Comprehensive Biomaterials

1st Edition

Editors: Paul Ducheyne Paul Ducheyne Kevin Healy Dietmar E. Hutmacher David W. Grainger C. James Kirkpatrick
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080553023
eBook ISBN: 9780080552941
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 24th August 2011
Page Count: 3672
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Comprehensive Biomaterials brings together the myriad facets of biomaterials into one, major series of six edited volumes that would cover the field of biomaterials in a major, extensive fashion: 

Volume 1: Metallic, Ceramic and Polymeric Biomaterials
Volume 2: Biologically Inspired and Biomolecular Materials
Volume 3: Methods of Analysis
Volume 4: Biocompatibility, Surface Engineering, and Delivery Of Drugs, Genes and Other Molecules
Volume 5: Tissue and Organ Engineering
Volume 6: Biomaterials and Clinical Use

Experts from around the world in hundreds of related biomaterials areas have contributed to this publication, resulting in a continuum of rich information appropriate for many audiences. The work addresses the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field, their strengths and weaknesses, their future prospects, appropriate analytical methods and testing, device applications and performance, emerging candidate materials as competitors and disruptive technologies, and strategic insights for those entering and operational in diverse biomaterials applications, research and development, regulatory management, and commercial aspects. From the outset, the goal was to review materials in the context of medical devices and tissue properties, biocompatibility and surface analysis, tissue engineering and controlled release. It was also the intent both, to focus on material properties from the perspectives of therapeutic and diagnostic use, and to address questions relevant to state-of-the-art research endeavors.

Key Features

  • Reviews the current status of nearly all biomaterials in the field by analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, performance as well as future prospects
  • Presents appropriate analytical methods and testing procedures in addition to potential device applications
  • Provides strategic insights for those working on diverse application areas such as R&D, regulatory management, and commercial development


This work is of interest to any student, researcher or engineer working in biomaterials, medicinal research, cell biology, tissue engineering, tissue physiology, regenerative medicine, microfabrication, and biomedical devices and applications

Table of Contents



Editor-in-Chief Biography

Co-Editor Biographies



Permission Acknowledgments

1.101. Biomaterials

1.102. Metals for Use in Medicine


1.102.1. Introduction

1.102.2. General Requirements for Long-Term Implantation

1.102.3. Key Metallurgy Concepts

1.102.4. Chemical Composition and Structure

1.102.5. Mechanical Properties

1.102.6. Processing Effects

1.102.7. Future Developments

1.102.8. Summary

1.103. Electrochemical Behavior of Metals in the Biological Milieu



1.103.1. Introduction

1.103.2. Metals Currently Used in Medical Devices

1.103.3. Metallic Biocompatibility

1.103.4. The Biological Milieu

1.103.5. Basic Electrochemistry Concepts

1.103.6. Passive Oxide Films and Semiconducting Electrochemistry

1.103.7. Electrical Double Layer

1.103.8. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) of Metallic Biomaterials

