.3. Management of the Impact of Hydraulic Processes in Hydropower Operation

    References

    Hydropower Schemes Around the World

    6.04. Large Hydropower Plants of Brazil

    6.04.1. Introduction and Background

    6.04.2. The 14 000 MW Itaipu Hydroelectric Project

    6.04.3. The 8125 MW Tucurui Hydroelectric Project

    6.04.4. The 6450 MW Madeira Hydroelectric Complex

    6.04.5. The Iguaçu River Projects

    6.04.6. The Uruguay River Projects

    6.04.7. The Belo Monte Project

    References

    6.05. Overview of Institutional Structure Reform of the Cameroon Power Sector and Assessments

    6.05.1. Introduction

    6.05.2. Hydro Potential

    6.05.3. Dams

    6.05.4. Mid-Term Development Plan for Hydro Plants in Cameroon

    6.05.5. Conclusion

    References

    Relevant Websites

    6.06. Recent Hydropower Solutions in Canada

    6.06.1. Introduction

    6.06.2. Hydroelectric Power in Canada

    6.06.3. Recent Hydropower Solutions in Manitoba

    6.06.4. Recent Hydropower Solutions in Quebec

    6.06.5. Recent Hydropower Implementations in British Columbia

    6.06.6. Conclusion

    References

    6.07. The Three Gorges Project in China

    6.07.1. Introduction

    6.07.2. Hydraulic Complex Structures

    6.07.3. Project Construction

    6.07.4. Challenges and Achievements

    References

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    6.08. The Recent Trend in Development of Hydro Plants in India

