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- List of contributors
- Part One: Fuel cells
- 1: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells
- 1.1 Fabrication and manufacturing of fuel cells
- 1.2 Degradation mechanisms and mitigation strategies
- 1.3 Theoretical modeling for fundamental understanding
- 2: Phosphoric acid fuel cells
- 2.1 Introduction
- 2.2 Working
- 2.3 Components
- 2.4 Fuels for PAFC
- 2.5 Performance
- 2.6 Advantages and environmental impact
- 2.7 Design issues and disadvantages
- 2.8 Modeling of PAFCs
- 2.9 Applications
- 2.10 Future
- 2.11 Additional sources
- 3: Molten carbonate fuel cells
- 3.1 A unique molten salt fuel cell
- 3.2 A glance to the operation principle
- 3.3 Description of the components for building a stack
- 3.4 Issues on materials
- 3.5 Variety of fuels
- 3.6 Panel of stationary applications and market forces
- 3.7 New trends
- 3.8 Conclusion
- 4: Solid oxide fuel cells
- 4.1 Introduction: What are solid oxide fuel cells?
- 4.2 Ceramic components (anodes, cathodes, electrolytes) of an SOFC
- 4.3 Fuels used in SOFCs
- 4.4 Advantages of SOFCs
- 4.5 Design issues and disadvantages of SOFCs
- 4.6 Applications of SOFCs
- 4.7 Market diffusion and future trends
- 4.8 Conclusions
- 5: Reversible fuel cells
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Fundamentals of electrolysis
- 5.3 Reversible alkaline fuel cell
- 5.4 Reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cells
- 5.5 Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC)
- 5.6 Applications and alternative concepts for RFCs
- 5.7 Need for further research and development
- 6: Microbial and enzymatic fuel cells
- 6.1 Introduction: What novel fuel cells exist?
- 6.2 MFCs: Description, working principles, and components
- 6.3 Application in field and perspectives
- 6.4 Enzyme fuel cells: Description, working principles, and components
- 6.5 Future trends and expectations
- 1: Proton exchange membrane fuel cells
- Part Two: Hydrogen combustion and metal hydride batteries
- 7: Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines
- 7.1 Introduction
- 7.2 Evolution of hydrogen engine technology
- 7.3 Direct injection system for hydrogen-fueled IC engines
- 7.4 Performance characteristics of a hydrogen engine
- 7.5 Undesirable combustion
- 7.6 Safety
- 7.7 IC engine-based vehicle development
- 7.8 Criteria for hydrogen-specific engine design
- 7.9 Hydrogen blended fuels
- 7.10 Hydrogen–CNG blend
- 7.11 Hydrogen-diesel dual-fuel engine
- 7.12 HCCI mode of operation for the hydrogen IC engine
- 7.13 Future outlook and market penetration
- 8: Blended hydrogen–natural gas-fueled internal combustion engines and fueling infrastructure
- 8.1 Introduction
- 8.2 HCNG engine and after-treatment technologies
- 8.3 HCNG onboard storage and fueling infrastructure
- 8.4 Current and future use of HCNG in transportation
- 8.5 Sources of further information
- 8.6 Conclusions
- 9: Optical diagnostics for the analysis of hydrogen–methane blend combustion in internal combustion engines
- 9.1 Introduction
- 9.2 Optical diagnostics for combustion analysis
- 9.3 Characterization of the effect of hydrogen addition on methane combustion
- 9.4 Conclusions
- 10: Catalytic combustion of hydrogen for heat production
- 10.1 Introduction
- 10.2 Commercial and residential applications
- 10.3 Industrial applications
- 10.4 Applications not targeting the production of energy
- 10.5 Sources of further information
- 11: Electrochemical applications of metal hydrides
- 11.1 Introduction
- 11.2 Criteria of metals for Ni-MH battery applications
- 11.3 Classification of metals used in a Ni-MH battery
- 11.4 Current status of MHs research for Ni-MH battery application
- 11.5 Current market forces and future trends of the Ni-MH battery
- 11.6 Sources of further information
- 7: Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines
Compendium of Hydrogen Energy: Hydrogen Energy Conversion, Volume Three is the third part of a four volume series and focuses on the methods of converting stored hydrogen into useful energy. The other three volumes focus on hydrogen production and purification; hydrogen storage and transmission; and hydrogen use, safety, and the hydrogen economy, respectively.
Many experts believe that, in time, the hydrogen economy will replace the fossil fuel economy as the primary source of energy. Once hydrogen has been produced and stored, it can then be converted via fuel cells or internal combustion engines into useful energy.
This volume highlights how different fuel cells and hydrogen-fueled combustion engines and turbines work. The first part of the volume investigates various types of hydrogen fuel cells, including solid oxide, molten carbonate, and proton exchange membrane. The second part looks at hydrogen combustion energy, and the final section explores the use of metal hydrides in hydrogen energy conversion.
