Comprehensive Biomedical Physics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444536327, 9780444536334

Comprehensive Biomedical Physics

1st Edition

Editor-in-Chiefs: Anders Brahme
eBook ISBN: 9780444536334
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444536327
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 11th September 2014
Page Count: 4056
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Description

Comprehensive Biomedical Physics is a new reference work that provides the first point of entry to the literature for all scientists interested in biomedical physics. It is of particularly use for graduate and postgraduate students in the areas of medical biophysics. This Work is indispensable to all serious readers in this interdisciplinary area where physics is applied in medicine and biology. Written by leading scientists who have evaluated and summarized the most important methods, principles, technologies and data within the field, Comprehensive Biomedical Physics is a vital addition to the reference libraries of those working within the areas of medical imaging, radiation sources, detectors, biology, safety and therapy, physiology, and pharmacology as well as in the treatment of different clinical conditions and bioinformatics.

This Work will be valuable to students working in all aspect of medical biophysics, including medical imaging and biomedical radiation science and therapy, physiology, pharmacology and treatment of clinical conditions and bioinformatics.

Key Features

  • The most comprehensive work on biomedical physics ever published
  • Covers one of the fastest growing areas in the physical sciences, including interdisciplinary areas ranging from advanced nuclear physics and quantum mechanics through mathematics to molecular biology and medicine
  • Contains 1800 illustrations, all in full color

Readership

Academics, researchers and professionals working in medicine and radiology.

