Comprehensive Hard Materials - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080965277, 9780080965284

Comprehensive Hard Materials

1st Edition

eBook ISBN: 9780080965284
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080965277
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 4th February 2014
Page Count: 1806
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Description

Comprehensive Hard Materials deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds. Articles include the technologies of powder production (including their precursor materials), milling, granulation, cold and hot compaction, sintering, hot isostatic pressing, hot-pressing, injection moulding, as well as on the coating technologies for refractory metals, hard metals and hard materials. The characterization, testing, quality assurance and applications are also covered. Comprehensive Hard Materials provides meaningful insights on materials at the leading edge of technology. It aids continued research and development of these materials and as such it is a critical information resource to academics and industry professionals facing the technological challenges of the future.

Key Features

  • Hard materials operate at the leading edge of technology, and continued research and development of such materials is critical to meet the technological challenges of the future. Users of this work can improve their knowledge of basic principles and gain a better understanding of process/structure/property relationships.
  • With the convergence of nanotechnology, coating techniques, and functionally graded materials to the cognitive science of cemented carbides, cermets, advanced ceramics, super-hard materials and composites, it is evident that the full potential of this class of materials is far from exhausted. This work unites these important areas of research and will provide useful insights to users through its extensive cross-referencing and thematic presentation.
  • To link academic to industrial usage of hard materials and vice versa, this work deals with the production, uses and properties of the carbides, nitrides and borides of these metals and those of titanium, as well as tools of ceramics, the superhard boron nitrides and diamond and related compounds.

Readership

This work will appeal to every materials science department in every academic institution, government department and large corporation.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Volume Editors
  • List of Contributors
  • Volume 1: Hardmetals

    • Section I: Introduction to Hardmetals

      • 1.01. History of Hardmetals

        • Abstract
        • 1.01.1 Introduction to Hardmetals-Definitions and Classification
        • 1.01.2 History of Hardmetals
        • 1.01.3 Alloyed WC-Hardmetals and Patent Controversies
        • 1.01.4 The Coating of Hardmetals
        • 1.01.5 Cermets
        • 1.01.6 Cutting Tool Materials, Ceramic and Ultrahard
        • 1.01.7 A Short Survey of the Literature of Hardmetals and Hard Materials
        • 1.01.8 Conclusion
        • References
      • 1.02. Fundamentals and General Applications of Hardmetals

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 1.02.1 Introduction
        • 1.02.2 Metallurgy of Hardmetals
        • 1.02.3 Role of the Binder
        • 1.02.4 Functional Gradient Hardmetals
        • 1.02.5 Key Properties of Hardmetals
        • 1.02.6 General Applications of Hardmetals
        • References
        • Website Resources
      • 1.03. Microstructure and Morphology of Hardmetals

        • Abstract
        • 1.03.1 Introduction
        • 1.03.2 WC-Co (Ni) Alloys
        • 1.03.3 Other Cemented Carbides and Cermets
        • References
    • Section II: Classes of Materials

      • 1.04. Cemented Tungsten Carbide Hardmetal-An Introduction

        • Abstract
        • 1.04.1 Introduction
        • 1.04.2 Processing of Cemented WC
        • 1.04.3 Mechanical Properties and the Role of Microstructure in Cemented WC
        • 1.04.4 Industrial Applications
        • 1.04.5 Conclusions
        • References
      • 1.05. Cermets

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 1.05.1 Thermodynamics of Hard Phases
        • 1.05.2 Microstructure of Ti-Based Cermets
        • References
    • Section III: Synthesis and Processing

      • 1.06. Powder Synthesis

        • Abstract
        • 1.06.1 Tungsten Carbide
        • 1.06.2 Other Refractory Carbide Species
        • 1.06.3 Titanium Carbonitride
        • 1.06.4 Cobalt
        • References
      • 1.07. Powder Processing and Green Shaping

