Compounding Precipitated Silica in Elastomers

1st Edition

Theory and Practice

Authors: Norman Hewitt
Hardcover ISBN: 9780815515289
eBook ISBN: 9780815516538
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 24th April 2007
Page Count: 578
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: SILICA AS A REINFORCING FILLER 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Manufacture of Precipitated Silica 1.3 Silica and Carbon black 1.4 Silica Surface Area 1.5 Silica Free Water 1.6 Silica Free Water, Affect on Visible Dispersion 1.7 Silica Surface Silanol groups 1.8 Silica pH 1.9 Soluble Salts in Silica 1.10 Physical Form and Sensity of Silica 1.11 Other Silica Properties 1.12 Silane Treated Silicas Chapter 2: COMPOUNDING PRECIPITATED SILICA IN NATURAL RUBBER 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Silica and Carbon Black
2.3 Activation: Zinc Oxide 2.4 Cure Activation: Glycols 2.5 Acceleration with Secondary Accelerators in Normal Sulfur Systems 2.6 Acceleration: Single Accelerators in Normal Sulfur Systems 2.7 Acceleration: Single Accelerators; Vulcanizate Properties 2.8 Acceleration: Low Sulfur/Sulfur Donor Systems 2.9 Reversion 2.10 Antioxidant Systems: Non-staining 2.11 Plasticization 2.12 Tear Resistance 2.13 Tear Resistance: Contour Curve Studies of Silica Content Effects 2.14 Tear Resistance: Silica Primary Particle Size 2.15 Tear Resistance; Non-Marking Solid tires 2.16 Shelf Aged Stiffness and Green Strength 2.17 Peroxide Cure 2.18 Peroxide Curing: Silica Reinforcement and Structure 2.19 Peroxide Curing: Silica Surface Area 2.20 Peroxide Cure: Silane Coupling 2.21 Silane Coupling: Sulfur Cure Systems 2.22 Zinc-Free Cure Systems 2.23 Zinc-Free Cure Systems: Polyisoprene (IR) 2.24 Brass Adhesion 2.25 Brass Adhesion M


This valuable guide to compounding elastomers with precipitated silica covers principles, properties, mixing, testing and formulations from a practical perspective. This handbook and reference manual will serve those who work on part design, elastomer formulation, manufacturing and applications of elastomers. Ample discussion of compound specifications adds to the usefulness of this book to practitioners. Comparisons of carbon black and silica compounds throughout the book allow readers to select the most suitable formulation for applications ranging from tires to electrical insulation to shoe soles.

The author has over forty years of experience in the rubber industry highlighted by his 39 years at the PPG Rubber Research laboratories. A highlight of the book is the inclusion of studies conducted by the author which greatly adds to the richness of the contents.


Rubber chemists and compounders in industry wherever rubber components are manufactured. Chemistry departments (those who research and teach in elastomers and polymers) in academia will find this an excellent foundation text for students and researchers. Suppliers of rubber chemicals, sales and marketing specialists in chemical and rubber companies will refer to the content in their daily duties. There is also a large market in China's growing rubber industry, as well as in the mature rubber industry in India.


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© William Andrew 2007
William Andrew
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About the Authors

Norman Hewitt Author

Affiliations and Expertise

PPG (former).