Table of Contents

  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Editorial Board
  • Preface
  • Permission Acknowledgments
  • Volume 1: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
    • Introduction to Volume 1: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
    • 1.01. History of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1.01.1 Introduction
      • 1.01.2 Discoveries of the Early 1900s That Underpin Nuclear Medicine
      • 1.01.3 Earliest Radiation Detection Systems
      • 1.01.4 Contemporary Photon Detectors
      • 1.01.5 Scintillation Detector Materials
      • 1.01.6 Two-Dimensional Gamma Scanners and Cameras
      • 1.01.7 Three-Dimensional Imaging
      • 1.01.8 Image Processing and Data Analysis
      • 1.01.9 Radionuclide Production
      • 1.01.10 Radiotracer Syntheses Instrumentation
      • 1.01.11 Hazards and Absorbed Radiation Doses
      • 1.01.12 Selected Applications
      • 1.01.13 Molecular Imaging, Born in Mid-1990s
      • 1.01.14 Short History of Organizational Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
      • 1.01.15 Future Expectations
      • Appendix A Major Steps in the Chronology of Nuclear Medicine and Nuclear Molecular Imaging
      • Appendix B
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Glossary
    • 1.02. Single-Photon Radionuclide Imaging and SPECT
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 1.02.1 Introduction
      • 1.02.2 Instrumentation
      • 1.02.3 Acquisition Modes and Image Formation
      • 1.02.4 Imaging Procedures
      • References
    • 1.03. Dynamic Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • Preface
      • Appendix
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.04. Scatter Correction in SPECT
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1.04.1 Introduction
      • 1.04.2 Source of Scattered Photons
      • 1.04.3 Impact of Scatter on Reconstructed Slices
      • 1.04.4 Ways to Lessen the Amount of Scatter Acquired
      • 1.04.5 Goal of and Dilemma for SC Strategies
      • 1.04.6 Energy Spectrum-Based SC Strategies
      • 1.04.7 Spatial Domain-Based SC
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.05. Compton Emission Tomography
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 1.05.1 Limitations of Mechanical Collimation in SPECT
      • 1.05.2 Compton Cameras Use Electronic Collimation to Determine Cones of Origin
      • 1.05.3 Back Projection of Compton Cones Is Useful for Locating Discrete Sources
      • 1.05.4 Escaping Photons and the Compton Continuum
      • 1.05.5 Analyzing a Recorded Event
      • 1.05.6 Compton Image Reconstruction
      • 1.05.7 Uncertainties in Compton Camera Measurements
      • 1.05.8 Compton Camera Instrumentation
      • 1.05.9 Future Perspectives
      • References
    • 1.06. Positron Emission Tomography
      • Abstract
      • 1.06.1 Introduction
      • 1.06.2 Basics of Positron Decay
      • 1.06.3 Making an Image – Overview
      • 1.06.4 Primary Detection
      • 1.06.5 Decoding
      • 1.06.6 Real-Time Detector Corrections
      • 1.06.7 Detector Corrections Applied During Image Reconstruction
      • 1.06.8 Basic Image Reconstruction
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.07. Time-of-Flight Positron Emission Tomography
      • Abstract
      • 1.07.1 Introduction
      • 1.07.2 Basics of TOF PET
      • 1.07.3 Brief History of TOF PET
      • 1.07.4 Timing Basics
      • 1.07.5 Optimizing Timing Resolution in PET
      • 1.07.6 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.08. Time-of-Flight PET Reconstruction Strategies
      • Abstract
      • 1.08.1 Introduction
      • 1.08.2 Basics of TOF-PET Reconstruction
      • 1.08.3 3D TOF-PET Reconstruction Algorithms
      • 1.08.4 Data Corrections
      • 1.08.5 Impact of TOF-PET Reconstruction
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.09. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computer Tomography (CT)
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviation
      • 1.09.1 Introduction to Positron Emission Tomography/Computer Tomography Imaging
      • 1.09.2 Design Features of PET/CT Systems
      • 1.09.3 Attenuation Correction in PET/CT
      • 1.09.4 PET/CT-Specific Artifacts and Corrections
      • 1.09.5 Dosimetry
      • 1.09.6 PET/CT in Clinical Applications
      • 1.09.7 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.10. High-Resolution Small Animal Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviation
      • 1.10.1 Introduction
      • 1.10.2 Small Animal PET Using MWPC
      • 1.10.3 Animal Models
      • 1.10.4 Applications
      • 1.10.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • 1.11. Emission Tomography Motion Compensation
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 1.11.1 Introduction
      • 1.11.2 Motion in PET and SPECT
      • 1.11.3 Motion Types and Effects
      • 1.11.4 Monitoring Methods
      • 1.11.5 Motion Compensation
      • 1.11.6 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 1.12. Tracer Kinetic Models in PET
      • Abstract
      • 1.12.1 Introduction
      • 1.12.2 Compartmental Models
      • 1.12.3 Input Functions and the Tissue Response
      • 1.12.4 K1, k2, Blood Flow, and Extraction
      • 1.12.5 The Blood Flow Model
      • 1.12.6 Glucose Metabolism in the Brain
      • 1.12.7 Neuroreceptor Model
      • 1.12.8 Occupancy of Receptor Sites Measured Using PET
      • 1.12.9 The General PET Compartmental Model
      • 1.12.10 Summary
      • Appendix
      • References
    • 1.13. Absorbed Radiation Dose Assessment from Radionuclides
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 1.13.1 Introduction
      • 1.13.2 The MIRD Schema
      • 1.13.3 Facilitation and Limitations of Absorbed Dose Estimates
      • 1.13.4 Dosimetry and Absorbed Dose Definitions
      • 1.13.5 Summary
      • Appendix A Conversions Between Traditional to SI Units
      • Appendix B Unusual Case for Dose Estimate of Ingested Polonium-210
      • Appendix C Example of Pu-239 Residual from Tissue Samples
      • References
      • Glossary
  • Volume 2: X-Ray and Ultrasound Imaging
    • Introduction to Volume 2: X-Ray and Ultrasound Imaging
    • 2.01. Physical Basis of x-Ray Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 2.01.1 Introductory Concepts
      • 2.01.2 Interaction Processes
      • 2.01.3 x-Ray Tubes and Beam Quality in Diagnostic Radiology
      • 2.01.4 Examples of x-Ray Image Formation and Contrast Mechanisms
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 2.02. Physical Parameters of Image Quality
      • Abstract
      • 2.02.1 Introduction
      • 2.02.2 Spatial Resolution
      • 2.02.3 Noise
      • 2.02.4 Contrast
      • 2.02.5 SNR and Rose Model
      • 2.02.6 Contrast-to-Noise Ratio and Contrast-Detail Analysis
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.03. Computed Tomography
      • Abstract
      • 2.03.1 Introduction
      • 2.03.2 The Concept of Tomography
      • 2.03.3 From Projections to Slices
      • 2.03.4 Evolution of CT Technology
      • 2.03.5 Physical Limitations of CT Imaging
      • 2.03.6 Protocol Optimization for Specialized Clinical Applications
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.04. Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 2.04.1 x-Ray Sources for Intraoral Radiography
      • 2.04.2 Detectors for Intraoral Radiography
      • 2.04.3 Panoramic Radiography
      • 2.04.4 Cephalometric Radiography
      • 2.04.5 Cone Beam Volumetric Imaging
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.05. Breast Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 2.05.1 Requirements for Early Detection of Breast Cancer
      • 2.05.2 x-Ray Sources
      • 2.05.3 Digital Detectors
      • 2.05.4 Mammography Equipment
      • 2.05.5 Image Display
      • 2.05.6 Digital Breast Tomosynthesis
      • 2.05.7 Advanced Applications
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.06. Dual-Energy and Spectral Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 2.06.1 Basic Theory (see also Chapter 2.01)
      • 2.06.2 Current Clinical Implementations
      • 2.06.3 Preclinical Dual-Energy and Spectral Imaging Implementations (see also Chapter 8.18)
      • 2.06.4 Image Noise, Contrast, and Dose Considerations
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.07. Quality Controls in x-Ray Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 2.07.1 Introduction
      • 2.07.2 QC for Radiology Equipment
      • 2.07.3 QCs in CR and DR Systems
      • 2.07.4 QCs of Mammography System
      • 2.07.5 QCs of Dental Radiology Equipment
      • 2.07.6 QCs in Digital Angiography
      • 2.07.7 QC of CT Equipment
      • 2.07.8 Summary of Periodicity of QCs
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.08. x-Ray Imaging with Coherent Sources
      • Abstract
      • 2.08.1 Introduction
      • 2.08.2 Phase-Sensitive Techniques for x-Ray Imaging
      • 2.08.3 Phase Retrieval and Post-Processing
      • 2.08.4 Open Challenges and Future Perspectives
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.09. High-Resolution CT for Small-Animal Imaging Research
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 2.09.1 Introduction
      • 2.09.2 Fundamentals of Micro-CT Design
      • 2.09.3 Reconstruction Algorithms
      • 2.09.4 Image Quality
      • 2.09.5 Applications of Small-Animal Micro-CT
      • 2.09.6 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.10. Radiation Protection and Dosimetry in x-Ray Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 2.10.1 Introduction
      • 2.10.2 The ICRP Framework for Radiological Protection
      • 2.10.3 Dosimetric Quantities Relevant for Planar x-Ray Imaging
      • 2.10.4 Dosimetric Quantities Relevant for CT Imaging
      • 2.10.5 Dosimetry in Practice
      • Appendix Most Commonly Used Dosimeters
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 2.11. Fundamentals of CT Reconstruction in 2D and 3D
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 2.11.1 Introduction
      • 2.11.2 Radon Transform in 2D
      • 2.11.3 Back Projection
      • 2.11.4 Radon Transform Inversion
      • 2.11.5 Practical Back Projection
      • 2.11.6 Sinogram Restoration
      • 2.11.7 Sampling Considerations
      • 2.11.8 Linogram Reconstruction
      • 2.11.9 2D Fan-Beam Tomography
      • 2.11.10 3D Cone-Beam Reconstruction
      • 2.11.11 Iterative Image Reconstruction
      • 2.11.12 Summary and Future Trends
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 2.12. The Basics of Ultrasound
      • Abstract
      • 2.12.1 Introduction
      • 2.12.2 US Propagation in an Ideal Fluid
      • 2.12.3 US Propagation in a Nonideal Fluid
      • 2.12.4 Pulse-Echo Imaging
      • 2.12.5 Final Remarks
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 2.13. Ultrasound Imaging Arrays
      • Abstract
      • 2.13.1 Introduction
      • 2.13.2 Array Transducers
      • 2.13.3 Beam Profile
      • 2.13.4 Apodization
      • 2.13.5 Beam Processing
      • 2.13.6 Echography: Reflection and Backscattering Imaging
      • 2.13.7 Image Quality
      • 2.13.8 Plane Wave Imaging (Ultrafast US Imaging)
      • 2.13.9 Synthetic Aperture Imaging
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.14. Doppler Ultrasound
      • Abstract
      • 2.14.1 Introduction
      • 2.14.2 Continuous-Wave Doppler
      • 2.14.3 Pulsed-Wave Doppler
      • 2.14.4 Color Doppler Imaging
      • 2.14.5 Vector Velocity Imaging
      • 2.14.6 Recent Developments in Ultrasound Imaging of Blood Flow
      • References
    • 2.15. Ultrasound Imaging Modalities
      • Abstract
      • 2.15.1 Introduction
      • 2.15.2 Reflection Imaging
      • 2.15.3 Nonlinear Imaging
      • 2.15.4 Quantitative Imaging
      • 2.15.5 Emerging Imaging Modalities
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.16. Nonlinear Acoustics
      • Abstract
      • 2.16.1 Introduction
      • 2.16.2 Plane Waves in Nonlinear Lossless and Lossy Media
      • 2.16.3 Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Equations
      • 2.16.4 Harmonic Imaging
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.17. Biomedical Applications of Ultrasound
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 2.17.1 Introduction
      • 2.17.2 Clinical Diagnostic Pathways: The Old and the New
      • 2.17.3 From Planar Through Tomographic, to Multidimensional Imaging
      • 2.17.4 US in Clinical Practice: Advantages and Disadvantages
      • 2.17.5 Brief Historical Notes and Modern Ideas
      • 2.17.6 Why and How US Imaging Works
      • 2.17.7 Probes and Transducers
      • 2.17.8 Usual Application of US in Medicine
      • 2.17.9 M-Mode and B-Mode Sonography
      • 2.17.10 Basic Principles of Clinical US
      • 2.17.11 Ultrasound Anatomy
      • 2.17.12 Other Practical Applications of Clinical US
      • 2.17.13 Operative Ultrasound
      • 2.17.14 Doppler US
      • 2.17.15 Doppler US for Hemodynamic Evaluation
      • 2.17.16 Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound
      • 2.17.17 Elastography
      • 2.17.18 The Physical Basis of Aerated Organs US Imaging
      • 2.17.19 New Applications: Lung US and Integrated US Imaging
      • 2.17.20 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.18. Biological Effects in Diagnostic Ultrasound
      • Abstract
      • 2.18.1 Introduction
      • 2.18.2 DUS Exposimetry and Dosimetry
      • 2.18.3 Heating and Thermal Bioeffects in DUS
      • 2.18.4 Nonthermal Tissue Interaction and Bioeffects in DUS
      • 2.18.5 Bioeffects Associated with Gas-Body Activation and Cavitation in DUS
      • 2.18.6 Critical Discussion of Bioeffects in DUS
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 2.19. Simulation of Ultrasound Fields
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 2.19.1 Introduction
      • 2.19.2 Basic Acoustic Equations
      • 2.19.3 Semianalytical Methods
      • 2.19.4 Numerical Methods for Linear Ultrasound Fields