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 1.07.1 Introduction
        • 1.07.2 Hardmetal Compositions
        • 1.07.3 Tungsten Carbide Powder
        • 1.07.4 Powder Selection
        • 1.07.5 Powder Mixing and Particle Size Reduction
        • 1.07.6 Production of Dried Powder
        • 1.07.7 Green Shaping
        • 1.07.8 Environmental, Health and Safety
        • References
      • 1.08. Consolidation Techniques

        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • 1.08.1 Introduction to Sintering Processes
        • 1.08.2 Phenomenological Description of Sintering
        • 1.08.3 Liquid-Phase Sintering
        • 1.08.4 Microstructures and Microstructure Development
        • 1.08.5 Solution-Reprecipitation
        • 1.08.6 Solid Skeletal Sintering
        • 1.08.7 Pressure-Assisted Sintering
        • 1.08.8 Practical Consolidation Cycles
        • 1.08.9 Computer Simulation
        • 1.08.10 Summary
        • References
    • Section IV: Mechanical Properties

      • 1.09. Hardness and Deformation of Hardmetals at Room Temperature

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 1.09.1 Introduction
        • 1.09.2 Structure-Property Relation
        • 1.09.3 Hardness
        • 1.09.4 Elastic Moduli and Deformation Behavior
        • Cross-references
        • References
      • 1.10. Fracture and Strength of Hardmetals at Room Temperature

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 1.10.1 Introduction
        • 1.10.2 Fracture of Hardmetals
        • 1.10.3 Fracture Toughness
        • 1.10.4 Strength and Critical Defects
        • Cross-references
        • References
      • 1.11. Fatigue of Cemented Carbides

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 1.11.1 Introduction
        • 1.11.2 Strength Degradation under Cyclic Loads
        • 1.11.3 Fatigue Crack Growth
        • 1.11.4 Fatigue Behavior of Hardmetals under Service-like Conditions
        • 1.11.5 Final Remarks
        • References
      • 1.12. Wear of Hardmetals

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 1.12.1 Introduction
        • 1.12.2 Main Types of Wear
        • 1.12.3 Abrasion
        • 1.12.4 Sliding Wear
        • 1.12.5 Erosion
        • 1.12.6 Impact Wear and Thermal Fatigue
        • 1.12.7 Scratch Experiments as Models of Single-Point Abrasion
        • 1.12.8 Wear of Cermets and Surface-Modified WC/CO Carbides
        • 1.12.9 Mechanisms of Wear for Hardmetals
        • References
      • 1.13. Residual Stresses

        • Abstract
        • 1.13.1 Introduction
        • 1.13.2 Method of Measurement
        • 1.13.3 Bulk Thermal Residual Microstresses
        • 1.13.4 Interaction with External Loads
        • 1.13.5 Role of Residual Stresses in Mechanical Behavior
        • References
      • 1.14. Mechanical Behavior of Hardmetals at High Temperature

        • Abstract
        • 1.14.1 Introduction
        • 1.14.2 Materials
        • 1.14.3 Mechanical Properties at Room Temperature
        • 1.14.4 Evolution of Mechanical Properties with Temperature
        • 1.14.5 Deformation of Cemented Carbides: General Discussion
        • 1.14.6 Model of the Life of Carbide Tools
        • 1.14.7 Conclusions
        • References
    • Section V: Applications

      • 1.15. Cemented Carbides for Mining, Construction and Wear Parts

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary Terms and Definitions
        • 1.15.1 Introduction
        • 1.15.2 Special Features of Applications of WC-Co Cemented Carbides in Mining, Construction and as Wear Parts
        • 1.15.3 Basic Industrial Cemented Carbides for Mining and Construction
        • 1.15.4 Basic Industrial Cemented Carbides for Wear Parts
        • 1.15.5 Modern Trends in Research and Development of Novel Cemented Carbides for Mining, Construction and Wear Parts
        • References
        • List of Relevant Websites
      • 1.16. Coating Applications for Cutting Tools

        • Abstract
        • 1.16.1 Introduction
        • 1.16.2 CVD Hard Coatings
        • 1.16.3 PVD Hard Coatings
        • 1.16.4 Posttreatment
        • 1.16.5 Application Example
        • 1.16.6 Summary and Outlook
        • References
      • 1.17. Coatings by Thermal Spray