1.103.9. Mechanically Assisted Corrosion

1.103.10. Effects of Prior Electrochemical History

1.103.11. Oxide Film Structure and Formation

1.103.12. Effects of Solution Redox System

1.103.13. Biological Consequences: Oxidation and Reduction

1.103.14. Summary

1.103.15. Appendix: Derivation of Mott–Schottky Equation

1.104. Shape Memory Alloys for Use in Medicine


1.104.1. Introduction

1.104.2. Fundamentals of Shape Memory Systems

1.104.3. Practical SMAs

1.104.4. Manufacturing, Processing, and Performance of Nitinol

1.104.5. Minimally Invasive Device Applications for Nitinol

1.104.6. Orthodontic Applications for Nitinol

1.104.7. Orthopedic Applications for Nitinol



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About the Editor

Paul Ducheyne

Paul Ducheyne is Professor of Bioengineering and Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Research at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. He is the Director of its Center for Bioactive Materials and Tissue Engineering. He also is Special Guest Professor at the University of Leuven, Belgium. Paul Ducheyne has Materials Science and Engineering degrees from the K.U. Leuven. Belgium (M.Sc.: 1972; Ph.D.: 1976). With fellowships from the National Institutes of Health (International Postdoctoral Fellowship) and the Belgian American Educational Foundation (Honorary Fellowship), he performed postdoctoral research at the University of Florida. Paul Ducheyne has organized a number of symposia and meetings, such as the Fourth European Conference on Biomaterials (1983), the Engineering Foundation Conference on Bioceramics (1986) which led to the New York Academy of Sciences publication: "Bioceramics, material characteristics versus in vivo behavior", and the Sixth International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine (1993). He has lectured around the world and serves or has served on the editorial board of more than ten scientific journals in the biomaterials, bioceramics, bioengineering, tissue engineering, orthopaedics and dental fields. He has been a member of the editorial board, and then an associate editor of Biomaterials, the leading biomaterials journal, since its inception in the late seventies. He has authored more than 300 papers and chapters in a variety of international journals and books, and he has edited 10 books. He has also been granted more than 40 US patents with international counterparts. His papers have been cited about 7000 times; his ten most visible papers have been cited more than 2000 times. Paul Ducheyne started his career in Europe. While at the K.U. Leuven, Belgium (1977 - 1983), he was one of the co-founders of the Post-Graduate Curriculum in Bioengineering. This program is now a full M.Sc. program in the School of

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Paul Ducheyne

Paul Ducheyne is Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, and a member of the Institute for Medicine and Engineering (IME) and the Center for Engineering Cells and Regeneration (CECR). Paul's research is focused in the investigation of mechanistic effects of materials on cellular functions, specifically cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and extracellular matrix formation, especially with respect to biomaterials and tissue engineering. His lab works extensively with the interface zone between materials and cells and tissues, using both materials science techniques as well as life science methods. In addition, studies focus on the combined effects of microgravity and substrate material on cellular functions and on material surface modification and controlled release of growth factors. Several tissue engineering applications are pursued with orthopedic and dental applications. Specifically, his laboratory studies whether bone defects can be repaired with full return of mechanical function by treating defects with in vitro synthesized bone tissue.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA

Kevin Healy

Kevin E. Healy, Ph.D. is the Jan Fandrianto Distinguished Professor in Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley in the Departments of Bioengineering and Materials Science and Engineering. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Rochester in Chemical Engineering in 1983. In 1985 he received a Masters of Science degree in Bioengineering from the University of Pennsylvania, and in 1990 he received a Ph.D. in Bioengineering also from the University of Pennsylvania. He was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering in 2001. He has authored or co-authored more than 200 published articles, abstracts, or book chapters which emphasize the relationship between materials and the tissues they contact. His research interests include the design and synthesis of biomimetic materials that actively direct the fate of embryonic and adult stem cells, and facilitate regeneration of damaged tissues and organs. Major discoveries from his laboratory have centered on the control of cell fate and tissue formation in contract with materials that are tunable in both their biological content and mechanical properties. These materials find applications in medicine, dentistry, and biotechnology. He is currently an Associate Editor of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. He has served on numerous panels and grant review study sections for N.I.H. He has given more than 200 invited lectures in the fields of Biomedical Engineering and Biomaterials. He is a named inventor on numerous issued United States and international patents relating to biomaterials, and has founded several companies to develop materials for applications in biotechnology and regenerative medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA

Dietmar E. Hutmacher

Professor Dietmar W. Hutmacher holds an accomplished international profile and strong research focus in the field of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Outcomes from Prof. Hutmacher's research have resulted in high profile scientific and academic contributions as well as patents and commercialization. He was named as one of the world's top materials scientist by Thomson Reuters in 2010 (ranked 45 out of the top 100). Prof. Hutmacher's track record shows that he has successfully mastered the main challenge in the biomedical sciences field, namely to cross traditional boundaries to nurture and initiate research and educational programs across different disciplines, particularly within engineering, biology and medicine.