      • 2.19.5 Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Ultrasound Fields
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 2.20. Ultrasound Research Platforms
      • Abstract
      • 2.20.1 Introduction
      • 2.20.2 General Characteristics of an Ideal Platform
      • 2.20.3 State of the Art of Research Platforms
      • 2.20.4 Detailed Architecture of Sample Platforms
      • 2.20.5 Innovative Applications of Open Platforms
      • 2.20.6 Discussion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
  • Volume 3: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
    • Introduction to Volume 3: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy
    • 3.01. Fundamentals of MR Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 3.01.1 Introduction
      • 3.01.2 MRI Equipment
      • 3.01.3 Basic Theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
      • 3.01.4 Relaxation
      • 3.01.5 Basic Pulse Sequences
      • 3.01.6 Image Formation
      • 3.01.7 Advanced Pulse Sequences
      • 3.01.8 Parallel and Non-Cartesian Imaging
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.02. Image Contrast and Resolution in MRI
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 3.02.1 Introduction to Spatial Resolution
      • 3.02.2 Magnetic Field Gradients and Spatial Encoding
      • 3.02.3 Slice Selection
      • 3.02.4 Gradient Strength and Image Resolution
      • 3.02.5 SNR Considerations
      • 3.02.6 NMR Microscopy
      • 3.02.7 Introduction to Image Contrast
      • 3.02.8 T1-Weighted MRI
      • 3.02.9 Suppression of T1 Components (Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery, Short TI Inversion Recovery, and Double-Inversion Recovery)
      • 3.02.10 T2-Weighted MRI
      • 3.02.11 Susceptibility Contrast
      • 3.02.12 Functional MRI
      • 3.02.13 Other Contrast Mechanisms
      • 3.02.14 Contrast Agents
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 3.03. Perfusion Imaging and Hyperpolarized Agents for MRI
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 3.03.1 Introduction
      • 3.03.2 Perfusion Imaging
      • 3.03.3 Hyperpolarized Agents
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Glossary
    • 3.04. High Versus Low Static Magnetic Fields in MRI
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 3.04.1 Introduction
      • 3.04.2 Characteristics of Increasing Static Magnetic Fields
      • 3.04.3 Some Consequences for Selected MR Applications
      • 3.04.4 Discussion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.05. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 3.05.1 From Neural Activity to the BOLD Signal – The Physiological Basis of fMRI
      • 3.05.2 fMRI Methodology
      • 3.05.3 From Research to Clinic – Clinical Use of fMRI
      • 3.05.4 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 3.06. Diffusion-Weighted MRI
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.06.1 Introduction
      • 3.06.2 Diffusion Process and Scalar DW Imaging
      • 3.06.3 Diffusion Tensor Imaging
      • 3.06.4 q-Space, Diffusion Spectroscopy, and Imaging
      • 3.06.5 HARDI and Beyond
      • 3.06.6 Structural Connectivity Inference and Applications
      • 3.06.7 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 3.07. MRI of the Brain
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • Acknowledgment
      • 3.07.1 Introduction
      • 3.07.2 MR-Based Modalities for Assessing Brain Anatomy
      • 3.07.3 MRI in Normal Brain Development
      • 3.07.4 MRI in Normal Brain Aging
      • 3.07.5 MRI of the Brain in Pathologic Conditions
      • 3.07.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.08. MRI of the Cardiovascular System
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 3.08.1 Introduction
      • 3.08.2 Special Considerations and Challenges of CMR
      • 3.08.3 Techniques and Sequences Used for CMR
      • 3.08.4 Clinical Applications of CMR
      • 3.08.5 Future Trends in CMR
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 3.09. MRI of the Liver
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 3.09.1 T1-Weighted Sequences
      • 3.09.2 T2-Weighted Sequences
      • 3.09.3 Gadolinium-Enhanced T1-Weighted Sequences
      • 3.09.4 Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Contrast Agent
      • 3.09.5 Artifacts
      • 3.09.6 Liver Protocol
      • 3.09.7 General Considerations of MRI of the Liver at 3 T
      • 3.09.8 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Liver
      • 3.09.9 Noncooperative Patients
      • 3.09.10 Emerging Developments in MRI
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 3.10. MRI of the Pancreas and Kidney
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.10.1 Introduction
      • 3.10.2 Techniques
      • 3.10.3 MRI of the Pancreas
      • 3.10.4 MRI of the Kidney
      • 3.10.5 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.11. MRI of the Small and Large Bowel
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 3.11.1 General Issues in Small Bowel Imaging
      • 3.11.2 MRI of the SB: Technical Aspects
      • 3.11.3 Clinical Applications
      • 3.11.4 MRI of the Large Bowel
      • 3.11.5 MR Colonography: Technical Aspects
      • 3.11.6 Indications for MR Colonography
      • 3.11.7 MRI of the Small and Large Bowel: Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.12. MR Imaging of the Prostate
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgment
      • 3.12.1 Introduction
      • 3.12.2 Equipment
      • 3.12.3 MRI Examination for Prostate Cancer
      • 3.12.4 Role of MRI in Prostate Cancer
      • 3.12.5 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate
      • 3.12.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.13. MRI of the Breast
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 3.13.1 Introduction
      • 3.13.2 Special MRI Techniques for Breast Imaging
      • 3.13.3 Basic Breast Pathology
      • 3.13.4 MRI of Nonmalignant, Nontumorous Breast Lesions
      • 3.13.5 MRI of Benign Breast Tumors
      • 3.13.6 MRI of Malignant Breast Tumors
      • 3.13.7 Dynamic MRI
      • 3.13.8 DWI of Breast Tumors
      • 3.13.9 Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging for Microcalcifications
      • 3.13.10 Biological Correlation
      • 3.13.11 Clinical Applications
      • 3.13.12 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.14. MRI of the Female Genitourinary Tract
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 3.14.1 Introduction
      • 3.14.2 Normal Anatomy
      • 3.14.3 MRI Techniques in the Female Pelvis
      • 3.14.4 Pathologies of Uterus
      • 3.14.5 Adnexal Disease
      • 3.14.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.15. Three-Dimensional Multispectral MRI for Patients with Metal Implants
      • Abstract
      • 3.15.1 Introduction
      • 3.15.2 Theory
      • 3.15.3 Application of 3D-MSI Methods
      • 3.15.4 Discussion
      • 3.15.5 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.16. Fundamentals of MR Spectroscopy
      • Abstract
      • 3.16.1 Basic Concepts
      • 3.16.2 Nuclei that Can Be Used for MRS
      • 3.16.3 Key Methodologies
      • 3.16.4 Complexities and Caveats
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 3.17. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of the Brain
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.17.1 Introduction
      • 3.17.2 Neurodegenerative Diseases
      • 3.17.3 Psychiatric Disorders
      • 3.17.4 Somatoform Disorders
      • 3.17.5 Vascular Disorders
      • 3.17.6 Intracranial Neoplasms
      • 3.17.7 Infections
      • 3.17.8 Demyelinating Diseases
      • 3.17.9 Developmental Disorders
      • 3.17.10 Epilepsy
      • 3.17.11 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.18. MR Spectroscopy (MRS) of the Prostate
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.18.1 Introduction
      • 3.18.2 Prostate Cancer
      • 3.18.3 MRS of the Prostate
      • 3.18.4 Clinical Applications of MRS for Prostate Cancer
      • 3.18.5 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.19. MRS of the Breast
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.19.1 Introduction
      • 3.19.2 1H-MRS and the Choline Signal in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer
      • 3.19.3 Monitoring Response to Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy with MRI and 1H-MRS
      • 3.19.4 Technical Aspects
      • 3.19.5 In Situ 31P-MRS of Breast Cancer
      • 3.19.6 Future Directions – Hyperpolarized 13C Choline Imaging and Spectroscopy
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.20. Potential and Obstacles of MRS in the Clinical Setting
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.20.1 Introduction
      • 3.20.2 Some Basics Concerning MRS in the Clinical Setting
      • 3.20.3 Conventional Approaches to Processing Localized Spectra
      • 3.20.4 Obstacles Related to Fourier-Based Analysis and Postprocessing Fitting
      • 3.20.5 What Do Clinicians Expect from MRS?
      • 3.20.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Glossary
    • 3.21. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 3.21.1 Introduction
      • 3.21.2 Multiple Types of Imaging Based on the Chemical Shift
      • 3.21.3 Theory
      • 3.21.4 Technology
      • 3.21.5 Quantification
      • 3.21.6 Applications in Humans
      • 3.21.7 Other Applications
      • 3.21.8 Problems of MRSI
      • 3.21.9 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.22. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgment
      • 3.22.1 Introduction
      • 3.22.2 Diagnosis/Detection
      • 3.22.3 Grading/Assessment of Aggressiveness
      • 3.22.4 Treatment Selection/Response Assessment/Prognosis
      • 3.22.5 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.23. In Vivo Two-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.23.1 Introduction
      • 3.23.2 Basics of 2D MRS
      • 3.23.3 Modeling a Single Isolated Spin −1/2 System
      • 3.23.4 Modeling a Weakly Coupled Spin-Pair System
      • 3.23.5 2D Localized Correlated Spectroscopy
      • 3.23.6 Clinical Applications of Single Voxel 2D L-COSY MRS
      • 3.23.7 Other Sequences in Single Voxel 2D MRS
      • 3.23.8 Multivoxel 2D MRS
      • 3.23.9 Quantification in 2D MRS
      • 3.23.10 Future Directions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.24. Basic Science Input into Clinical MR Modalities
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.24.1 Introduction
      • 3.24.2 Metabolic Biomarkers of Breast Cancer – MRS of Choline Metabolism
      • 3.24.3 Sodium MRI of Renal Function
      • 3.24.4 Final Comments
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 3.25. Mathematically Optimized MR Reconstructions
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.25.1 Introduction
      • 3.25.2 Standard Versus Advanced Signal Processing Methods in MR
      • 3.25.3 Results of the FPT Within 1D MRS
      • 3.25.4 Other Applications of the FPT Within MR
      • 3.25.5 Perspectives
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Glossary
    • 3.26. Interdisciplinarity of MR and Future Perspectives with a Focus on Screening
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • Acknowledgments
      • 3.26.1 Introduction
      • 3.26.2 Challenges Entailed in the Interdisciplinarity of MR
      • 3.26.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of MR with a Focus on Screening
      • 3.26.4 Outlooks for the Future of MR with a Focus on Timely Cancer Diagnosis
      • 3.26.5 Conclusion: Public Health and Policy Implications
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
  • Volume 4: Optical Molecular Imaging
    • Introduction to Volume 4: Optical Molecular Imaging
    • 4.01. Bio-optical Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 4.01.1 Introduction
      • 4.01.2 Light Produced by Living Organisms
      • 4.01.3 How Do Living Organisms Produce Light?
      • 4.01.4 So What Exactly is Bioluminescence?
      • 4.01.5 Functions of Bioluminescence
      • 4.01.6 Types of Bioluminescence, Bioluminescent Organs, and Control of the Light Emission
      • 4.01.7 Fluorescence
      • 4.01.8 Luminescence Science: From Past to Present
      • 4.01.9 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.02. Signal-Relevant Properties of Fluorescent Labels and Optical Probes and Their Determination
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgment
      • 4.02.1 Introduction
      • 4.02.2 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.03. Fluorescent Proteins
      • Abstract
      • 4.03.1 The Green Fluorescent Protein Nude Mouse
      • 4.03.2 The Nestin-Driven GFP Nude Mouse
      • 4.03.3 The RFP Nude Mouse
      • 4.03.4 The CFP Nude Mouse
      • 4.03.5 Cancer Cells Expressing GFP in the Nucleus and RFP in the Cytoplasm
      • 4.03.6 Imaging the Recruitment of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts by Liver-Metastatic Colon Cancer
      • 4.03.7 Multicolored Stroma to Image Interaction with Cancer Cells
      • 4.03.8 Making Patient Primary Tumors Glow in Nude Mice by Coloring the Stroma with Fluorescent Proteins
      • 4.03.9 Making Metastasis from Patient Tumors Glow in Nude Mice by Coloring the Stroma with GFP
      • 4.03.10 Non-invasive Imaging of Orthotopic Pancreatic-Cancer-Patient Tumors Colored by GFP and RFP Stroma in Nude Mice
      • 4.03.11 Color-Coded Real-Time Subcellular Fluorescence Imaging of the Interaction between Cancer and Stromal Cells in Live Mice
      • 4.03.12 Non-invasive Subcellular Multicolor Imaging of Cancer Cell–Stromal Cell Interaction and Drug Response in Real Time
      • 4.03.13 Stromal Cells are Necessary for Cancer Cells to Metastasize
      • 4.03.14 Visualizing Stromal Cell Dynamics by Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy
      • 4.03.15 Conclusions
      • Dedication
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.04. Fluorescent Nanoparticles
      • Abstract
      • 4.04.1 Introduction to Luminescence