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 1.17.1 General
        • 1.17.2 Historical Development of the Spray Processes for Hardmetal Coatings
        • 1.17.3 Hard-Phase Properties
        • 1.17.4 Hardmetal Compositions for Thermal Spray Coatings
        • 1.17.5 Feedstock Materials
        • 1.17.6 Processes during Spraying and Coating Formation
        • 1.17.7 Coating Characterization Methods
        • 1.17.8 Coating Microstructures and Properties
        • 1.17.9 Applications
        • References
      • 1.18. Coatings by Laser Cladding

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 1.18.1 Overview of Laser Processes for Surface Modifications Using Feedstock Materials
        • 1.18.2 The Laser Cladding Process
        • 1.18.3 Historical Development of Laser Cladding
        • 1.18.4 State-of-the-Art Laser Cladding Process
        • 1.18.5 Materials and Interactions
        • 1.18.6 Methods of Coating Characterization
        • 1.18.7 Hard Phase Feedstock Materials
        • 1.18.8 Wear Resistance and Applications
        • References
      • 1.19. Joining Cemented Carbides

        • Abstract
        • Aknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 1.19.1 Introduction
        • 1.19.2 Joining Processes
        • Summary
        • References
  • Volume 2: Ceramics

    • Section I: Introduction

      • 2.01. Fundamental Aspects of Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • 2.01.1 Introduction
        • 2.01.2 Structure and Property Relationships
        • 2.01.3 Processing and Fabrication of Ceramics
        • 2.01.4 Microstructure
        • 2.01.5 Mechanical Properties
        • 2.01.6 Some Examples of Hard Ceramics
        • 2.01.7 Summary
        • References
      • 2.02. Processing of Alumina and Corresponding Composites

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 2.02.1 Introduction
        • 2.02.2 Production of Alumina
        • 2.02.3 Alumina Materials
        • 2.02.4 Fabrication of Alumina Materials
        • 2.02.5 Fabrication of Alumina-Matrix Composites
        • 2.02.6 Fabrication of Alumina-Based Laminates
        • 2.02.7 Fabrication of Alumina Nanocomposites
        • 2.02.8 Concluding Remarks
        • References
    • Section II: Synthesis and Processing

      • 2.03. Synthesis/Processing of Silicon Nitride Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • 2.03.1 Overview of Silicon Nitride Ceramics
        • 2.03.2 Types of Silicon Nitride
        • 2.03.3 Powders and Their Processing
        • 2.03.4 Shape Making
        • 2.03.5 Densification
        • 2.03.6 Finishing
        • 2.03.7 Effects on Properties and Behavior
        • 2.03.8 Summary and Suggested Further Research
        • References
      • 2.04. Processing of Silicon Carbide-Based Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 2.04.1 Introduction
        • 2.04.2 Phase Relations and Crystal Structure
        • 2.04.3 SiC Raw Materials Production
        • 2.04.4 Silicon Carbide-Based Ceramics
        • 2.04.5 Summary and Prospects
        • References
      • 2.05. Spark Plasma Sintering of Nanoceramic Composites

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 2.05.1 Introduction
        • 2.05.2 Spark Plasma Sintering: Phenomenological Description
        • 2.05.3 Spark Plasma Sintering: Thermal and Electric Field Distribution
        • 2.05.4 SPS of Oxide Nanoceramics
        • 2.05.5 Spark Plasma Sintering of WC-Based Nanoceramic Composites
        • 2.05.6 Conclusions and Outlook
        • References
      • 2.06. Advanced Manufacturing of Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • 2.06.1 Introduction
        • 2.06.2 The Processing Chain of Ceramics Manufacturing
        • 2.06.3 Before the Start-Definition of a Set of Requirements
        • 2.06.4 Pressing
        • 2.06.5 Manufacturing by Plastic Forming
        • 2.06.6 Manufacturing by Casting Processes
        • 2.06.7 Final Machining
        • 2.06.8 Case Studies
        • 2.06.9 Summary, Remarks, and Future Aspects
        • References
      • 2.07. Joining Methods for Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 2.07.1 Introduction
        • 2.07.2 Types and Classification of Ceramic Joining Methods
        • 2.07.3 Direct Bonding
        • 2.07.4 Diffusion Bonding with Metallic Interlayers
        • 2.07.5 Indirect Liquid-Phase Joining
        • 2.07.6 Joining through Ceramic and Glass Interlayers
        • 2.07.7 Development of Residual Thermal Stresses
        • 2.07.8 Testing the Joining Strength
        • 2.07.9 Examples and Applications
        • 2.07.10 Concluding Remarks
        • References
        • Standard References
    • Section III: Microstructure and Properties

