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Comparative Neuropathology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483231570, 9781483261423

Comparative Neuropathology

1st Edition

Authors: J. R. M. Innes L. Z. Saunders
eBook ISBN: 9781483261423
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 860
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Comparative Neuropathology focuses on documented accounts of neurologic diseases and congenital defects in animals.
The book first offers information on neuropathology, neuroanatomy, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The domesticated animals that have CSF include horses, dogs, pigs, cats, rabbits, and cattle. The text then elaborates on neurologic diseases of apes and monkeys. Discussions focus on confluent leucoencephalosis and perivascular myelosis, encephalopathies and dysenteric syndromes, meningitis, epilepsies, tuberculosis, cerebellar atrophy and experimental manganese poisoning, and choreic syndrome in baboons with corticostriate encephalitis.
The publication examines the diseases of the skeletal muscle and hypophysis, including general reactions of muscles to injuries, congenital defects, muscular dystrophies, changes in muscle associated with specific diseases, and tumor. The manuscript also takes a look at inherited diseases and congenital anomalies, protozoan and bacterial infections, and demyelinating or myelinoclastic diseases.
The text is a dependable reference for readers interested in comparative neuropathology.

Table of Contents


Authors and Contributors



Chapter I. Neuropathology

Part A. Introduction

References for Part A

Part B. Introduction. The Reaction of Neural Tissue to Disease-Producing Agents

References for Part B

Chapter II. Neuroanatomy


Chapter III. The Cerebrospinal Fluid

I. Introduction

II. Generalities

III. Horse

A. Puncture Technique

B. Normal CSF

C. Pathology of the CSF

IV. Cattle

A. Puncture Technique

B. Normal CSF

C. Pathology of the CSF

V. Sheep

A. Puncture Technique

B. Normal CSF

C. Pathology of the CSF

VI. Goat

VII. Pig

A. Puncture Technique

B. Pathology of the CSF


A. Puncture Technique

B. Normal CSF

C. Pathology of CSF

IX. Cat

X. Rabbit


Chapter IV. Neurologic Diseases of Apes and Monkeys

I. Introduction

A. Classification of Encephalomyelites in Apes and Monkeys

B. Kinds and Names of Apes and Monkeys

II. Neuroanatomy

III. Cerebrospinal Fluid in Apes and Monkeys

IV. Confluent Leucoencephalosis and Perivascular Myelosis

A. Historical Background

B. Clinical Signs

C. Pathology

D. Pathogenesis and Etiology

V. Isolated Papillomacular Degeneration

VI. Experimental Demyelinating Diseases

A. Experimental Cyanide Poisoning

B. Experimental Lesions Produced by Anoxia (Decompression Chamber) and by Carbon Monoxide

C. Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

D. Experimental Demyelination Induced by Fast-Neutron Irradiation

VII. Meningitis

A. Nonsuppurative Meningitis with Subacute and Chronic Neurologic Manifestations

B. Suppurative Meningitis

VIII. Epilepsies

IX. Acute Amaurotic Epilepsy

X. Acute Amaurosis without Epilepsy

XI. Encephalopathies and Dysenteric Syndromes

XII. Acute Polioencephalitis Predominantly in Brain Stem of Baboons

XIII. Choreic Syndrome in Baboons with Corticostriate Encephalitis

XIV. Tuberculosis

XV. Viral Encephalomyelites

A. B Virus Infection

B. Encephalomyocarditis

C. Experimental Poliomyelitis (Compared with Neurotropic Dengue, Newcastle, Western Viral, and Yellow Fever Vaccine Encephalitides)

D. Experimental West Nile Encephalitis

E. Experimental Japanese B Encephalitis

F. Experimental St. Louis Encephalitis

XVI. Experimental Work on Transmission of Inclusion Body Encephalitis (Dawson) or Subacute Sclerosing Leucoencephalitis (van Bogaert)