      • 4.04.2 Materials and Synthesis
      • 4.04.3 Specific Aspects for Medical Use
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.05. Molecular Imaging Probes: Activatable and Sensing Probes
      • Abstract
      • 4.05.1 Introduction
      • 4.05.2 Activation Strategies
      • 4.05.3 Photochemical Aspects of Probe Activation
      • 4.05.4 Targeting Moieties
      • 4.05.5 Molecular Imaging Applications
      • 4.05.6 Summary
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 4.06. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Probes
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.06.1 Introduction
      • 4.06.2 The Principle of Resonance Energy Transfer
      • 4.06.3 Design of FRET Pairs
      • 4.06.4 FRET Applications
      • 4.06.5 Intramolecular and Intermolecular FRET
      • 4.06.6 Methods to Detect FRET
      • 4.06.7 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.07. Multimodal Optical Imaging Probes
      • Abstract
      • 4.07.1 Introduction
      • 4.07.2 Multimodal Optical Imaging Probes
      • 4.07.3 Discussion
      • 4.07.4 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.08. Fluorescent Reporters and Optical Probes
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.08.1 Introduction
      • 4.08.2 Classes and Optical Properties of Fluorescent Dyes for Biomedical Imaging
      • 4.08.3 Chemistry of Fluorescent Dyes
      • 4.08.4 Summary and Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.09. Advanced Fluorescence Microscopy
      • Abstract
      • 4.09.1 Introduction
      • 4.09.2 The Fundamentals of Optical Microscopy
      • 4.09.3 Advanced Linear Fluorescence Microscopy
      • 4.09.4 Nonlinear Superresolution Fluorescence Microscopy
      • 4.09.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • 4.10. Uncovering Tumor Biology by Intravital Microscopy
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 4.10.1 Introduction
      • 4.10.2 Animal Models for IVM
      • 4.10.3 Intravital Microscopic Modalities
      • 4.10.4 IVM Studies for Tumor Biology
      • 4.10.5 Summary and Outlook
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.11. Two-Photon Microscopy
      • Abstract
      • 4.11.1 Introduction
      • 4.11.2 Basics of Laser Scanning Microscopy: The Excitation and Emission Process
      • 4.11.3 Linear Optical Microscopy
      • 4.11.4 Nonlinear Optical Microscopy
      • 4.11.5 Second-Harmonic Generation Microscopy
      • 4.11.6 Nonlinear Versus Linear Microscopy in Biomedical Imaging
      • 4.11.7 Biomedical Application of TPLSM
      • 4.11.8 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.12. Optical Frequency-Domain Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 4.12.1 Introduction
      • 4.12.2 High-Sensitivity and High-Speed OFDI
      • 4.12.3 System Implementation
      • 4.12.4 Functional OFDI
      • 4.12.5 Endoscopic OFDI
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.13. Raman-Based Technologies for Biomedical Diagnostics
      • Abstract
      • 4.13.1 Introduction
      • 4.13.2 Background and Instrumentation
      • 4.13.3 Raman Microspectroscopy
      • 4.13.4 Applications
      • 4.13.5 Signal Enhancement Techniques
      • 4.13.6 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 4.14. Optical Coherence Tomography
      • Abstract
      • 4.14.1 Introduction
      • 4.14.2 Low-Coherence Interferometry and TD-OCT
      • 4.14.3 Low-Coherence Interferometry and FD-OCT
      • 4.14.4 Adjuvant OCT Techniques
      • 4.14.5 Summary
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 4.15. Two-Dimensional In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.15.1 Introduction
      • 4.15.2 Principles of Fluorescence Imaging
      • 4.15.3 Methods to Improve Specificity and Sensitivity
      • 4.15.4 In Vivo Applications of 2D Fluorescence Imaging
      • 4.15.5 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.16. Bioluminescence Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviation
      • Acknowledgments
      • 4.16.1 Luciferase as a Reporter Gene for In Vivo Imaging
      • 4.16.2 Factors Affecting BLI Quantification
      • 4.16.3 Concluding Remarks
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.17. Inverse Models for Diffuse Optical Molecular Tomography
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.17.1 Introduction
      • 4.17.2 Fluorescence Molecular Tomography
      • 4.17.3 Bioluminescence Tomography
      • 4.17.4 Summary
      • References
    • 4.18. Hybrid Optical Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 4.18.1 Introduction
      • 4.18.2 Planar Optical and x-Ray Imaging
      • 4.18.3 Microcomputed Tomography
      • 4.18.4 Magnetic Resonance Imaging
      • 4.18.5 PET and SPECT
      • 4.18.6 Handling
      • 4.18.7 Image Fusion
      • 4.18.8 Segmentation and Analysis
      • 4.18.9 Improvements for Reconstruction
      • 4.18.10 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.19. Optoacoustic Imaging
      • Abstract
      • 4.19.1 Introduction
      • 4.19.2 Generation and Detection of Optoacoustic Signals
      • 4.19.3 Imaging Approaches
      • 4.19.4 Multispectral Imaging
      • 4.19.5 Quantification of Optoacoustic Images
      • 4.19.6 Contrast Enhancement Approaches
      • 4.19.7 Applications in Biology and Medicine
      • 4.19.8 Conclusions
      • References
    • 4.20. Fluorescence-Guided Surgery: A Promising Approach for Future Oncologic Surgery
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.20.1 Introduction
      • 4.20.2 Influences on Fluorescent Signal
      • 4.20.3 SLN Mapping Using Fluorescence Imaging
      • 4.20.4 Tumor Detection Using Organic Fluorescent Probes
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.21. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy Applications
      • Abstract
      • 4.21.1 From Endomacroscopy to Endomicroscopy, Two Centuries of Evolution
      • 4.21.2 Principle of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy
      • 4.21.3 Preclinical Applications
      • 4.21.4 Clinical Applications
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.22. Optical Imaging in Mammography
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 4.22.1 Introduction
      • 4.22.2 History
      • 4.22.3 Materials and Methods
      • 4.22.4 Indications
      • 4.22.5 Studies
      • 4.22.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 4.23. External Transdermal Procedures
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.23.1 Introduction
      • 4.23.2 A Brief History of OI for Clinical Diagnostics
      • 4.23.3 Current OI Technology with Clinical Potential
      • 4.23.4 Clinical Examples
      • References
    • 4.24. High Content Screening and Analysis with Nanotechnologies
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 4.24.1 Introduction
      • 4.24.2 High Content Screening and Analysis
      • 4.24.3 Biocompatibility of Novel Imaging Probes Based on Nanoparticles
      • 4.24.4 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
  • Volume 5: Physics of Physiological Measurements
    • Introduction To Volume 5: Physics of Physiological Measurements
    • 5.01. Electrical Activities in the Body
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 5.01.1 Origin of Electrical Body Activity
      • 5.01.2 Equilibrium (Diffusion) Potentials
      • 5.01.3 Resting Membrane Potential
      • 5.01.4 Measurement of Membrane Potentials
      • 5.01.5 Action Potentials
      • 5.01.6 Voltage Clamp and Patch Clamp Techniques
      • 5.01.7 Propagation of APs
      • 5.01.8 Single-Cell Recordings of APs and Trains of APs
      • 5.01.9 Synaptic Potentials
      • 5.01.10 Sensor Potentials and AP Trains
      • 5.01.11 Extracellular Recordings from the Nerves
      • 5.01.12 Bioelectrical Events in the Muscles
      • 5.01.13 Recording Electrical Body Signals from the Body Surface
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.02. Electrocardiography
      • Abstract
      • 5.02.1 Cardiac Autorhythm
      • 5.02.2 Control by the Autonomous Nervous System
      • 5.02.3 Intracardial Electrical Control Signals: Action Potentials
      • 5.02.4 Diagnostic Control Signals: ECG and Vectorcardiogram
      • 5.02.5 Leads for the ECG
      • 5.02.6 The Electrocardiographic Acquisition Chain
      • 5.02.7 Clinical Applications
      • 5.02.8 ECG-Related Techniques
      • 5.02.9 Corollary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.03. Bioelectric Measurements: Magnetoencephalography
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 5.03.1 History
      • 5.03.2 Basics
      • 5.03.3 Instrumentation
      • 5.03.4 Analysis and Interpretation Methods of MEG
      • 5.03.5 Artifact Rejection Methods
      • 5.03.6 Basic Research: Evoked Fields
      • 5.03.7 Basic Research: Spontaneous Brain Activity
      • 5.03.8 Fetal MEG
      • 5.03.9 MEG in Animal Models
      • 5.03.10 Current MEG Clinical Applications
      • 5.03.11 Upcoming MEG Clinical Applications
      • 5.03.12 Combining MEG with Other Imaging Methods
      • 5.03.13 Future Developments
      • 5.03.14 New Research and Clinical Applications
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.04. Tissue Impedance Spectroscopy and Impedance Imaging
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 5.04.1 Introduction
      • 5.04.2 Conduction of Electricity Through Tissue
      • 5.04.3 The Measurement of Tissue Impedance
      • 5.04.4 Normal Tissue Impedance
      • 5.04.5 Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy
      • 5.04.6 Electrical Impedance Tomography
      • 5.04.7 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 5.05. Blood Flow Measurement
      • Abstract
      • 5.05.1 Introduction
      • 5.05.2 Blood Flow in Large Vessels
      • 5.05.3 Tissue Blood Flow
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.06. Measurement of Temperatures of the Human Body
      • Abstract
      • 5.06.1 Introduction: Requirements to Physiological and Clinical Temperature Measurement
      • 5.06.2 Physical Principles and Technical Devices of Temperature Measurement Suited for Medical Applications
      • 5.06.3 Topography of Temperatures of the Human Body
      • 5.06.4 Determinants of Body Temperatures
      • 5.06.5 Measurement of Internal Body Temperatures
      • 5.06.6 Measurement of Skin Temperatures
      • 5.06.7 Assessment of Mean Body Temperature
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.07. Force Measurements
      • Abstract
      • 5.07.1 Introduction
      • 5.07.2 Force Distribution and Pressure Measurements
      • 5.07.3 Electromyography
      • 5.07.4 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.08. Smart Homes: Ambient Intelligence and How IT Can Help Increase Longevity
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 5.08.1 Introduction
      • 5.08.2 ICT for Remote Collection of Health Data
      • 5.08.3 Smart Home Initiatives
      • 5.08.4 From Data to Information
      • 5.08.5 Discussion
      • 5.08.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 5.09. Wearable Sensors
      • Abstract
      • 5.09.1 Introduction
      • 5.09.2 Advantages and Limitations
      • 5.09.3 Design Issues
      • 5.09.4 Technology and Applications
      • 5.09.5 Biomechanical Sensors
      • 5.09.6 Sensors for Monitoring the External Environment
      • 5.09.7 Other Sensors
      • 5.09.8 Integrating Signal Sensors
      • 5.09.9 Future Perspectives
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
  • Volume 6: Bioinformatics
    • Introduction to Volume 6: Bioinformatics
    • 6.01. Artificial Neural Networks
      • Abstract
      • 6.01.1 Introduction
      • 6.01.2 Multilayer Perceptron
      • 6.01.3 Self-Organizing Map
      • 6.01.4 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.02. Learning Rule-Based Models - The Rough Set Approach
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.02.1 Introduction: Learning and Rule-Based Models
      • 6.02.2 Basic Concepts of Rough Sets
      • 6.02.3 Quality Measures and Statistical Significance
      • 6.02.4 The Modeling Process
      • 6.02.5 Advanced Rough Set Modeling
      • 6.02.6 Case Studies: Rough Sets in Bioinformatics
      • 6.02.7 Rough Sets Versus Statistical Classification
      • 6.02.8 Other Learning Approaches in Bioinformatics
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.03. Algorithms for Mapping High-Throughput DNA Sequences
      • Abstract
      • 6.03.1 Introduction
      • 6.03.2 Mapping Algorithms
      • 6.03.3 Mapping in Practice
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 6.04. Text Mining
      • Abstract
      • 6.04.1 Introduction
      • 6.04.2 Resources
      • 6.04.3 Tasks and Methods
      • 6.04.4 Applications
      • 6.04.5 Community Evaluations and Challenges
      • 6.04.6 Outlook
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.05. Semantic Web, Ontologies, and Linked Data
      • Abstract
      • 6.05.1 Introduction
      • 6.05.2 Semantic Web
      • 6.05.3 Ontologies
      • 6.05.4 Linked Data
      • 6.05.5 Summary
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 6.06. Nomenclature of Genes and Proteins
      • Abstract
      • 6.06.1 Introduction
      • 6.06.2 Human Gene Nomenclature
      • 6.06.3 Human Variation Nomenclature
      • 6.06.4 Vertebrate Gene Nomenclature
      • 6.06.5 Insect Gene Nomenclature
      • 6.06.6 Fungal Gene Nomenclature
      • 6.06.7 Plant Gene Nomenclature
      • 6.06.8 Bacterial Gene Nomenclature
      • 6.06.9 Protein Nomenclature
      • 6.06.10 Summary
      • References
    • 6.07. Phylogenetic Analyses
      • Abstract
      • 6.07.1 Phylogenetic Analyses
      • 6.07.2 Phylogenetic Tree Reconstruction
      • 6.07.3 Practical Applications of Phylogenetic Methods
      • 6.07.4 Some of the Most Widely Used Phylogenetic Software Packages
      • 6.07.5 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.08. Computational Approaches for Predicting Mutation Effects on RNA Structure
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.08.1 Introduction
      • 6.08.2 RNA Structure and Function
      • 6.08.3 Impact of Mutations on RNA Structure and Function
      • 6.08.4 Computational Assessment of the Impact of Mutations on RNA Structure
      • 6.08.5 Conclusion and Future Perspectives
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.09. Chemoinformatics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.09.1 Introduction
      • 6.09.2 Basic Techniques in Chemoinformatics
      • 6.09.3 Major Application Areas of Chemoinformatics
      • 6.09.4 Chemoinformatics in the Context of Medical Physics
      • 6.09.5 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.10. Lipidomics in Metabolomics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 6.10.1 Biological System
      • 6.10.2 Metabolomics
      • 6.10.3 Lipidomics
      • 6.10.4 Outlook
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 6.11. Genome-Scale Metabolic Models: A Link between Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
      • 6.11.1 Introduction
      • 6.11.2 Genome-Scale Metabolic Models
      • 6.11.3 Analysis of Metabolic Networks
      • 6.11.4 Integration of Omics Data
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 6.12. EBI and ELIXIR
      • Abstract
      • 6.12.1 The Origins of Databases and Bioinformatics
      • 6.12.2 Data for Today's Life-Science Research
      • 6.12.3 The Data Deluge
      • 6.12.4 Open Science and Innovation
      • 6.12.5 Standards
      • 6.12.6 The Importance of Curation
      • 6.12.7 EMBL-EBI: Its Origins, Purpose, and Structure
      • 6.12.8 Service Teams
      • 6.12.9 Research Teams
      • 6.12.10 The Organization of Data Resources, Compute, and Storage at EMBL-EBI
      • 6.12.11 Genes, Genomes, and Variation
      • 6.12.12 Molecular Atlas
      • 6.12.13 Proteins and Protein Families
      • 6.12.14 Molecular and Cellular Structures
      • 6.12.15 Chemical Biology
      • 6.12.16 Molecular Systems
      • 6.12.17 Cross-Domain Tools and Resources
      • 6.12.18 Training in the use of Databases
      • 6.12.19 Industry Collaboration
      • 6.12.20 ELIXIR: The Pan-European Research Infrastructure for Life-Science Data
      • 6.12.21 ELIXIR: The Road to Managing Europe's Life-Science Data
      • 6.12.22 Technical Implementation
      • 6.12.23 ELIXIR and the Future
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 6.13. Databases and Datasources at SIB, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 6.13.1 SIB History and Mission
      • 6.13.2 ExPASy: SIB Bioinformatics Resource
      • 6.13.3 neXtProt: A Human Centric Knowledge Platform
      • 6.13.4 The Swiss-Prot Group and Databases
      • 6.13.5 SIB Resources at Large
      • 6.13.6 Coordination of Education Activities by SIB
      • 6.13.7 Involving the Research Community in Resource Development
      • 6.13.8 Summary
      • References
  • Volume 7: Radiation Biology and Radiation Safety
    • Introduction To Volume 7: Radiation Biology and Radiation Safety
    • 7.01. Early Events Leading to Radiation-Induced Biological Effects
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.01.1 Introduction
      • 7.01.2 A Survey on Radiation Interaction with Matter
      • 7.01.3 The Track Structure Method: Applications and Examples
      • 7.01.4 Approaches to Predict Biological Effects from Radiation Characteristics
      • 7.01.5 Examples of Needs for Further Insights
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 7.02. Microbeam Radiation Biology
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.02.1 Introduction and Development of Microbeams
      • 7.02.2 Charged Particle Microbeams
      • 7.02.3 x-Ray Microbeams
      • 7.02.4 Electron, UV, and Laser Microbeams
      • 7.02.5 Biological Studies with Microbeams
      • 7.02.6 Future Studies
      • 7.02.7 Summary
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 7.03. Molecular Radiation Biology
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.03.1 Introduction
      • 7.03.2 The DNA Damage Response
      • 7.03.3 Signal Transduction and Radiosensitivity
      • 7.03.4 Exploiting Molecular Radiobiological Knowledge to Improve Cancer Therapy
      • 7.03.5 Summary
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 7.04. Cellular Radiation Biology
      • Abstract
      • 7.04.1 Cell Population Kinetics
      • 7.04.2 Cell Death Assays
      • 7.04.3 Colony Formation and Cell Growth Assays
      • 7.04.4 Model Systems
      • 7.04.5 Survival Curves and Survival Curve Models
      • 7.04.6 Hyper-Radiosensitivity
      • 7.04.7 Sublethal and Potentially Lethal Damage Repair
      • 7.04.8 Dose-Rate and Fractionation Effects
      • 7.04.9 Relative Biological Effectiveness
      • 7.04.10 Radiosensitizers
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Glossary
    • 7.05. Normal Tissue Radiobiology
      • Abstract
      • 7.05.1 Pathogenesis of Normal Tissue Radiation Reactions
      • 7.05.2 Assessment and Documentation of Normal Tissue Side Effects
      • 7.05.3 Radiation Effects in Specific Tissues and Organs
      • 7.05.4 Radiation-Induced Cancer
      • 7.05.5 Acute Radiation Syndromes
      • 7.05.6 The Rs of Radiotherapy – As Applied to Normal Tissues
      • 7.05.7 Reirradiation Tolerance of Normal Tissues
      • 7.05.8 Principles for the Mitigation of Normal Tissue Complications
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 7.06. Tumor Radiation Biology
      • Abstract
      • 7.06.1 Tumor Models and Assays to Measure Radiation Response
      • 7.06.2 Methods of Assessing Response
      • 7.06.3 Model Specificity of Therapeutic Studies
      • 7.06.4 Tumor Pathophysiology and Hypoxia
      • 7.06.5 The Tumor Microenvironment – The Importance of the Tumor Vasculature in the Response to Irradiation: Angiogenesis and Vasculogenesis and Therapeutic Possibilities?
      • 7.06.6 Drug Radiation Interactions
      • 7.06.7 Molecularly Targeted Therapy
      • 7.06.8 Factors Affecting Tumor Radiation Response (the 5 Rs) and Predictive Assays
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 7.07. Accurate Analytical Description of the Cell Survival and Dose-Response Relationships at Low and High Doses and LETs
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 7.07.1 Introduction
      • 7.07.2 The Cell Survival Curve
      • 7.07.3 The LET Dependence of the Cross Section
      • 7.07.4 The Relative Biological Effectiveness
      • 7.07.5 The Oxygen Enhancement Ratio
      • 7.07.6 The Repairable–Conditionally Repairable Damage Model
      • 7.07.7 The LET Dependence of a, b, and c
      • 7.07.8 The Relation between the RCR, Linear, and LQ Models
      • 7.07.9 Dose–Response Relations for Organized Tissues
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 7.08. Genetic Susceptibility and Predictive Assays
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 7.08.1 Introduction
      • 7.08.2 Candidate Susceptibility Genes for Radiotherapy Adverse Events
      • 7.08.3 Susceptibility Genes for Radiation-Induced Cancers
      • 7.08.4 Assays for Proliferation, Hypoxia, Tumor Radiosensitivity, and Normal Tissue Radiosensitivity
      • 7.08.5 High-Throughput Assays
      • 7.08.6 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 7.09. Genetic Effects and Risk Estimation
      • Abstract
      • 7.09.1 Introduction
      • 7.09.2 Historical Background
      • 7.09.3 Framework for and Goal of Genetic Risk Estimation Used by the Scientific Committees and in Studies of the Children of A-Bomb Survivors in Japan
      • 7.09.4 Germ‐Cell Stages and Radiation Conditions of Relevance
      • 7.09.5 The Doubling Dose Method of Risk Estimation
      • 7.09.6 Genetic Diseases in Humans
      • 7.09.7 Spontaneous Mutation Rates of Human Genes
      • 7.09.8 Radiation Genetic Studies with Mice
      • 7.09.9 The DD Estimate Used in UNSCEAR (2001) and BEIR VII Report (NRC, 2006)
      • 7.09.10 The Concept of Mutation Component
      • 7.09.11 Molecular-Biology-Based Advances in the Last Decade of the Twentieth Century That Are Relevant for Genetic Risk Estimation
      • 7.09.12 Recapitulation of the Key Quantities Used in Risk Equation and Current Risk Estimates
      • 7.09.13 Human Data on Genetic Effects of Radiation
      • 7.09.14 Genetic Risks and Radiation Protection Guidelines (Dose Limits) of the ICRP from the Mid-1950s to the Present
      • 7.09.15 Genetic Risk Estimation in the Twenty-First Century
      • Appendix A Genetic Predisposition to Cancer and Its Impact on Cancer Risks to the Population
      • Appendix B Data on Radiation-Induced Mutations in Mouse Females
      • Appendix C Cytogenetic Studies on Radiation-Induced Reciprocal Translocations in Mice and Some Primate Species
      • Appendix D Induction of Germ‐Cell Mutations at ESTR Loci in the Mouse and Mini- and Microsatellite Loci in Human Germ Cells
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 7.10. Light Ion Radiation Biology
      • Abstract
      • 7.10.1 DNA Damage and Repair
      • 7.10.2 Chromosome Damage
      • 7.10.3 Cell- and Tissue-Dependence of RBE
      • 7.10.4 The Oxygen Effect and Tumor Heterogeneity
      • 7.10.5 Repair, Dose Rate, and Fractionation Effects
      • 7.10.6 Biological Comparison of Ions, Protons, and Neutrons
      • 7.10.7 Microdosimetric and Track Structure Models for Carbon ion Radiotherapy
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 7.11. Radiological Protection of Patients and Personnel
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 7.11.1 Fundamentals and Principles of Radiation Protection
      • 7.11.2 Conventional Film Radiography
      • 7.11.3 Digital Technology for Radiography
      • 7.11.4 Mammography
      • 7.11.5 Computed Tomography
      • 7.11.6 Interventional Procedures Guided by x-Ray Imaging
      • 7.11.7 Nuclear Medicine
      • 7.11.8 Radiation Therapy
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 7.12. Radiation Biology of Radiation Protection
      • Abstract
      • 7.12.1 Introduction
      • 7.12.2 Tissue Reactions
      • 7.12.3 Stochastic Effects
      • 7.12.4 Radiation Delivery Pattern, Quality, and Radiation Weighting
      • 7.12.5 Conclusions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 7.13. Radiation Biology of Tissue Radiosterilization
      • Abstract
      • 7.13.1 Introduction
      • 7.13.2 Need for Sterilization Treatment
      • 7.13.3 Interaction of Radiation with Matter and Microorganisms
      • 7.13.4 Radiosensitivity of Microorganisms
      • 7.13.5 Effects of Radiation on Tissues and Tissue Components
      • 7.13.6 Dosimetry Requirements
      • 7.13.7 Bioburden and Radiation Sterilization Dose Validation
      • 7.13.8 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 7.14. Established and Emerging Methods of Biological Dosimetry
      • Abstract
      • 7.14.1 Biological Dosimetry is an Important Tool for Managing Cases of Human Radiation Exposure
      • 7.14.2 Ionizations – Luminescence Assays
      • 7.14.3 Radicals – Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
      • 7.14.4 DNA Damage Induction, Signaling, and Repair
      • 7.14.5 Chromosome Aberrations
      • 7.14.6 Somatic Mutations
      • 7.14.7 Tissue, Organ, and Systemic Responses
      • 7.14.8 Concluding Remarks
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 7.15. Radiation and Environmental Protection
      • Abstract
      • 7.15.1 Introduction
      • 7.15.2 Environmental Protection as an Agreed Objective
      • 7.15.3 Creating a Framework for Environmental Protection
      • 7.15.4 Potential Application to Different Exposure Situations
      • 7.15.5 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 7.16. Biological Effects and Health Consequences of ELF and RF Fields
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 7.16.1 Introduction
      • 7.16.2 Sources and Exposure
      • 7.16.3 ELF and RF Health Effects
      • 7.16.4 Health-Risk Assessment and Guidelines
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary (from WHO, 2007)
  • Volume 8: Radiation Sources and Detectors
    • Introduction to Volume 8: Radiation Sources and Detectors
    • 8.01. Electron Linear Accelerators
      • Abstract
      • 8.01.1 Structure and Principles
      • 8.01.2 Linacs for RT: Then and Now
      • 8.01.3 Pencil Beam 6 MeV x-Ray Cancer Therapy System
      • 8.01.4 Microtron for Radiotherapy
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.02. Synchrotron Radiation
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 8.02.1 Creation of x-Rays by Synchrotron Radiation
      • 8.02.2 Insertion Devices
      • 8.02.3 Beamline Equipment
      • 8.02.4 Beamline Design for Biomedical Applications
      • 8.02.5 Beamlines Currently Available for Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Experiments
      • 8.02.6 Examples of Biomedical Studies Using SR
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.03. Inverse Compton Scattering Sources
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 8.03.1 Introduction
      • 8.03.2 Applications to Biological and Medical Uses
      • 8.03.3 Conclusion and Future Aspects
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.04. Tabletop Synchrotron Light Source
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 8.04.1 Introduction
      • 8.04.2 Principle of Tabletop Synchrotron MIRRORCLE
      • 8.04.3 Hard x-Ray Production Using BS
      • 8.04.4 EUV and Soft x-Ray Productions Using SCR
      • 8.04.5 FIR Production in PhSR
      • 8.04.6 Application Fields of Hard x-Rays
      • 8.04.7 Application Fields of FIR
      • 8.04.8 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 8.05. Free-Electron Laser Sources
      • Abstract
      • 8.05.1 Fundamentals of Free-Electron Lasers
      • 8.05.2 Applications of FELs
      • 8.05.3 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.06. Petawatt Laser and Laser Ion/Electron Accelerator
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 8.06.1 Petawatt Laser and Laser Ion Accelerator