      • 2.08. Microstructural Characterization of Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgment
        • 2.08.1 Introduction
        • 2.08.2 Microstructural Parameters
        • 2.08.3 Recent Advances in Microstructural Characterization Techniques
        • 2.08.4 Summary and Conclusions
        • References
      • 2.09. Mechanical Characterization of Ceramics: Designing with Brittle Materials

        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • 2.09.1 Introduction
        • 2.09.2 Fracture and Strength of Brittle Materials
        • 2.09.3 Probability of Brittle Failure
        • 2.09.4 Designing with Brittle Materials
        • 2.09.5 Summary
        • References
      • 2.10. Toughness, Fatigue and Thermal Shock of Ceramics: Microstructural Effects

        • Abstract
        • 2.10.1 Introduction
        • 2.10.2 Fracture Behavior
        • 2.10.3 Subcritical Crack Growth
        • 2.10.4 Cyclic Fatigue
        • 2.10.5 Thermal Shock Behavior
        • 2.10.6 Concluding Remarks and Future Trends
        • References
      • 2.11. High-Temperature Mechanical Behavior of Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • 2.11.1 Introduction
        • 2.11.2 Creep Mechanisms in Polycrystalline Materials
        • 2.11.3 High-Temperature Creep Behavior of Technical Ceramics
        • 2.11.4 Creep Rupture of Ceramics
        • 2.11.5 Concluding Remarks
        • References
      • 2.12. Mechanical Behavior of SiC Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

        • Abstract
        • 2.12.1 Introduction
        • 2.12.2 Micromechanical Analysis
        • 2.12.3 Monotonic Tensile Behavior
        • 2.12.4 Effects of Oxidation on Mechanical Behavior
        • 2.12.5 Cyclic and Static Fatigue
        • 2.12.6 Creep
        • 2.12.7 Conclusions
        • References
      • 2.13. Resistance to Contact Deformation and Damage of Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 2.13.1 Introduction
        • 2.13.2 Experimental Setup for Hertzian Indentation
        • 2.13.3 Mechanics of Elastic Spherical Contact
        • 2.13.4 Damage in Hard Ceramics
        • 2.13.5 Some Examples in the Literature
        • 2.13.6 Conclusions
        • References
      • 2.14. Wear of Hard Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • 2.14.1 Introduction
        • 2.14.2 Definitions and Experimental Methods
        • 2.14.3 Oxides
        • 2.14.4 Nonoxide Ceramics
        • 2.14.5 Composites
        • 2.14.6 Laminated Structures
        • 2.14.7 Conclusions
        • References
      • 2.15. Corrosion of Ceramic Materials

        • Abstract
        • 2.15.1 Introduction
        • 2.15.2 Corrosion in Gases
        • 2.15.3 Corrosion in Aqueous Solutions
        • 2.15.4 Final Remarks
        • References
    • Section IV: Coatings and Applications

      • 2.16. PVD and CVD Hard Coatings

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 2.16.1 Introduction
        • 2.16.2 Coating Deposition Techniques
        • 2.16.3 Nitrides and Carbonitrides
        • 2.16.4 Carbides
        • 2.16.5 Borides
        • 2.16.6 Oxides
        • 2.16.7 Diamond-like Carbon
        • 2.16.8 Multilayers, Nanolaminates, and Nanocomposites
        • 2.16.9 Summary and Outlook
        • References
      • 2.17. Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si-Based Ceramics

        • Abstract
        • 2.17.1 Introduction
        • 2.17.2 Environmental Barrier Coatings
        • 2.17.3 Thermal Barrier/Environmental Barrier Coating Systems
        • 2.17.4 Future Directions
        • 2.17.5 Conclusions
        • References
      • 2.18. Ceramic Cutting Tools

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 2.18.1 Introduction and Overview
        • 2.18.2 Wear Mechanisms of Ceramic Cutting Tools
        • 2.18.3 Ceramic Cutting Tool Materials
        • 2.18.4 Concluding Comments
        • References
  • Volume 3: Super Hard Materials

    • Section I: Theory

      • 3.01. The Physics of Strong Bonds

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.01.1 Introduction and Background
        • 3.01.2 Ab Initio and Semiempirical Methods
        • 3.01.3 Materials, Bonding, and Mechanical Properties
        • 3.01.4 Conclusions
        • References
      • 3.02. From Diamond to Superhard Borides and Oxides

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.02.1 Introduction
        • 3.02.2 Hardness and Elastic Constants
        • 3.02.3 Diamond and Related Cubic Superhard Structures
        • 3.02.4 Superhard Borides
        • 3.02.5 Superhard Oxides
        • 3.02.6 Conclusion
        • References
      • 3.03. High-Pressure Phase Diagrams of the Systems Containing Carbon and BN

        • Abstract
        • Nomenclature
        • 3.03.1 Introduction
        • 3.03.2 One-Component Systems
        • 3.03.3 Binary and Ternary Systems
        • 3.03.4 Conclusions
        • References
      • 3.04. Theory of Superhard Materials

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.04.1 Hardness: A Brief Introduction
        • 3.04.2 Brief Overview of the Models of Hardness. Li's Model. Accounting for Structural Topology and Distortions
        • 3.04.3 Global Optimization and its Application for the Discovery of Superhard Materials
        • 3.04.4 Some Applications
        • 3.04.5 Conclusions
        • References
      • 3.05. Taming the Untamable-The Art and Science of Diamond Polishing

        • Abstract
        • 3.05.1 Introduction
        • 3.05.2 Experiment
        • 3.05.3 Wear Models and Wear Modeling
        • 3.05.4 Removal Scenarios for the Amorphous Phase; Etching vs. Plowing
        • 3.05.5 Conclusions and Future Challenges
        • References
    • Section II: Materials: Growth, Properties and Applications: Carbon-Based DLC

      • 3.06. Diamond-Like Carbon Films, Properties and Applications

        • Abstract
        • 3.06.1 Introduction
        • 3.06.2 Definition of Diamond-Like Carbon
        • 3.06.3 Growth Methods
        • 3.06.4 Deposition Mechanism of DLC
        • 3.06.5 Basic Properties
        • 3.06.6 Characterisation
        • 3.06.7 Film Adhesion
        • 3.06.8 Mechanical Properties
        • 3.06.9 Some Applications of DLC
        • 3.06.10 Conclusions
        • References
    • Section III: Nanoe–and–Poly–Diamond

      • 3.07. Production of Nanodiamond Particles

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.07.1 Introduction
        • 3.07.2 Stability of Diamond at the Nanoscale
        • 3.07.3 Types of Nanodiamond Particles
        • 3.07.4 Recent Achievements in Production of Detonation Nanodiamond
        • 3.07.5 Brief Survey of Applications of Nanodiamond Particles as Superhard Additives
        • 3.07.6 Future Directions of Production and Applications
        • References
      • 3.08. Nanopolycrystalline Diamond without Binder and its Application to Various High-Pressure Apparatus

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 3.08.1 Introduction
        • 3.08.2 Synthesis of NPD Using Large-Volume KMA
        • 3.08.3 Nature of NPD
        • 3.08.4 Application to High-Pressure Studies
        • 3.08.5 Future Perspectives
        • References
    • Section IV: Single Crystalline Diamond

      • 3.09. HPHT Synthesis of Large, High-Quality, Single Crystal Diamonds

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 3.09.1 Introduction
        • 3.09.2 HPHT Synthesis of High-Purity Large Single Crystal Diamond
        • 3.09.3 Crystalline Quality
        • 3.09.4 Physical Properties
        • 3.09.5 Mechanical Properties
        • 3.09.6 Applications
        • References
      • 3.10. Ultrafast Deposition of Diamond by Plasma-Enhanced CVD

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 3.10.1 Introduction
        • 3.10.2 Growth Rate and Active Species
        • 3.10.3 Means for Studying the Plasma: Modeling and Optical Diagnostics
        • 3.10.4 Analysis of the Plasma Operating at High Power Density: Identification of the Main Production and Loss Processes for H Atoms and CH3 Radicals
        • 3.10.5 How Can We Increase the Growth Rates
        • 3.10.6 Conclusion
        • References
      • 3.11. Single Crystal Diamond Growth on Iridium

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • Glossary
        • 3.11.1 Introduction
        • 3.11.2 Diamond Nucleation
        • 3.11.3 Oriented Diamond Deposition on Heterosubstrates
        • 3.11.4 Heteroepitaxy of Diamond on Iridium
        • 3.11.5 Different Concepts for a Scaling-up: Ir on Large Oxide Single Crystals versus Silicon-Based Multilayer Structures
        • 3.11.6 Single Crystal Diamond Deposition on Arbitrary Substrates
        • 3.11.7 Present State-of-the-Art Heteroepitaxial Diamond Films
        • 3.11.8 Applications of Heteroepitaxial Diamond Crystals
        • 3.11.9 Summary and Outlook
        • References
      • 3.12. Conductivity and Impurity Doping on Single Crystal Diamond

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 3.12.1 Homoepitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Diamond
        • 3.12.2 Impurity Doping by PECVD
        • 3.12.3 Electronic Properties
        • 3.12.4 Electrical Properties
        • 3.12.5 Ohmic Contact Issue in n-Type Diamond
        • 3.12.6 Diamond Bipolar Applications
        • References
      • 3.13. Single-Ion Implantation in Diamond with a High Lateral Resolution: A Key Technology for the Fabrication of Quantum Devices

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.13.1 Introduction
        • 3.13.2 Physical Effects Limiting the Spatial Resolution
        • 3.13.3 Ion Implantation Setups to Create Single NV Centers
        • 3.13.4 Scheme of Individual Addressing of NV Centers
        • 3.13.5 Conclusions
        • References
    • Section V: Selected Properties of Diamond and Applications

      • 3.14. Surface Electronic Properties of Diamond

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.14.1 Introduction
        • 3.14.2 Dipole Effects on Diamond Surfaces
        • 3.14.3 Surface Conductivity of Undoped Diamond in Air
        • 3.14.4 Surface Electronic Properties of Diamond Covered with Adsorbates
        • 3.14.5 Surface Electronic Properties of Diamond in Electrolyte Solutions
        • 3.14.6 Conclusions
        • References
      • 3.15. Polycrystalline CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.15.1 Introduction
        • 3.15.2 CVD of Diamond
        • 3.15.3 CVD Diamond Radiation Windows
        • 3.15.4 Thermal Management Applications
        • 3.15.5 3D CVD Diamond Components
        • 3.15.6 Conclusion
        • References
      • 3.16. Diamond Nanoparticles: Surface Modifications and Applications

        • 3.16.1 Introduction
        • 3.16.2 The Surface of Nanoscale Diamond
        • 3.16.3 Modifications to the Initial Surface Termination of ND
        • 3.16.4 Surface Functionalization of ND
        • 3.16.5 Applications of ND
        • 3.16.6 Summary
        • References
      • 3.17. Diamond for Particle and Photon Detection in Extreme Conditions

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.17.1 Introduction
        • 3.17.2 Historical Outline
        • 3.17.3 Detector Physics
        • 3.17.4 Basic Diamond Assemblies
        • 3.17.5 On the Radiation Tolerance of Diamond Detectors
        • 3.17.6 Diamond Applications in Hot Environments
        • 3.17.7 Concluding Remarks
        • References
      • 3.18. Single Color Centers in Diamond: Materials, Devices, and Applications