    6.08.1. Present Status and Future Planning

    6.08.2. Hydrology and Climate Change

    6.08.3. Environment Study

    6.08.4. Reservoir and Downstream Flow

    6.08.5. Rehabilitation and Resettlement

    6.08.6. Project Planning and Implementation

    6.08.7. Storage and ROR Hydroelectric Projects

    6.08.8. Sediment Transport and Related Issues

    6.08.9. Socioeconomic Development and Hydropower in the Himalaya Northeast Region

    6.08.10. Conclusion

    References

    6.09. Hydropower Development in Iran

    6.09.1. Introduction

    6.09.2. Energy Generation in Iran

    6.09.3. Considerations and Requirements for Hydropower Developments

    6.09.4. Potentiality of Hydropower Projects

    References

    6.10. Hydropower Development in Japan

    6.10.1. Outline of the History of Hydropower Development in Japan

    6.10.2. Current State of Hydropower in Japan

    6.10.3. Hydropower in Japan and Future Challenges

    6.10.4. Successful Efforts in Japan

    Relevant Websites

    6.11. Evolution of Hydropower in Spain

    6.11.1. Hydroelectric Power in Spain

    6.11.2. Evolution of Schemes and First Developments

    6.11.3. A Representative Case: The Duero System and Its Evolution

    6.11.4. The Future of Hydroelectric Power in Spain

    References

    6.12. Hydropower in Switzerland

    6.12.1. Short Recall of Switzerland’s Characteristics

    6.12.2. The Drainage Basins of Switzerland

    6.12.3. Electricity Production in Switzerland

    6.12.4. List of the Dams in Switzerland

    6.12.5. New Developments

    6.12.6. Dixence, Grande-Dixence, and Cleuson-Dixence Schemes as an Example of Capacity Increase

    6.12.7. New Hydroelectric Schemes Presently under Construction in Switzerland

    Relevant Websites

    Design Concepts

    6.13. Long-Term Sediment Management for Sustainable Hydropower

    6.13.1. Introduction

    6.13.2. Driving Forces

    6.13.3. Pressures

    6.13.4. State

    6.13.5. Impact

    6.13.6. Responses

    6.13.7. Conclusion

    References

    6.14. Durability Design of Concrete Hydropower Structures

    6.14.1. Introduction

    6.14.2. Early Cracking

    6.14.3. Durability Problems

    6.14.4. Durability Design

    6.14.5. How to Maintain a Durable Concrete

    6.14.6. Case Histories for Durable Concrete

    6.14.7. Conclusion

    References

    6.15. Pumped Storage Hydropower Developments

    6.15.1. Inroduction

    6.15.2. Electrical Energy Storage

    6.15.3. Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant

    6.15.4. Examples of Remarkable Pumped Storage Power Plants

    References

    6.16. Simplified Generic Axial-Flow Microhydro Turbines

    6.16.1. Introduction and Context

    6.16.2. Component-Level Design Methods

    6.16.3. Turbine Selection from an Existing Range

    6.16.4. Direct Sizing

    6.16.5. Conclusions

    Further Reading

    References

    6.17. Development of a Small Hydroelectric Scheme at Horseshoe Bend, Teviot River, Central Otago, New Zealand

    6.17.1. Introduction

    6.17.2. Background

    6.17.3. Scheme Layout and Specifications

    6.17.4. Project Development and Processes

    6.17.5. Land Tenure

    6.17.6. Resource Consents

    6.17.7. Project Management

    6.17.8. Contract Framework

    6.17.9. Interesting Features of Design and Construction

    6.17.10. RCC Dam Design and Construction

    6.17.11. Conclusions

    References

    6.18. Recent Achievements in Hydraulic Research in China

    6.18.1. Introduction

    6.18.2. Energy Dissipation

    6.18.3. Aeration and Cavitation Mitigation Measures

    6.18.4. Flow-Induced Vibration

    6.18.5. Discharge Spraying by Jet Flow

    6.18.6. Hydraulic Field Observations

    References

    Glossary

    Volume 7. Geothermal Energy

    7.01. Geothermal Energy – Introduction

    7.02. The Physics of Geothermal Energy

    7.02.1. Introduction

    7.02.2. Geothermal Systems

    7.02.3. Geothermal System Properties and Processes

    7.02.4. Pressure Diffusion and Fluid Flow

    7.02.5. Heat Transfer

    7.02.6. Two-Phase Regions or Systems

    7.02.7. Geothermal Wells

    7.02.8. Utilization Response of Geothermal Systems

    7.02.9. Monitoring

    7.02.10. Modelling of Geothermal Systems – Overview

    7.02.11. Static Modeling (Volumetric Assessment)

    7.02.12. Dynamic Modeling

    7.02.13. Geothermal Resource Management

    7.02.14. Reinjection

    7.02.15. Renewability of Geothermal Resources

    7.02.16. Sustainable Geothermal Utilization

    7.02.17. Conclusions

    References

    7.03. Geothermal Energy Exploration Techniques

    7.03.1. Importance of the Exploration

    7.03.2. Geological Exploration

    7.03.3. Assessment of Geological Hazard

    7.03.4. Geochemistry and Geothermometers

    7.03.5. Geophysical Methods

    References

    7.04. Geochemical Aspects of Geothermal Utilization

    7.04.1. Introduction

    7.04.2. Collection of Liquid and Gas Samples

    7.04.3. Characterization of Solids

    7.04.4. Analysis of Fluids

    7.04.5. Classification of Water

    7.04.6. Alteration

    7.04.7. Tracing the Origin and Flow of Geothermal Fluids

    7.04.8. Speciation and Reaction Path Calculations

    7.04.9. Geothermometry

    7.04.10. Applications during Production

    7.04.11. Case History. Exploration of a Geothermal Area. Theistareykir, NE Iceland

    References

    7.05. Direct Heat Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    7.05.1. Introduction

    7.05.2. Current Utilization

    7.05.3. Global Distribution of Geothermal Heat Utilization

    7.05.4. Development of Direct Heat Utilization Projects

    7.05.5. Selecting the Equipment

    7.05.6. Environmental Considerations

    7.05.7. Case Histories

    References

    Further Reading

    7.06. Shallow Systems

    7.06.1. Introduction

    7.06.2. The Resource

    7.06.3. Geothermal Heat Pumps

    7.06.4. Heating and Cooling with GHPs

    7.06.5. Site Investigations for Dimensioning

    7.06.6. Engineering Design

    7.06.7. Installation of GHPs

    7.06.8. Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

    7.06.9. Capital and O&M Costs, Comparison with Conventional Heating Systems

    7.06.10. Production Sustainability

    7.06.11. Licensing, Environmental Issues

    References

    Relevant Websites

    7.07. Geothermal Power Plants

    7.07.1. Introduction

    7.07.2. Scope of the Section

    7.07.3. Steam Plants

    7.07.4. Binary Plants

    7.07.5. Advanced Geothermal Plants

    7.07.6. Plant Performance Assessment

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    7.08. Corrosion, Scaling and Material Selection in Geothermal Power Production

    7.08.1. Introduction

    7.08.2. Corrosion Films and Processes

    7.08.3. Forms of Corrosion in Geothermal Environments

    7.08.4. Variables and Corrosive Species That Affect Corrosion Rates

    7.08.5. Material Selection and Performance in Geothermal Environments

    7.08.6. Scaling in Geothermal Environments

    7.08.7. Corrosion and Scaling Control

    7.08.8. Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    7.09. Geothermal Cost and Investment Factors

    7.09.1. Introduction

    7.09.2. Theoretical Overview

    7.09.3. Geothermal Industry: Microeconomic Analysis

    7.09.4. Geothermal Industry: Macroeconomic Analysis

    7.09.5. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Glossary

    7.10. Sustainable Energy Development

    7.10.1. Introduction

    7.10.2. Sustainable Development: The Tale of Three Conferences

    7.10.3. Sustainable Development and Energy

    7.10.4. Sustainable Energy Development

    7.10.5. Contribution of Geothermal Power to SED

    7.10.6. Geothermal Development in Iceland – Toward SED?

    7.10.7. The MDGs and Geothermal Energy

    7.10.8. Climate Change, CDM, and Geothermal Energy

    7.10.9. Toward SED Using Geothermal Power

    7.10.10. Conclusion

    References

    Glossary

    Volume 8. Ocean Energy

    8.01. Generating Electrical Power from Ocean Resources

    8.01.1. Introduction

    8.01.2. Wave Energy Conversion

    8.01.3. Marine Current Energy Conversion

    8.01.4. Technology Development Assessment

    8.01.5. Prototype Device Development and Commercial Farms

    8.01.6. Future Prospects

    References

    8.02. Historical Aspects of Wave Energy Conversion

    8.02.1. Introduction

    8.02.2. The Wave Energy Resource

    8.02.3. Wave Energy Technologies

    8.02.4. Conclusion

    References

    8.03. Resource Assessment for Wave Energy

    8.03.1. Introduction

    8.03.2. Mathematical Description of Ocean Waves

    8.03.3. Estimating WEC Power

    8.03.4. Wave Measurements and Modeling

    8.03.5. Variability and Predictability of WEC Yield

    8.03.6. Estimation of Extremes

    References

    8.04. Development of Wave Devices from Initial Conception to Commercial Demonstration

    8.04.1. A Structured Program to Mitigate Risk – The TRL Approach

    8.04.2. Funding Opportunities

    8.04.3. Physical Model Testing and Similarity

    8.04.4. Sea Trials of Large-Scale Prototypes

    8.04.5. Frequency versus Time Domain

    References

    Glossary

    8.05. Air Turbines

    8.05.1. Introduction

    8.05.2. Basic Equations

    8.05.3. Two-Dimensional Cascade Flow Analysis of Axial-Flow Turbines

    8.05.4. Three-Dimensional Flow Analysis of Axial-Flow Turbines

    8.05.5. Model Testing of Air Turbines

    8.05.6. Wells Turbine Performance

    8.05.7. Performance of Self-Rectifying Axial-Flow Impulse Turbine

    8.05.8. Other Air Turbines for Bidirectional Flows

    8.05.9. Some Air Turbine Prototypes

    8.05.10. Turbine Integration into OWC Plant

    8.05.11. Conclusions

    References

    8.06. Economics of Ocean Energy

    8.06.1. Introduction

    8.06.2. Cost Estimates of Wave and Tidal Stream Systems

    8.06.3. The Capital Investment Decision

    8.06.4. Capital Costs

    8.06.5. Operating Costs

    8.06.6. Vessels for Offshore Work

    8.06.7. Revenue

    8.06.8. Future Prospects

    References

    Further Reading

    Index

    Authors

Product details

  • No. of pages: 4422
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2012
  • Published: April 12, 2012
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780080878720
  • About the Editor in Chief

    Trevor Letcher

    Trevor M. Letcher is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is a past Director of the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics and his research involves the thermodynamics of liquid mixtures and energy from landfill. He was awarded the South African Chemical Institute’s Gold medal in 1999 and in 2000 he was awarded the South African Gold medal by the South African Association for the Advancement of Science. He has published over 250 papers in peer review journals and has edited, co-edited and written eleven books in his research and related fields. His latest books include Unravelling Environmental Disasters (2012), Materials for a Sustainable Future (2012), Waste (2011), Heat Capacities (2010), Climate Change (2009) and Future Energy (2008).

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor Emeritus, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa