Composite Structures, Design, Safety and Innovation

Composite Structures, Design, Safety and Innovation

1st Edition - June 9, 2005

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  • Author: Dr. Bjorn Backman
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080456492

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Description

Aerospace structural design, especially for large aircraft, is an empirical pursuit dominated by rules of thumb and often-painful service experiences. Expertise on traditional materials is not transferable to “new” materials, processes and structural concepts. This is because it is not based on or derived from well-defined measures of safety. This book addresses the need for safe innovation based on practical, explicit structural safety constraints for use in innovative structures of the future where guiding service experience is non-existent. The book covers new ground by the demonstration of ways to satisfy levels of safety by focusing on structural integrity; and complementing the lack of service experience with risk management, based on flexible inspection methods recognizing that safety is a function of time. Fundamentally the book shoes demonstrates how safety methods can be made available to the engineering community without requiring huge statistical databases to establish internal and external loads distributions for use in reliability analysis.An essential title for anyone working on structural integrity, or composite structures. It will be of equal interest to aerospace engineers and materials scientists working in academia, industry and government.

Key Features

  • Demonstrates a practically manageable way to produce safe innovation using composites in environments with no service experience

  • New approach to a subject that has not previously been treated in a holistic manner

  • This book could not have come at a more topical time, Boeing are currently launching the first commercial plane made entirely of composite materials

  • The focus of this book is Composite Materials but other fields of innovation could be treated in the same manner

    Readership

    Academia: Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering Depts, and Materials Science and Engineering Departments.

    Industry: Practicing Engineers and Scientists in Structures, Materials Science, Airworthiness, Safety, Quality Control, for testing, design, development and applied research

    Government: Practising engineers and Scientists at NASA, DOD, DARPA, NTSB,…. For research and development of improved safety, (of space shuttles), Innovative structural concepts, better materials, “Crisper” regulations for safety.

    Table of Contents


    • 1.0 Introduction

      1.1 Traditional Design in Aerospace
      1.2 Conventional Safety in Aerospace
      1.3 Trends of Innovation in Aerospace Structures
      1.4 Composites


      2.0 Structural Design

      2.1 Damage Tolerance
      2.2 Structural Integrity
      2.3 Explicit Design Constraints
      2.4 Uncertainty in Design
      2.5 The Extended Design Process


      3.0 Structural Safety

      3.1 Primary Drivers
      3.2 Risk Management
      3.3 Importance of Safety Regulations
      3.4 Uncertainty, Probability and Statistics of Damage Tolerance


      4.0 Innovation

      4.1 Service Experience
      4.2 Criticality
      4.3 Damage Tolerance
      4.4 Inductive Methods


      5.0 Safety Objectives

      5.1 Safety as a Function of Time
      5.2 Inspection
      5.3 Accidental Damage
      5.4 Design Data and Allowables


      6.0 Risk Management

      6.1 Unsafe State
      6.2 Role of Inspections
      6.3 Functions of Time and Inspection Approach
      6.4 Uncertainty


      7.0 Trades

      7.1 Impact
      7.2 Degradation
      7.3 Damage Undetected at Major Inspections
      7.4 Repair


      8.0 Building Block Approach

      8.1 Components and Scale-up
      8.2 Allowables
      8.3 Criticality
      8.4 Current Practices
      8.5 Factor of Safety


      9.0 Design Scenarios

      9.1 Damaged Metal Structure
      9.2 Damaged Composite Structure
      9.3 Damage Criteria
      9.4 Structural Allowables
      9.5 Limit Load Requirements
      9.6 “New” Structural Concepts


      10.0 The Design Process

      10.1 Ultimate Static Strength Critical Structure
      10.2 Damage Growth and Damage Resistance
      10.3 Damage Tolerance
      10.4 Discrete Source Damage
      10.5 Design Variables
      10.6 Criteria Damage
      10.7 Critical Damage Type



      11.0 Damage and Detection

      11.1 Failed Detection
      11.2 Manufacturing Damage
      11.3 Maintenance Damage
      11.4 Accidental Damage
      11.5 Process Failure, Degradation and Damage
      11.6 In-Service Degradation and Damage
      11.7 Growth and Damage
      11.8 Ultimate Strength and Damage
      11.9 Safety and Damage


      12.0 Design Philosophy

      12.1 Ultimate Strength Critical Design
      12.2 Damage and Residual Strength
      12.3 Allowables and Design Values
      12.4 Ultimate Strength Design Values
      12.5 Design Philosophy and Uncertainty
      12.6 Unsafe State and Design
      12.7 Ultimate Integrity and Design
      12.8 Survival Philosophy


      13.0 Analysis of Design Criteria

      13.1 Vehicle Objective
      13.2 Overall Structural Objective
      13.3 Principal Structural Element Criteria
      13.4 Ultimate Requirement
      13.5 Damage Tolerance Requirement
      13.6 Inspection Criteria
      13.7 Damage Growth Rates Criteria
      13.8 Threat and Damage Criteria
      13.9 Safety Criteria Baseline
      13.10 Scale-up Criteria
      13.11 Failure Criteria
      13.12 Monitoring and Feedback Criteria
      13.13 Criteria for Safe Design of Damaged Structure


      14.0 Design Example

      14.1 Geometrically Nonlinear Structural Design
      14.2 Fail-safety, Material Nonlinearities and Hybrid Design
      14.3 Fail-safe Criteria in Design
      14.4 Structural Concepts and Design Space
      14.5 Critical Damage Tolerance Design
      14.6 Types of Data for Design


      15.0 Design of Composite Structure


      Appendix A A Model of Ultimate Integrity

      Appendix B A Comparison between Metal and Composite Panels

    Product details

    • No. of pages: 250
    • Language: English
    • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2005
    • Published: June 9, 2005
    • Imprint: Elsevier Science
    • eBook ISBN: 9780080456492

    About the Author

    Dr. Bjorn Backman

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Structure and Materials Structured Research, Camano Island, WA, USA

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