      • 8.06.2 Radiotherapy with Electron Beam Generated by Laser-Plasma Accelerators
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 8.07. Electron-Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet Hard x-Ray Sources
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 8.07.1 Introduction
      • 8.07.2 Electron-Impact x-Ray Sources
      • 8.07.3 Liquid Jets
      • 8.07.4 High-Brightness Electron-Beam System
      • 8.07.5 LMJ Microfocus x-Ray Sources
      • 8.07.6 Applications
      • 8.07.7 Summary and Outlook
      • References
    • 8.08. Laser-Impact Metal Droplet EUV Source
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgement
      • 8.08.1 Introduction
      • 8.08.2 LPP-EUV Source Systems
      • 8.08.3 Key Technology Development
      • 8.08.4 Latest Status of GL200E Construction
      • 8.08.5 Future Development Plan
      • 8.08.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.09. x-Ray Free-Electron Lasers
      • Abstract
      • 8.09.1 Introduction
      • 8.09.2 Radiation from Electron Bunches
      • 8.09.3 The SASE Process
      • 8.09.4 Statistical Properties of SASE Radiation
      • 8.09.5 Brilliance
      • 8.09.6 Requirements on Electron Beam Parameters
      • 8.09.7 The Electron Source
      • 8.09.8 Bunch Compression and Beam Dynamic Aspects
      • 8.09.9 The Free-Electron Laser FLASH
      • 8.09.10 Medial Applications of x-Ray FELs
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 8.10. Ion Linac and Synchrotron
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 8.10.1 Features of Acceleration by Synchrotron
      • 8.10.2 Linear Accelerator
      • 8.10.3 Synchrotron
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 8.11. FFAG
      • Abstract
      • 8.11.1 Introduction
      • 8.11.2 Scaling and Non-Scaling FFAGs
      • 8.11.3 Zero-Chromatic Beam Optics of FFAG
      • 8.11.4 Features of FFAGs
      • 8.11.5 FFAG for Medical Applications
      • References
    • 8.12. Cyclotrons
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 8.12.1 Introduction
      • 8.12.2 Type of Cyclotrons
      • 8.12.3 Configuration of Cyclotron
      • 8.12.4 Cyclotrons for Medical Applications
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 8.13. Neutron Sources
      • Abstract
      • 8.13.1 Introduction
      • 8.13.2 History of Neutron Source
      • 8.13.3 Neutron Requirements for BNCT
      • 8.13.4 Neutron Source for BNCT
      • 8.13.5 History of Reactor-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT
      • 8.13.6 Accelerator-Based Neutron Source
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.14. Radionuclide Production
      • Abstract
      • 8.14.1 Radionuclide Production in Nuclear Reactors
      • 8.14.2 Radionuclide Production Using Accelerators
      • 8.14.3 Concluding Remarks
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 8.15. Diamond Detectors for Dosimetry
      • Abstract
      • Symbols
      • Acknowledgment
      • 8.15.1 Introduction
      • 8.15.2 Material Properties
      • 8.15.3 Theory: Induced Photoconductivity
      • 8.15.4 Natural Diamond
      • 8.15.5 Synthetic Diamonds
      • 8.15.6 Diamond as TL Dosimeter
      • 8.15.7 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 8.16. Scintillator-Based Detectors
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 8.16.1 Introduction
      • 8.16.2 Light Sensors
      • 8.16.3 Inorganic Scintillators
      • 8.16.4 Storage Phosphors – Thermoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence
      • 8.16.5 Organic Scintillators – Crystals, Plastics, and Liquids
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 8.17. Active Pixel CMOS-Based Radiation Detectors
      • Abstract
      • 8.17.1 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Image Sensors
      • 8.17.2 Detector Architecture
      • 8.17.3 APS Electro-Optical Performance
      • 8.17.4 Physical Characteristics of the Imagers
      • 8.17.5 Applications in Medicine
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.18. CdTe Detectors
      • Abstract
      • 8.18.1 Introduction
      • 8.18.2 Compound Semiconductor Detectors
      • 8.18.3 x-Ray and γ Ray Spectroscopy with Semiconductor Detectors
      • 8.18.4 CdTe Detectors
      • 8.18.5 Medical Applications: Energy-Resolved Photon Counting Detectors
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 8.19. Amorphous Silicon Detectors
      • Abstract
      • 8.19.1 Amorphous Silicon Technology Is Driven by Consumer Large Area Flat-Panel Displays
      • 8.19.2 Principle of Operation for Amorphous Silicon Flat-Panel Imagers
      • 8.19.3 Evaluation of Imaging Performance
      • 8.19.4 Emerging Detector Technology
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.20. Selenium Detectors
      • Abstract
      • 8.20.1 What Is Selenium?
      • 8.20.2 Why Electrostatic Imaging, Why Solid State, and Why a-Se?
      • 8.20.3 A Generic Digital a-Se Integrating Detector – What Are the Commonalities of a-Se Detectors?
      • 8.20.4 Predicting Image Quality – Noise and Resolution
      • 8.20.5 Selenium Is the Most Versatile of All x-Ray Imaging Materials
      • 8.20.6 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 8.21. Silicon Photomultipliers
      • Acknowledgments
      • 8.21.1 Introduction
      • 8.21.2 Light Detection in Semiconductors
      • 8.21.3 A Brief History of Silicon Photomultipliers
      • 8.21.4 Characteristic Properties of a Silicon Photomultiplier
      • 8.21.5 SiPM Application to Large Detectors
      • 8.21.6 SiPM-Dedicated Readout Chips
      • 8.21.7 Digital SiPM
      • 8.21.8 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Abbreviations
    • 8.22. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors: Principles of Operation and Applications
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 8.22.1 Gaseous Detectors: Historical Background
      • 8.22.2 Early Observations with the GEM
      • 8.22.3 GEM Manufacturing and Performance Optimization
      • 8.22.4 Multi-GEM Structures
      • 8.22.5 Signal Formation and Detection
      • 8.22.6 GEM Chambers Construction
      • 8.22.7 GEM Detectors' Operation and Performances: Charged Particles
      • 8.22.8 Detection of Neutral Radiation
      • 8.22.9 Cryogenic and Dual-Phase Detectors
      • 8.22.10 Light Emission and Optical Detection of Tracks
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 8.23. Silicon Trackers
      • Abstract
      • 8.23.1 Introduction
      • 8.23.2 Detector Principles
      • 8.23.3 Different Types of Substrates
      • 8.23.4 Front-End Electronics Developments
      • 8.23.5 Pattern-Recognition Technologies and Track Fitting
      • 8.23.6 Examples of Possible New Applications
      • References
  • Volume 9: Radiation Therapy Physics and Treatment Optimization
    • Introduction to Volume 9: Radiation Therapy Physics and Treatment Optimization
    • 9.01. Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 9.01.1 Introduction
      • 9.01.2 Charged Particles
      • 9.01.3 Photons
      • References
    • 9.02. Particle Transport Theory and Absorbed Dose
      • Abstract
      • 9.02.1 Phase Space Density
      • 9.02.2 The Collision Free Transport Equation
      • 9.02.3 The Liouville Equation
      • 9.02.4 The Boltzmann Equation
      • 9.02.5 Differential Particle Fluence and Absorbed Dose
      • 9.02.6 The Fokker–Planck equation
      • 9.02.7 The Fermi–Eyges Solution
      • 9.02.8 Attenuated Transport of Charged Particle Beams
      • 9.02.9 The Fluence of Fragments in Broad Primary Ion Beams
      • 9.02.10 The Fluence of Fragments in a Narrow Primary Pencil Beam
      • 9.02.11 The Photon Transport Equation
      • 9.02.12 General Theory of Radiation Dosimeters
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 9.03. Biophysical Basis of Ionizing Radiation
      • Abstract
      • 9.03.1 Introduction
      • 9.03.2 Interaction of Radiation in Mammalian Cells
      • 9.03.3 Modeling of DNA Damage
      • 9.03.4 Structural Change as a Consequence of DNA Damage and Repair
      • 9.03.5 New Phenomena in Radiation Biology
      • 9.03.6 Concepts in Radiation Track Simulation
      • 9.03.7 Microdosimetry
      • Appendix
      • Examples of Energy Depositions by Single Tracks in a DNA Segment
      • Table of Strand Break Production
      • References to Monographs
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 9.04. Modeling of Radiation Effects in Cells and Tissues
      • Abstract
      • 9.04.1 Modeling in Radiation Biology and Radiation Therapy
      • 9.04.2 Modeling of Radiation Effects on Subcellular Scales
      • 9.04.3 Models of Cell Killing
      • 9.04.4 Modeling of Biological Effects in Tissues and Organs
      • 9.04.5 Further Radiation Effects and Their Modeling
      • 9.04.6 Concluding Remarks
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 9.05. From Cell Survival to Dose-Response Relations for Organized Tissues
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 9.05.1 Radiation Quality and Radiation Effects
      • 9.05.2 Current Cell Survival Models
      • 9.05.3 The Dose–Response Relations
      • 9.05.4 Dose–Response Relation for Hypoxic and Generally Heterogeneous Tissues
      • 9.05.5 Radiation Response with Spatially Varying Dose, Clonogen Density, and Radiation Resistance
      • 9.05.6 Radiation Response with a Microscopic Distribution of Radiation Resistance and Uniform Dose
      • References
    • 9.06. Dose-Response Relations for Tumors and Normal Tissues
      • Abstract
      • 9.06.1 Determination of Dose–Response Relations
      • 9.06.2 Clinical Examples for the Determination of Dose–Response Relations
      • 9.06.3 Factors Affecting the Determination of Dose–Response Relations
      • 9.06.4 The Impact of Inter- and Intrapatient Radiosensitivity Variation on Treatment Plan Evaluation and Radiotherapy Optimization
      • References
    • 9.07. Accurate Description of Heterogeneous Tumors by Their Effective Radiation-Sensitive and -Resistant Cell Compartments
      • Abstract
      • 9.07.1 Introduction
      • 9.07.2 Theoretical Approach
      • 9.07.3 Results
      • 9.07.4 Discussion and Conclusions
      • References
    • 9.08. Tumor Hypoxia
      • Abstract
      • 9.08.1 Significance of Oxygen for Radiation Sensitivity
      • 9.08.2 The Tumor Vasculature and Microenvironment
      • 9.08.3 Measuring Hypoxia and Predicting Radiation Response
      • 9.08.4 Targeting Tumor Hypoxia
      • 9.08.5 Hypoxia-Guided Radiotherapy
      • 9.08.6 Future Aspects
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 9.09. Long-Term Effects and Secondary Tumors
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 9.09.1 Introduction
      • 9.09.2 Radiation Carcinogenesis
      • 9.09.3 Data on Radiation-Induced Cancers
      • 9.09.4 Risk Estimations from Radiation Therapy Survivors
      • 9.09.5 Factors Influencing Risk Estimates in Radiation Therapy Survivors
      • 9.09.6 Dose Dependence of the Risk for Second Cancers
      • 9.09.7 Modeling the Risk for Second Cancers from Radiation Therapy
      • 9.09.8 The Impact of New Treatment Approaches
      • 9.09.9 General Considerations
      • References
    • 9.10. Patient Dose Computation
      • Abstract
      • 9.10.1 Background
      • 9.10.2 Patient Modeling
      • 9.10.3 Beam Modeling and Commissioning
      • 9.10.4 Dose Calculation Methods
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 9.11. Convolutions and Deconvolutions in Radiation Dosimetry
      • Abstract
      • 9.11.1 The Concept of the Convolution Integral in Radiation Dosimetry
      • 9.11.2 Examples of Convolution Integrals: Gaussian and Lorentz Convolution Kernels
      • 9.11.3 The Fourier Transformation
      • 9.11.4 Fourier's Convolution Theorem
      • 9.11.5 Fourier Deconvolution and Other Deconvolution Methods
      • 9.11.6 Iterative Deconvolution
      • 9.11.7 Convolution Model of Detector Resolution in Dosimetry
      • References
    • 9.12. Fundamentals of Physically and Biologically Based Radiation Therapy Optimization
      • Abstract
      • 9.12.1 Introduction
      • 9.12.2 Fundamentals of Treatment Optimization
      • 9.12.3 Objective Functions for Treatment Optimization
      • 9.12.4 Mathematical Methods for Treatment Optimization
      • 9.12.5 Simultaneous Optimization of Beam Orientation, Intensity Modulation, and Dose Delivery Varians in Radiation Therapy Using the P++ Optimization Strategy
      • 9.12.6 Summary and Conclusions
      • References
    • 9.13. Brachytherapy Physics
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 9.13.1 Introduction: History and Principles
      • 9.13.2 Brachytherapy Sources – General Discussion
      • 9.13.3 LDR Brachytherapy Physics
      • 9.13.4 HDR Brachytherapy Physics
      • 9.13.5 Pulsed Brachytherapy Physics
      • 9.13.6 Electronic Brachytherapy Physics
      • 9.13.7 Liquid Brachytherapy Physics and Procedures
      • 9.13.8 Microbrachytherapy (Labeled Microspheres)
      • 9.13.9 Physics of Interstitial Implants
      • 9.13.10 Physics of Intracavitary Insertions
      • 9.13.11 Physics of Surface Applications
      • 9.13.12 Dose Calculations
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 9.14. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Planning
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 9.14.1 Fractionated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy
      • 9.14.2 Single-Fraction Stereotactic Radiation Therapy
      • 9.14.3 Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
      • 9.14.4 Radiobiological Background of SRT
      • 9.14.5 Imaging Before SRT and for Treatment Planning
      • 9.14.6 Immobilization for SRT
      • 9.14.7 Image Guidance for SRT
      • 9.14.8 Treatment Systems for SRT
      • 9.14.9 Treatment Planning
      • 9.14.10 Dose Prescription in Treatment Planning
      • References
    • 9.15. Modulated Arc Therapy Planning
      • Abstract