- Highlights how different fuel cells and hydrogen-fueled combustion engines and turbines work
- Features input written by leading academics in the field of sustainable energy and experts from the world of industry
- Examines various types of hydrogen fuel cells, including solid oxide, molten carbonate, and proton exchange membrane
- Presents part of a very comprehensive compendium which, across four volumes, looks at the entirety of the hydrogen energy economy
R&D managers in industry interested in the development of hydrogen conversion technologies as well as academic researchers and postgraduate students working in the wider area of the hydrogen economy.
- No. of pages:
- © Woodhead Publishing 2016
- 25th September 2015
- Woodhead Publishing
- Hardcover ISBN:
- eBook ISBN:
University of Split, Croatia
Angelo Basile, a Chemical Engineer, is a senior Researcher at the ITM-CNR where he is responsible for research related to both the ultra-pure hydrogen production and CO2 capture using Pd-based Membrane Reactors. He also holds a full professor of Chemical Engineering Processes. He has 140 scientific papers in peer to peer journals and 230 papers in international congresses; editor/author of more than 40 scientific books and 100 chapters on international books on membrane science and technology; 6 Italian patents, 2 European patents and 5 worldwide patents. He is referee of 116 international scientific journals and member of the Editorial Board for 22 of them. Professor Basile is also associate editor of the international journal Hydrogen Energy and of the Asia-Pacific journal Chemical Engineering, and is Editor-in-chief of the international journal Membrane Science & Technology and Editor-in-chief of Membrane Processes (Applications), a section of the international journal Membranes. Professor Basile also prepared 25 special issues on membrane science and technology for many international journals (IJHE, Chem Eng. J., Cat. Today, etc.). He participated to and was/is responsible for many national and international projects on membrane reactors and membrane science, and previously served as Director of the ITM-CNR.
Senior Researcher, Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM), Italian National Research Council (CNR), University of Calabria, Rende, Italy
Dr. Veziroglu, a native of Turkey, graduated from the City and Guilds College, the Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London, with degrees in Mechanical Engineering (A.C.G.I., B.Sc.), Advanced Studies in Engineering (D.I.C.) and Heat Transfer (Ph.D.).
In 1962 – after doing his military service in the Ordnance Section, serving in some Turkish government agencies and heading a private company – Dr. Veziroglu joined the University of Miami Engineering Faculty. In 1965, he became the Director of Graduate Studies and initiated the first Ph.D. Program in the School of Engineering and Architecture. He served as Chairman of the Department of Mechanical Engineering 1971 through 1975, in 1973 established the Clean Energy Research Institute, and was the Associate Dean for Research 1975 through 1979. He took a three years Leave of Absence (2004 through 2007) and founded UNIDO-ICHET (United Nations Industrial Development Organization – International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies) in Istanbul, Turkey. On 15 May 2009, he attained the status of Professor Emeritus at the University of Miami.
Dr. Veziroglu organized the first major conference on Hydrogen Energy: The Hydrogen Economy Miami Energy (THEME) Conference, Miami Beach, 18-20 March 1974. At the opening of this conference, Dr. Veziroglu proposed the Hydrogen Energy System as a permanent solution for the depletion of the fossil fuels and the environmental problems caused by their utilization. Soon after, the International Association for Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) was established, and Dr. Veziroglu was elected president. As President of IAHE, in 1976 he initiated the biennial World Hydrogen Energy Conferences (WHECs), and in 2005 the biennial World Hydrogen Technologies Conventions (WHTCs).
In 1976, Dr. Veziroglu started publication of the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (IJHE) as its Founding Editor-in-Chief, in order to publish and disseminate Hydrogen Energy related research and development results from around the world. IJHE has continuously grew; now it publishes twenty-four issues a year. He has published some 350 papers and scientific reports, edited 160 volumes of books and proceedings, and has co-authored the book “Solar Hydrogen Energy: The Power to Save the Earth”.
Dr. Veziroglu has memberships in eighteen scientific organizations, has been elected to the Grade of Fellow in the British Institution of Mechanical Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is the Founding President of the International Association for Hydrogen Energy.
Dr. Veziroglu has been the recipient of several international awards. He was presented the Turkish Presidential Science Award in 1974, made an Honorary Professor in Xian Jiaotong University of China in 1981, awarded the I. V. Kurchatov Medal by the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy of U.S.S.R. in 1982, the Energy for Mankind Award by the Global Energy Society in 1986, and elected to the Argentinean Academy of Sciences in 1988. In 2000, he was nominated for Nobel Prize in Economics, for conceiving the Hydrogen Economy and striving towards its establishment.
President, International Association for Hydrogen Energy, Miami, FL, USA
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