Affiliations and Expertise

Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia

David W. Grainger

David W. Grainger is the George S. and Dolores Doré Eccles Presidential Endowed Chair in Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Chair of the Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, and Professor of Bioengineering at the University of Utah. Grainger received his Ph.D. in Pharmaceutical Chemistry from the University of Utah in 1987 studying blood-compatible polymers, particularly block copolymers functionalized with heparin blocks and their coatings. He then received an Alexander von Humboldt Fellowship to perform postdoctoral research under Prof. Helmut Ringsdorf, University of Mainz, Germany. This training initiated over 25 years of experience with various aspects of developing "materials in medicine". Grainger's research expertise is focused on improving implanted medical device performance, drug delivery of new therapeutic proteins, nucleic acids and live vaccines, nanomaterials interactions with human tissues, low-infection biomaterials, and innovating diagnostic devices based on DNA and protein biomarker capture. Additionally, he is an expert in applications of surface analytical methods to biomedical interfaces, including difficult surface patterns and nanomaterials, and perfluorinated biomaterials. Grainger has published over 130 full research papers at the interface of materials innovation in medicine and biotechnology, and novel surface chemistry. He has won research several awards, including the prestigious 2007 Clemson Award for Basic Research, Society for Biomaterials, and the 2005 American Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturer's Association's award for "Excellence in Pharmaceutics". He won a short-term visiting professorship in Tokyo from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, and a CNRS Visiting Professorship in Paris, France. He has also received several teaching awards for outstanding mentoring and teaching service, including the University of Utah 2010 Distinguished Postdoctoral and Graduate Student Men

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

C. James Kirkpatrick

C. James Kirkpatrick is Emeritus Professor of Pathology at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany, having directed the Institute of Pathology from 1993-2015. Currently he is Senior Professor in the Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic at the Goethe University of Frankfurt & Visiting Professor of Biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. He is also Honorary Professor at the Peking Union Medical College, Beijing and the Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Kirkpatrick is a graduate of the Queen’s University of Belfast and holds a triple doctorate in science and medicine (PhD: 1977; MD: 1982; DSc: 1992). Previous appointments were in pathology at the University of Ulm, where he did postdoctoral research in experimental pathology, Manchester University (Lecturer in Histopathology) and the RWTH Aachen (Professor of Pathology & Electron Microscopy). On moving to Aachen in 1987, he established a cell culture laboratory which began using modern methods of cell and molecular biology to study how human cells react to biomaterials. Since then, his principal research interests continue to be in the field of biomaterials in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, with special focus on the development of human cell culture techniques, including novel 3D coculture methodology for biomaterials and the application of modern molecular pathology techniques to the study of biofunctionality of biomaterials, including nanomaterials. Kirkpatrick is author/coauthor of more than 500 publications in peer-reviewed journals and has given more than 500 invited presentations to scientific meetings worldwide. He has an H-index of 58 (Web of Science) and 68 (Google Scholar) and has been cited more than 17.000 times. He is a former president of both the German Society for Biomaterials (2001–2005) and the European Society for Biomaterials (2002–2007) and served on the ESB council from 1995-2013. He was also a member of the Council of the E

Affiliations and Expertise

Johannes Gutenburg University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany


"In a highly technical and vastly broad subject area, the key to managing (mastering) reputable information and facilitating new breakthroughs is through its preservation and organization by experts in the field. For students or researchers wanting a quick introduction or a working knowledge of an unfamiliar subfield of biomaterials, the assembled chapters will be much more valuable than the typical documents that rise to the top of keyword searches. The authors and editors should be commended for their efforts and congratulated on producing an impressive reference of lasting value. In this reviewer's opinion, it will be an essential reference for any library affiliated with graduate programs in the biomedical sciences. Summing Up: Highly recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above." --Choice

"This is a huge body of work and I would suspect the price would preclude individual researchers from acquiring the set; however, this is a must have for libraries as an up-to-date reference for the current state-of–the-art information in this field as well as a fundamental reference tome for researchers seeking an introduction to the field." --Journal of Biomaterials Applications, February 2012