XVII. Clinically Silent Neural Lesions in Monkeys

XVIII. Experimental Polyradiculitis in Monkeys

XIX. Cerebellar Atrophy and Experimental Manganese Poisoning

XX. Miscellaneous Conditions

A. Tumors

B. Calcification, Siderosis, and Lipid Deposits in the Brain

C. Melanin Pigmentation

D. Arteriosclerosis

XX. Miscellaneous Conditions continued

E. Ascending Paralysis and Chronic Colitis in Chimpanzees (Pellagra-Like Disease)

F. Parasitic Infections

G. Stereotaxic Displacement of Portions of Choroid Plexus

H. Lead Poisoning

I. Tetanus

J. Fractures of the Skull

K. Malformations of the Nervous System


XXI. Clinical Observations of the Nervous System of Apes and Monkeys


Chapter V. Diseases of Skeletal Muscle

I. Introduction

A. General

B. Normal Muscle

II. General Reactions of Muscle to Injury

A. Degeneration

B. Atrophy

C. Hypertrophy

D. Regeneration

E. Myoglobinuria

III. Congenital Defects

A. Hyperplasia (Doppellender) in Calves and Lambs

B. Contractures and Arthrogryposis in Lambs, Calves, and Pigs

C. Dysplasia Associated with Hydrocephalus in Calves

IV. Muscular Dystrophies

A. Introduction

B. True Muscular Dystrophy in Animals

C. Muscular Steatosis, Lipomatous Muscular Dystrophy, or Atrophia Lipomatosa in Cattle and Swine

V. Degenerative Polymyopathies (Myodegeneration)

A. Introduction

B. Myodegeneration of Nutritional Origin

C. Myodegeneration of Uncertain Cause

VI. Inflammatory Diseases—Myositis

A. Bacterial Infections

B. Viral Infections

C. Parasitic Infections

D. Inflammatory Reactions of Unknown Cause

VII. Changes in Muscle Associated with Specific Diseases

A. Bluetongue of Sheep

B. Leptospirosis

C. Equine Purpura Hemorrhagica

D. Viral Encephalomyelitis (Teschen Disease) of Swine

E. Other Diseases

VIII. Tumors

A. Primary Tumors

B. Secondary Tumors

IX. Miscellaneous Disorders

A. Congenital Myotonia (Thomsen's Disease)

B. Human Disorders without Counterparts in Animals


Chapter VI. The Hypophysis

I. Morphology and Function

A. Embryology and Histology

B. The Hypophysis in Pregnancy

C. The Physiologic Significance of Cell Types

II. Developmental Disorders

III. Retrogressive Changes

A. Aging Phenomena

B. Miscellaneous Retrogressive Changes

C. Stress

D. Nutritive Deficiencies

IV. Regeneration

V. The Hypophysis and Disease of the Target Organs

A. Castration

B. Hypothyroidism

C. Cystic Ovarian Degeneration of Cattle

VI. Neoplastic Diseases

A. Tumors of the Anterior Pituitary

B. Tumors of the Pars Intermedia

C. Miscellaneous Tumors

D. Secondary Tumors

VII. Diabetes Insipidus and Hypothalamic Syndromes


Chapter VII. Inherited Diseases and Congenital Anomalies

I. Classification

II. General Introduction

III. Congenital Anomalies and Malformations

A. Introduction, Generalities, and Listing of Varieties

B. Hydrocephalus

C. Spina Bifida

D. Arnold-Chiari Malformation

E. Agenesis of the Corpus callosum

F. Achondroplasia (Chondrodystrophia fetalis) with Hydrocephalus in (Bulldog) Calves and in Rabbits

G. Arthrogryposis, Anencephaly, and Hydranencephaly in Calves and Lambs

IV. Hereditary Diseases in Which the Pathology Has Been Wholly, or Partly, Defined

A. The Cerebellum, Cerebellar Ataxias and Diseases

B. Congenital Ataxia in Jersey Calves(and Angus-Shorthorns)—a Leucodysplasia of Cerebellum, Midbrain, and Medulla

C. Congenital Posterior Paralysis of Red Danish Calves—a Pallidal and Reticular Degeneration

D. Primary Lipidoses with Cerebral Involvement

E. Spinal Muscular Atrophy of Dogs

F. Posterior Paralysis of Swine

G. Congenital Deafness of White Animals

H. Optic Nerve Hypoplasia in Collie Dogs (and Other Animals)

I. "Pseudo-Amyloid" Multiradicular Degeneration of Spinal Nerve Roots of a Purebred Shetland Pony

J. Hypomyelinogenesis Congenita of Sheep

K. Lethal or Semilethal Factor in Gray Karakul Lambs

V. Hereditary Diseases in Which Lesions Have Not Been Demonstrated

A. Genetics Completely Worked Out, or Sufficiently so to Indicate an Inherited Origin

B. Genetics Incompletely Denned, and Only Suggestive

VI. Laboratory Animals


Chapter VIII. Viral and Rickettsial Encephalomyelitides

I. General


II. Viral Encephalomyelites of Small Laboratory Animals

A. Guinea Pigs

B. Coypu (Nutria)

C. Mice


III. Ovine and Caprine Encephalitides

A. Louping-Ill in Sheep

B. Scrapie in Sheep and Goats

C. Visna (and Rida) of Sheep in Iceland


IV. Feline Encephalitides

A. Myelitis

B. Experimental Newcastle Disease

C. Encephalopathy of Cats in Sardinia


V. Canine Encephalitides

A. Neorickettsia helmintheca Infection (Socalled Salmon Poisoning)

B. Infectious Canine Hepatitis and Fox Encephalitis

C. Canine Distemper

D. Rabies

E. Subacute Diffuse Sclerosing Encephalitis in the Dog


VI. Encephalomyelites in Bovidae

A. General

B. Sporadic Bovine Encephalomyelitis

C. Rinderpest

D. Bovine Malignant Catarrh


VII. Encephalitides in Equidae

A. General

B. Borna Disease

C. Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan Viral Encephalomyelitis

D. Russian Equine Encephalomyelitis

E. Japanese Encephalitis in Horses

F. Infectious Equine Anemia


VIII. Porcine Encephalitides

A. General

B. Hog Cholera (Swine Fever)

C. African Swine Fever (East African Swine Fever, Wart Hog Disease)

D. Porcine Encephalomyelitis

E. Porcine Enterovirus

F. Japanese Encephalitis

G. Pseudorabies


Chapter IX. Protozoan Infections

I. Introduction

II. Trypanosomiases of Man and Animals

A. General and Historical

B. Man

C. Domestic Animals

D. Experimental Trypanosomiases

III. Babesiosis (Red Water, Piroplasmosis, or Tick Fever)

IV. East Coast Fever (Theileriasis) and Turning Sickness in Africa

V. Encephalitozoonosis

VI. Toxoplasmosis


Chapter X. Bacterial Infections

I. General

II. Tuberculosis

A. Cattle

B. Dogs

C. Cats

D. Horse

E. Swine

III. Listeriosis

IV. Anthrax

V. Miscellaneous Infections

A. Staphylococcal Granuloma

B. Necrobacillosis

C. Glanders

Chapter X. Bacterial Infections continued

VI. Hemophilus Infections

A. Swine

B. Sheep

C. Cattle

D. Man


Chapter XI. Mycotic Infections

I. Introduction

II. Cryptococcosis

III. Nocardiosis

IV. Actinomycosis

V. Coccidioidomycosis

VI. Aspergillosis

VII. Mucormycosis

VIII. Ustilagomycosis


Chapter XII. Insect Larval Infections

I. Oestrus (Cephalomyia) ovis (Sheep Nasal Fly)

II. Hypoderma bovis and H. lineatum (Cattle Grub or Warble Fly)

III. Cuterebra (Diptera) Larvae in Cats


Chapter XIII. Helminthic Infections

I. Cestodes

A. Coenurosis in Sheep, Cattle, and Other Hosts

B. Cysticercosis

C. Echinococcosis

II. Nematodes

A. Cerebrospinal Nematodosis

III. Trematodes

A. Schistosomiasis

B. Paragonimiasis

C. Troglotremiasis


Chapter XIV. Demyelinating or Myelinoclastic Diseases

I. General Introduction

II. Congenital Demyelination (Swayback) in Lambs

A. Historical Background

B. Field History

C. Gross Changes

D. Microscopic Changes

E. Pathogenesis and Cause

III. Other Neurologic Conditions in Sheep and Lambs

IV. Acute Epizootic Leucoencephalitis in Horses(United States and China)

V. Equine Spinal Ataxia (Wobblers)

VI. Wild Animals

VII. Spontaneous Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Mice

VIII. Demyelinating Disease of Adult Rats

IX. Inherited Leucoencephalosis in Mice


Chapter XV. Encephalomalacia and Myelomalacia

I. Introduction

II. Focal Symmetrical Spinal Poliomalacia of Sheep in Kenya

A. Historical and Field Aspects

B. Clinical Signs

C. Pathology

D. Pathogenesis and Cause

III. Nigropallidal Malacia in Horses in California Associated with Ingestion of Yellow Star Thistle

A. Historical and Field Aspects

B. Clinical Signs

C. Pathology

D. Pathogenesis and Cause

IV. Focal Symmetrical Encephalomalacia of Lambs in New Zealand

A. Historical and Field Aspects

B. Clinical Signs

C. Pathology

D. Pathogenesis and Cause

V. Polioencephalomalacia of Cattle and Sheep in Colorado

A. Historical and Field Aspects

B. Clinical Signs

C. Pathology

D. Pathogenesis and Cause

VI. Encephalomalacia in Pigs in New Zealand and Canada


Chapter XVI. Encephalitis: Post-Infective, Postvaccinal, and Experimental Allergic

I. Post-Infective Encephalitis

II. Post-Vaccinal Encephalitis (after Smallpox or Rabies Vaccination)

III. Experimental Allergic (or "Isoallergic") Encephalitis


Chapter XVII. Transplacental Viral Complications

I. Disorders Associated with Hog Cholera

II. Disorders Associated with Japanese Encephalitis

III. Disorders Associated with Bluetongue Vaccination

IV. Disorders Associated with Viral Disease of Cats


Chapter XVIII. Meningitis

I. Introduction

II. Leptomeningitis

A. General

B. Mixed and Indeterminate Infections

C. Coliform Infections

D. Pseudomonas Infection

E. Pasteurellosis

F. Brucellosis

G. Diphtheroid Infections

H. Pneumococcosis

I. Streptococcosis

J. Salmonellosis

III. Pachymeningitis


Chapter XIX. Pigmentations and Depositions

I. General

II. Pigments

III. Minerals

IV. Organic Deposits


Chapter XX. Deficiency Diseases

I. Introduction

II. Vitamin A Deficiency

A. General

B. In Rats

C. In Dogs

D. In Cattle

E. In Swine

F. In Rabbits

G. Retinopathy

III. Thiamin Deficiency

A. In Foxes and Mink

B. In Cats

C. In Calves and Lambs

D. In Horses

E. Chronic Deficiency

IV. Nutritional Ataxia and Paralysis in Pigs

V. Pantothenic Acid Deficiency

VI. Pyridoxine Deficiency

VII. Vitamin B12 Deficiency

VIII. Vitamin E Deficiency

IX. Concluding Remarks


Chapter XXI. Intoxications

I. General

II. Bacterial Toxins

A. General

B. Tetanus

C. Botulism

D. Clostridium perfringens and Other "Gas Gangrene" Infections

III. Plant and Chemical Poisons

A. General

B. Plant Poisoning

C. Chemical Poisoning

D. Ototoxicity

E. Retinal Toxicity


Chapter XXII. Neoplastic Diseases

I. General Introduction

II. Types of Tumors

A. General Remarks

B. Meningioma

C. Astrocytic Gliomas

D. Oligodendroglioma

E. Medulloblastoma and Neuroepithelioma

F. Neuroblastoma and Ganglioneuroma

G. Ependymoma (Ependymoblastoma)

H. Tumors of the Choroid Plexus (Papilloma and Papillary Carcinoma)

I. Pinealoma

J. Retinoblastoma

K. Cholesteatoma

L. Chordoma

M. Neurilemmoma (Schwann-Cell Tumor)

N. Debatable Tumors

O. Metastatic Tumors

P. Teratomas

Q. Tumors in Laboratory Animals

III. Clinical Neurologic Signs in Animals


Chapter XXIII. The Spinal Cord

I. Introduction

II. Neuroanatomy, Neurohistology, and Development

III. Arterial and Venous Systems

IV. Clinical Signs and Experimental Neurophysiology

V. Neuropathology

A. Secondary (Wallerian) Degeneration

B. Primary, Concomitant, and Pyemic Infections

C. Trauma by Violence: Hemorrhagic Myelomalacia in a Dog

D. Compression and Nonviolent Trauma of the Cord: Subdural Hemorrhage, Prolapsed Discs and Compression in Dogs

E. Adhesive Arachnoiditis and Myelomalacia; Sequelae of Intraspinal Injection of Various Substances—Spinal Anesthetics and Contrast Agents; Myelomalacia in a Goat

Chapter XXIII. The Spinal Cord continued

V. Neuropathology continued

F. Decompression Sickness (Caisson Disease) and Myelomalacia in Man and Experimental Dogs

G. Ischemia, Hypoxia, and Anoxia in the Production of Myelomalacia

H. Miscellaneous


Chapter XXIV. Spinal Ganglia, Nerve Roots, and Peripheral Nerves

I. Laryngeal Hemiplegia (Roaring and Whistling) in the Horse

II. Neuritis of the Cauda Equina in Horses

III. Peripheral Neuritis Causing Sterility in Bulls (Sweden)

IV. Chronic Neuritis in Cattle

V. Degeneration of Ventral Spinal Nerve Roots in Dogs (New Zealand)


Chapter XXV. Miscellaneous Neurologic Disorders

I. Grass Disease (Sickness) of Horses in Europe

II. Haffkrankheit (Germany and Sweden) and Minimata Disease (Japan) in Man, Cats, and Other Animals

III. Paralytic Syndrome in Coonhounds

IV. "Fainting" in Foals

V. Stringhalt and Shivering of Horses

VI. Murrurundi Disease and Narrabri Disease of Sheep (Australia)

A. Murrurundi Disease

B. Narrabri Disease

VII. Enzootic Equine "Encephalomyelitis" in Slovakia

VIII. Extrapyramidal Syndromes and Hepatocerebral Complexes

IX. Aleutian Disease in Mink

X. Neurologic Diseases in Wild* Animals under Natural Conditions and in Captivity


Appendix: Hermann Dexler

Subject Index


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 1962
1st January 1962
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

J. R. M. Innes

L. Z. Saunders

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