      • 9.15.1 Background of MAT and Evolution of Terminology
      • 9.15.2 Treatment Planning Algorithms
      • 9.15.3 Treatment Planning Strategies
      • 9.15.4 Planning Study Results
      • 9.15.5 Plan Accuracy Considerations
      • 9.15.6 Summary of IMAT
      • References
    • 9.16. In-Room Image-Guided Radiation Therapy
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 9.16.1 Introduction
      • 9.16.2 In-Room IGRT Imaging Technologies
      • 9.16.3 Image Registration
      • 9.16.4 IGRT Correction Strategies
      • 9.16.5 In-Room IGRT Position Correction Strategies
      • 9.16.6 Monitoring Treatment Response
      • 9.16.7 QA in IGRT
      • 9.16.8 Contraindications for IGRT
      • 9.16.9 IGRT in the Preclinical World
      • 9.16.10 Conclusions
      • References
    • 9.17. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning
      • Abstract
      • 9.17.1 The Concept of Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy
      • 9.17.2 Optimization of Fluence Distributions
      • 9.17.3 The Means to Deliver Optimized Fluence Distributions
      • 9.17.4 Direct Aperture Optimization
      • 9.17.5 Multicriteria Planning Methods
      • 9.17.6 Clinical Application of IMRT
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 9.18. Adaptive Treatment Planning
      • Abstract
      • 9.18.1 Introduction
      • 9.18.2 Imaging Technologies
      • 9.18.3 Image Registration
      • 9.18.4 Implementation of ART
      • 9.18.5 Accelerator-Based Machines
      • 9.18.6 Radiobiologically Based ART
      • References
    • 9.19. Light-Ion Radiation Therapy Planning
      • Abstract
      • 9.19.1 Introduction
      • 9.19.2 Physical Properties of Light-Ion Beams
      • 9.19.3 Radiobiological Properties of Light-Ion Beams
      • 9.19.4 Models Used in Treatment Planning
      • 9.19.5 Optimization Algorithms
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 9.20. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 9.20.1 Early History
      • 9.20.2 History of the Leksell Gamma Knife
      • 9.20.3 Conventional Linear Accelerators for Stereotactic Radiation Therapy
      • 9.20.4 Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
      • 9.20.5 Dedicated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Machines: CK System
      • 9.20.6 High Dose Rate for Stereotactic Radiation Therapy: FFF Irradiations
      • 9.20.7 Dedicated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Machines: Vero
      • 9.20.8 Dedicated Stereotactic Radiation Therapy Machines: ViewRay
      • 9.20.9 Summary
      • References
    • 9.21. Biologically Optimized Light Ion Therapy
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 9.21.1 Introduction
      • 9.21.2 Development of Advanced Biologically Optimized Light Ion Therapy
      • 9.21.3 Clinical Advantages Using Biologically Optimized BIOART and QMRT Approaches
      • 9.21.4 Flexible Cost-Effective Dose Delivery
      • 9.21.5 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
  • Volume 10: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    • Introduction to Volume 10: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    • 10.01. Biomechanics of Musculoskeletal Adaptation
      • Abstract
      • 10.01.1 The Musculoskeletal System
      • 10.01.2 Connective Tissues
      • 10.01.3 Mechanical Characteristics of Musculoskeletal Components
      • 10.01.4 Adaptation
      • 10.01.5 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.02. Mechanics of Biofluids in Living Body
      • Abstract
      • 10.02.1 Fluid Characteristics
      • 10.02.2 Fluid Statics
      • 10.02.3 Fluid Dynamics
      • 10.02.4 Characteristics of Fluid Motion
      • 10.02.5 Case Study: Pressure and Flow in an Arterio-Venous Graft for Vascular Access
      • References
    • 10.03. Bioelectromagnetism in the Living Body
      • Abstract
      • 10.03.1 Introduction
      • 10.03.2 Overview of the Biological Effects Including Static, ELF, and RF Electromagnetic Fields
      • 10.03.3 Exploration of Cellular-Level Medical Application of Electromagnetic Fields
      • 10.03.4 Health Evaluation by the World Health Organization
      • 10.03.5 New Guideline of the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection
      • 10.03.6 Historical Progress of Electric Stimulation
      • 10.03.7 The Clinical Application of the Electromagnetic Field in Basic Research
      • 10.03.8 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.04. Ion Channels in the Cell Membrane: Structure, Function, and Modeling
      • Abstract
      • 10.04.1 Basic Properties of Ion Channels
      • 10.04.2 Electrochemical Gradients, Ion Channels, and the Resting Membrane Potential
      • 10.04.3 Voltage-Gated Channels Generate Action Potentials
      • 10.04.4 Structure–Function Relationship of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
      • 10.04.5 BK Channels: Gated by Voltage and Ligand
      • 10.04.6 HCN Channels: Gated by Ligand and Inversely Gated by Voltage
      • 10.04.7 Neurotransmitter-Gated Channels and Synaptic Transmission
      • 10.04.8 Ion Channels Containing Only Pore Domains
      • 10.04.9 Transient Receptor Potential Channels: Sensing the Environment
      • 10.04.10 Light-Gated Ion Channels: A Powerful Research Tool
      • 10.04.11 Concluding Remarks
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 10.05. Water Biology in Human Body
      • Abstract
      • 10.05.1 What is ‘Water Biology’?
      • 10.05.2 Water Dynamics in Human Body
      • 10.05.3 AQP Water Channels
      • 10.05.4 Summary and Perspective
      • References
    • 10.06. Human Immune System
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 10.06.1 The Components of the Immune System
      • 10.06.2 Evolution of the Immune System
      • 10.06.3 General Aspects of Immune Responses
      • 10.06.4 Functions of the Immune Response
      • 10.06.5 Immunopathology
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.07. Hyperthermia Therapy for Cancer
      • Abstract
      • 10.07.1 Thermal Therapy Options
      • 10.07.2 Heating Technology
      • 10.07.3 Thermal Dosimetry
      • 10.07.4 Clinical Impact of Hyperthermia for Cancer Therapy
      • 10.07.5 Summary and Future Directions
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.08. Ultrasound Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 10.08.1 Introduction
      • 10.08.2 Physics of Ultrasound
      • 10.08.3 Ultrasound Interaction with Tissue
      • 10.08.4 Ultrasound Technology for Clinical Treatments
      • 10.08.5 Major Clinical Results
      • 10.08.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 10.09. Laser Surgery
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • Acknowledgments
      • 10.09.1 Introduction
      • 10.09.2 Classifications of Laser Surgery
      • 10.09.3 Main Processes and Main Parameters Related to Laser Surgery
      • 10.09.4 Tissue Thermal Damage: Changes of Structural and Optical Properties of Biotissues as a Result of the Laser Thermolysis
      • 10.09.5 Latent Tissue Damage: Changes of Physiological, Structural, and Optical Properties of Biotissues as a Result of Laser Ablation
      • 10.09.6 Types of Laser Light Delivery to Biotissues
      • 10.09.7 Monitoring and Control of Laser Surgery
      • 10.09.8 Laser and Laser Surgery Safety
      • 10.09.9 Advantages, Limitations, and Future Trends of Laser Surgery
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 10.10. Photodynamic Techniques in Medicine
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • Acknowledgments
      • 10.10.1 Introduction
      • 10.10.2 PDT Energetics
      • 10.10.3 PDT Light Sources and Delivery Systems
      • 10.10.4 PDT Dosimetry
      • 10.10.5 PDT Response Monitoring
      • 10.10.6 New Directions in PDT
      • 10.10.7 PDD and Guided Therapeutics
      • 10.10.8 Conclusions
      • References
      • Further Reading
      • Glossary
    • 10.11. Electro-Muscle Stimulation Therapy
      • Abstract
      • Abbreviations
      • 10.11.1 Transcutaneous Stimulation Using Pulsed Current
      • 10.11.2 Stimulation of Normally Innervated Muscle
      • 10.11.3 Stimulation of Denervated Muscle
      • 10.11.4 Sensory, Motor, and Pain Responses
      • 10.11.5 Stimulation Using Sinusoidal Alternating Current
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 10.12. Defibrillation
      • Abstract
      • 10.12.1 Introduction
      • 10.12.2 Brief Historical Overview of Defibrillation Mechanisms
      • 10.12.3 Early Insights Provided by Modeling of the Defibrillation Process
      • 10.12.4 State-of-the-Art 3D Models of Defibrillation
      • 10.12.5 VEP Induced by the Shock in the 3D Volume of the Ventricles
      • 10.12.6 Activity Originating from the VEP Established by the Shock
      • 10.12.7 Mechanisms for the Isoelectric Window Following Near‐ULV Shocks
      • 10.12.8 Shock-Induced Phase Singularities and Filaments
      • 10.12.9 Concluding Remarks
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 10.13. Electroporation Therapy
      • Abstract
      • Nomenclature
      • 10.13.1 Introduction
      • 10.13.2 Theoretical Considerations of Electroporation
      • 10.13.3 Clinical Procedures and Results of Electroporation‐Based Therapies
      • 10.13.4 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 10.14. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
      • Abstract
      • 10.14.1 Introduction and General Physics: TMS and rTMS
      • 10.14.2 Potential Clinical Applications
      • 10.14.3 Conclusions
      • References
    • 10.15. Biophysical Bases of Acupuncture
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 10.15.1 Introduction
      • 10.15.2 The Initiating Mechanism of the Acupuncture Effect
      • 10.15.3 The Biophysical Basis for Meridian and AP Function
      • 10.15.4 Acupuncture Signal Transfer Mechanisms in Neural Networks
      • 10.15.5 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 10.16. Music Psychophysics and Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 10.16.1 Introduction
      • 10.16.2 Acoustics and Psychology of Music
      • 10.16.3 The Profession of MT
      • 10.16.4 Medical MT
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
    • 10.17. Medical Bionics
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgments
      • 10.17.1 Introduction
      • 10.17.2 Overview of Electrical Stimulation of Neural Tissue
      • 10.17.3 The Electrode–Tissue Interface
      • 10.17.4 Safe and Efficacious Electrical Stimulation
      • 10.17.5 Developing Clinically Viable Bionic Devices
      • 10.17.6 Commercial Medical Bionic Devices
      • 10.17.7 Future Medical Bionic Devices
      • 10.17.8 Conclusions
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
    • 10.18. Cold Plasma Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 10.18.1 Introduction
      • 10.18.2 Cold Plasma Physics, Chemistry, and Technology
      • 10.18.3 Plasma Interactions with Biological Objects
      • 10.18.4 Nonthermal Microbicidal Plasma Effects
      • 10.18.5 Plasma Interactions with Mammalian Cells and Tissues
      • 10.18.6 Cold Plasma Applications
      • 10.18.7 Future Perspectives
      • References
      • Relevant Websites
      • Glossary
    • 10.19. Smart-Drug Delivery and Target-Specific Therapy
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgment
      • 10.19.1 Introduction
      • 10.19.2 A Variety of Nanoparticles Used for Therapeutics and Diagnostics
      • 10.19.3 Advantages of Using Nanoparticles
      • 10.19.4 General Issues Concerning Nanoparticles
      • 10.19.5 Two Examples of Nanoparticles Developed for Therapy and Diagnosis
      • 10.19.6 Toward Developing Multifunctional Nanoparticles
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.20. Orthopedic Physical Therapy
      • Abstract
      • 10.20.1 Introduction
      • 10.20.2 Therapeutic Modalities of Physical Therapy
      • 10.20.3 Regional Consideration of Physical Therapy
      • 10.20.4 Key Success Factors
      • 10.20.5 General Discussion
      • 10.20.6 Conclusion
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.21. Neurological Rehabilitation
      • Abstract
      • 10.21.1 Neurology
      • 10.21.2 Rehabilitation Medicine
      • 10.21.3 Neurological Rehabilitation
      • References
    • 10.22. Pulmonary Rehabilitation
      • Abstract
      • 10.22.1 Symptoms and Disability Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
      • 10.22.2 The Role and Definition of Pulmonary Rehabilitation
      • 10.22.3 The Changing PR Population – Who to Refer?
      • 10.22.4 Components of a PR Program
      • 10.22.5 Core Components of a PR Program
      • 10.22.6 Education – Self-Management
      • 10.22.7 Intensity and Duration of a Program
      • 10.22.8 Maintenance
      • 10.22.9 Mobility Aids
      • 10.22.10 The Rehabilitation Team
      • 10.22.11 Quality Assurance and Audit
      • 10.22.12 Setting
      • 10.22.13 Exacerbations
      • 10.22.14 Performance Enhancement
      • 10.22.15 Training Adjuncts or Strategies
      • 10.22.16 Summary
      • References
      • Glossary
    • 10.23. Principles and Applications of Vestibular Rehabilitation
      • Abstract
      • 10.23.1 Introduction
      • 10.23.2 First Tenet: Vestibular Afferents Encode Angular Rotation from Six Semicircular Canals, and Linear Acceleration and Tilt from Four Otolith Organs
      • 10.23.3 Second Tenet: For High Accelerations, Head Rotation in the Excitatory Direction of a Canal Elicits a Greater Response than Does the Same Rotation in the Inhibitory Direction
      • 10.23.4 Third Tenet: Reverberating Circuitry in the Vestibular Nuclei Allows the Brain to Detect Low-Frequency VOR, Thus Perseverating the Nystagmus, Known as ‘Velocity Storage’
      • 10.23.5 Fourth Tenet: Sudden Changes in Otolith Activity Evoke Changes in Perception of Tilt and Postural Tone
      • 10.23.6 List of Relevant Web Pages
      • 10.23.7 Conclusion
      • References
      • Relevant Website
      • Glossary
  • Index
  • Authors