        • Abstract
        • List of Acronyms
        • 3.18.1 Introduction
        • 3.18.2 Materials Science of Artificial Atoms in Diamond
        • 3.18.3 Applications and Devices Based on Color Centers
        • 3.18.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook
        • References
      • 3.19. Electrochemical Application of Diamond Electrodes

        • Abstract
        • 3.19.1 Introduction
        • 3.19.2 Preparation of BDD Electrodes
        • 3.19.3 Electrochemical Properties of BDD as Electrode Materials
        • 3.19.4 Applications
        • 3.19.5 Modified BDD Electrodes with Functions
        • 3.19.6 Basic Study on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes
        • 3.19.7 Summary
        • References
    • Section VI: Other Carbon Phases

      • 3.20. Superhard Materials Based on Fullerenes and Nanotubes

        • Abstract
        • Glossary
        • 3.20.1 Introduction
        • 3.20.2 Harder than Diamond Carbon Materials Synthesis Possibilities
        • 3.20.3 Mechanical Properties Research under Pressure in Shear Diamond Anvil Cells on Ultrahard Fullerite and Superhard Nanotubes
        • 3.20.4 The Superhard and Ultrahard Carbon Materials Mechanical Properties Comparative Analysis
        • 3.20.5 The Structural Transition Sequence in С60 at Thermobaric Treatment
        • 3.20.6 Conclusion
        • Cross-references
        • References
      • 3.21. Nanostructured Superhard Carbon Phases Synthesized from Fullerites under Pressure

        • Abstract
        • Acknowledgments
        • 3.21.1 Introduction
        • 3.21.2 Problems of Hardness and Moduli Measurements
        • 3.21.3 High Elastic Moduli and Bridge to Ideal Mechanical Characteristics
        • 3.21.4 Experimental Details
        • 3.21.5 Transitional Phase Diagram of Fullerite C60
        • 3.21.6 Regions of Hard Carbon Phases
        • 3.21.7 Hard Nanostructured Carbon Modifications Prepared at Moderate Pressures and High Temperatures
        • 3.21.8 Amorphous Diamond-like Carbon and Diamond-based Nanocomposites
        • 3.21.9 Correlation between Density, Elasticity, and Hardness for New Carbon Phases
        • 3.21.10 Nonhydrostatic Stresses and Anisotropy of Mechanical Properties of Hard Carbon Phases
        • 3.21.11 Final Remarks
        • References
      • 3.22. Graphene Properties and Application

        • 3.22.1 Introduction to Graphene
        • 3.22.2 General Properties of Graphene
        • 3.22.3 Surface Modification Effects on Graphene and its Application in PV Cells
        • 3.22.4 Conclusions
        • References
    • Section VII: III-V Based and Novel Materials

      • 3.23. Synthesis and Properties of Single Crystalline cBN and Its Sintered Body

        • Abstract
        • 3.23.1 Single Crystal Cubic Boron Nitride
        • 3.23.2 cBN Sintered Body
        • 3.23.3 Summary and Future Perspective
        • References
      • 3.24. Cubic Boron Nitride Films: Properties and Applications

        • Abstract
        • 3.24.1 Introduction
        • 3.24.2 Thermodynamics of BN Phases
        • 3.24.3 Low-Pressure Depositions of BN Films and Mechanism
        • 3.24.4 Phase Composition and Structures of cBN Films
        • 3.24.5 Properties and Applications of cBN Films
        • References
      • 3.25. High-Pressure Synthesis of Novel Superhard Phases

        • Abstract
        • 3.25.1 Introduction
        • 3.25.2 Synthesis of New Boron Allotrope, Orthorhombic γ-B28
        • 3.25.3 New Superhard Binary B-C and B-N Phases
        • 3.25.4 Novel Superhard Diamond-like Ternary B-C-N Phases
        • 3.25.5 Conclusions
        • References
  • Index
  • Author Index

Details

No. of pages:
1806
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780080965284
Hardcover ISBN:
9780080965277