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Composite Structures, Design, Safety and Innovation - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080445458, 9780080456492

Composite Structures, Design, Safety and Innovation

1st Edition

Author: Dr. Bjorn Backman
Hardcover ISBN: 9780080445458
eBook ISBN: 9780080456492
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 9th June 2005
Page Count: 250
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Aerospace structural design, especially for large aircraft, is an empirical pursuit dominated by rules of thumb and often-painful service experiences. Expertise on traditional materials is not transferable to “new” materials, processes and structural concepts. This is because it is not based on or derived from well-defined measures of safety. This book addresses the need for safe innovation based on practical, explicit structural safety constraints for use in innovative structures of the future where guiding service experience is non-existent.

The book covers new ground by the demonstration of ways to satisfy levels of safety by focusing on structural integrity; and complementing the lack of service experience with risk management, based on flexible inspection methods recognizing that safety is a function of time. Fundamentally the book shoes demonstrates how safety methods can be made available to the engineering community without requiring huge statistical databases to establish internal and external loads distributions for use in reliability analysis.

An essential title for anyone working on structural integrity, or composite structures. It will be of equal interest to aerospace engineers and materials scientists working in academia, industry and government.

Key Features

  • Demonstrates a practically manageable way to produce safe innovation using composites in environments with no service experience
  • New approach to a subject that has not previously been treated in a holistic manner
  • This book could not have come at a more topical time, Boeing are currently launching the first commercial plane made entirely of composite materials
  • The focus of this book is Composite Materials but other fields of innovation could be treated in the same manner


    Academia: Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering Depts, and Materials Science and Engineering Departments.

    Industry: Practicing Engineers and Scientists in Structures, Materials Science, Airworthiness, Safety, Quality Control, for testing, design, development and applied research

    Government: Practising engineers and Scientists at NASA, DOD, DARPA, NTSB,…. For research and development of improved safety, (of space shuttles), Innovative structural concepts, better materials, “Crisper” regulations for safety.

    Table of Contents

    1.0 Introduction

    1.1 Traditional Design in Aerospace 1.2 Conventional Safety in Aerospace 1.3 Trends of Innovation in Aerospace Structures 1.4 Composites

    2.0 Structural Design

    2.1 Damage Tolerance 2.2 Structural Integrity 2.3 Explicit Design Constraints 2.4 Uncertainty in Design 2.5 The Extended Design Process

    3.0 Structural Safety

    3.1 Primary Drivers 3.2 Risk Management 3.3 Importance of Safety Regulations 3.4 Uncertainty, Probability and Statistics of Damage Tolerance

    4.0 Innovation

    4.1 Service Experience 4.2 Criticality 4.3 Damage Tolerance 4.4 Inductive Methods

    5.0 Safety Objectives

    5.1 Safety as a Function of Time 5.2 Inspection 5.3 Accidental Damage 5.4 Design Data and Allowables

    6.0 Risk Management

    6.1 Unsafe State 6.2 Role of Inspections 6.3 Functions of Time and Inspection Approach 6.4 Uncertainty

    7.0 Trades

    7.1 Impact 7.2 Degradation 7.3 Damage Undetected at Major Inspections 7.4 Repair

    8.0 Building Block Approach

    8.1 Components and Scale-up 8.2 Allowables 8.3 Criticality 8.4 Current Practices 8.5 Factor of Safety

    9.0 Design Scenarios

    9.1 Damaged Metal Structure 9.2 Damaged Composite Structure 9.3 Damage Criteria 9.4 Structural Allowables 9.5 Limit Load Requirements 9.6 “New” Structural Concepts

    10.0 The Design Process

    10.1 Ultimate Static Strength Critical Structure 10.2 Damage Growth and Damage Resistance 10.3 Damage Tolerance 10.4 Discrete Source Damage 10.5 Design Variables 10.6 Criteria Damage 10.7 Critical Damage Type

    11.0 Damage and Detection

    11.1 Failed Detection 11.2 Manufacturing Damage 11.3 Maintenance Damage 11.4 Accidental Damage 11.5 Process Failure, Degradation and Damage 11.6 In-Service Degradation and Damage 11.7 Growth and Damage 11.8 Ultimate Strength and Damage 11.9 Safety and Damage

    12.0 Design Philosophy

    12.1 Ultimate Strength Critical Design 12.2 Damage and Residual Strength 12.3 Allowables and Design Values 12.4 Ultimate Strength Design Values 12.5 Design Philosophy and Uncertainty 12.6 Unsafe State and Design 12.7 Ultimate Integrity and Design 12.8 Survival Philosophy

    13.0 Analysis of Design Criteria

    13.1 Vehicle Objective 13.2 Overall Structural Objective 13.3 Principal Structural Element Criteria 13.4 Ultimate Requirement 13.5 Damage Tolerance Requirement 13.6 Inspection Criteria 13.7 Damage Growth Rates Criteria 13.8 Threat and Damage Criteria 13.9 Safety Criteria Baseline 13.10 Scale-up Criteria 13.11 Failure Criteria 13.12 Monitoring and Feedback Criteria 13.13 Criteria for Safe Design of Damaged Structure

    14.0 Design Example

    14.1 Geometrically Nonlinear Structural Design 14.2 Fail-safety, Material Nonlinearities and Hybrid Design 14.3 Fail-safe Criteria in Design 14.4 Structural Concepts and Design Space 14.5 Critical Damage Tolerance Design 14.6 Types of Data for Design

    15.0 Design of Composite Structure

    Appendix A A Model of Ultimate Integrity

    Appendix B A Comparison between Metal and Composite Panels


    No. of pages:
    © Elsevier Science 2005
    9th June 2005
    Elsevier Science
    Hardcover ISBN:
    eBook ISBN:

    About the Author

    Dr. Bjorn Backman

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Structure and Materials Structured Research, Camano Island, WA, USA


    "The book should be read by all involved in the design of aerospace structures" - International Journal of Fatigue, John Summerscales, Advanced Composite Manufacturing Centre, University of Plymouth

    Ratings and Reviews