Details

No. of pages:
4056
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444536334
Hardcover ISBN:
9780444536327

About the Editor-in-Chief

Anders Brahme

Anders Brahme is Professor of Medical Radiation Physics since 1988 at the Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Stockholm University, and Director of the Research Center for Radiation Therapy, Karolinska Institutet as well as at the International Open Laboratory at NIRS Chiba, Japan and Honorary Professor at the Cancer Institute and Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College. He got his Master of Science degree in electrical engineering at the Royal Institute of Technology in 1969 and his Ph.D. thesis on the “Application of the Microtron Accelerator for Radiation Therapy” was presented 1975 at Stockholm University. Since then he has been active in the development of radiation dosimetry, quality assurance and radiation therapy equipment and techniques for most types of radiation from electrons and photons to neutrons, protons and heavy ions. He initiated the development of inverse radiation therapy planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy using scanning beams and dynamic multileaf collimator systems. During the last three decades he has been mainly active in the field of radiation therapy optimization based on accurate radiobiological models describing the response of tumors and normal tissues and developing optimal techniques for Light Ion therapy. By such techniques he has been able to maximize the expectation value of the complication free tumor cure under consideration of intensity modulation, dose fractionation, choice of radiation modality, the number of beam portals and their angles of incidence as well as uncertainties in geometrical and biological parameters. He also initiated a hand full of companies during these developments.

Affiliations and Expertise

Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden