Comparative Biochemistry V4

Comparative Biochemistry V4

A Comprehensive Treatise

1st Edition - January 1, 1962

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  • Editor: Marcel Florkin
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142151

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Comparative Biochemistry: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume IV: Constituents of Life — Part B focuses on the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms. Composed of various literature, the book first looks at the optical asymmetry of metabolites. The natural occurrence of D-amino acids and L-sugars; significance of purity; optical asymmetry and protein structure; and the relationship of optical asymmetry and cancer are discussed. The text also discusses structural studies on cellulose, starch, and glycogen; biochemistry of lignin formation; structure and localization of nucleic acids; and intraspecific and interspecific variations of protein molecules. The book considers the metabolism of aromatic amino acids, structural and chemical properties of keratin-forming tissues, sclerotization, and blood coagulation. The text further discusses metamorphosis and biochemical adaptation in amphibians. The importance of intrinsic tissue sensitivity in tadpoles; comparative morphological alterations; and the increase in serum albumin and serum protein are considered. The book focuses as well on the structure, distribution, and metabolism of porphyrins, pteridines, and carotenoids. The selection is a good source of data for researchers wanting to study the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors to Volume IV


    Contents of Volumes I, II, III, V, and VI

    Phylogenetic Charts

    1. The Optical Asymmetry of Metabolites

    I. Introduction

    II. The Significance of Optical Purity

    III. Absolute Configuration

    IV. The Natural Occurrence of D-Amino Acids and L-Sugars

    V. Optical Asymmetry and Protein Structure

    VI. Optical Asymmetry and Cancer

    VII. The Origin of Optical Activity and the Origin of Life

    VIII. Conclusions


    2. Cellulose, Starch, and Glycogen

    I. Cellulose: General Introduction

    II. Starch: Structure of Amylose and Amylopectin

    III. Glycogen: Structural Studies


    3. The Biochemistry of Lignin Formation

    I. Introduction

    II. The Microbiological Degradation of Cellulose

    III. The Aromatization Process in Microorganisms

    IV. Lignification in Higher Plants

    V. Conclusion


    4. Nucleic Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. Cellular Localization of the Nucleic Acids

    III. Comparative Structure of the Nucleic Acids

    IV. Biological Specificity of the Nucleic Acids


    5. Protein Molecules: Intraspecific and Interspecific Variations

    I. Introduction

    II. Scope and Mechanics of the Review

    III. Quantitative Comparisons of Amino Acid Compositions of Unfractionated Proteins

    IV. Antibiotics

    V. Hormones

    VI. Enzymes

    VII. Muscle Proteins

    VIII. Blood Proteins

    IX. Miscellaneous Proteins

    X. Attempts to Govern the Structures of Protein Molecules

    XI. Comparisons among Heterologous Proteins

    XII. Perspectives

    Notes Added in Proof


    6. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids

    I. Introduction

    II. Biosynthesis

    III. Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine

    IV. Metabolism of Tryptophan


    7. Structural and Chemical Properties of Keratin-Forming Tissues

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Properties of Keratinizing Tissues

    III. Structural Properties of Horny Tissues

    IV. Chemical Composition of Horny Tissues

    V. Epidermal Keratin

    VI. Hair Keratin

    VII. Quill, Feather, and Horn Keratin

    VIII. One-Component and Two-Component Theories of Keratin

    IX. Concluding Remarks


    8. Sclerotization

    I. Introduction

    II. Sclerotization

    III. Systematic Distribution of Sclerotin

    IV. Enzymes

    V. Variety of Sclerotins

    VI. Conclusions


    9. Silk and Other Cocoon Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Main Importance of Studies on Silk

    III. The Protein "Fibroin" and Its Varieties

    IV. Fibroins of the Parallel-ß Type

    V. Fibroins of the Cross-ß Type

    VI. The a-Form of Silk

    VII. Silk Which is Collagen

    VIII. Silk Which is Chitin

    IX. Further Cases of "Silk" in the Cross-ß Form

    X. The Other Cocoon Protein — the Sericin Fraction

    XI. The Proteins of Other Cocoons

    XII. Byssus Silk

    XIII. Microscopy

    XIV. Taxonomy and the Structure of Silk

    XV. Summary and Conclusions


    10. Blood Coagulation

    I. Introduction

    II. Systems of Coagulation in the Different Zoological Groups

    III. Comparison of Coagulation Systems among the Zoological Groups

    IV. Conclusions


    11. Metamorphosis and Biochemical Adaptation in Amphibia

    I. Introduction

    II. Comparative Morphological Alterations at Metamorphosis

    III. Comparative Endocrine Regulation of Metamorphosis

    IV. Importance of Intrinsic Tissue Sensitivity in the Tadpole

    V. Biochemical Changes of Direct Adaptive Value during Anuran Metamorphosis

    VI. The Shift from Ammonotelism to Ureotelism during Anuran Metamorphosis

    VII. The Increase in Serum Albumin and Serum Protein

    VIII. The Change in the Molecular Properties and Biosynthesis of Hemoglobin

    IX. Alterations in Digestive Mechanisms

    X. The Effect on Respiration

    XI. Additional Biochemical Alterations during Anuran Metamorphosis

    XII. The Second Metamorphosis

    XIII. Conclusion



    12. Porphyrins: Structure, Distribution, and Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Porphyrins and Their Metal Complexes

    III. Occurrence of Porphyrins in Invertebrates

    IV. Origin and Function of the Porphyrins in Invertebrates

    V. Occurrence of Porphyrins in Vertebrates

    VI. Conclusion


    13. Pteridines: Structure and Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Folic Acid Compounds

    III. Simple Pteridines

    IV. Biosynthesis of the Pteridine Ring

    V. Riboflavin

    VI. Conclusion


    14. Carotenoids: Structure, Distribution, and Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Structures of Naturally Occurring Carotenoids

    III. Distribution in Nature

    IV. Conclusions


    15. Comparative Biochemistry of the Alkali Metals

    I. Chemistry of the Alkali Metals

    II. General Distribution of the Alkalies

    III. Alkali Metals as Required Nutrients

    IV. Selective Combination of Alkali Metals with Cell Constituents and Particulates

    V. The Action of Alkali Metals on Enzyme Systems and Cellular Metabolism

    VI. The Physiological and Pharmacological Effects of the Alkali Metals

    VII. The Regulation of the Alkali Metals in Body Fluids and Cells

    VIII. The Sodium and Potassium Balance of the Whole Organism

    IX. The Evolution of the Ionic Balance of Cells and Body Fluids

    X. The Significance of Ion Gradients

    XI. Conclusion


    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 866
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1962
  • Published: January 1, 1962
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323142151

About the Editor

Marcel Florkin

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