Comparative Biochemistry V4 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955456, 9780323142151

Comparative Biochemistry V4

1st Edition

A Comprehensive Treatise

Editors: Marcel Florkin
eBook ISBN: 9780323142151
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1962
Page Count: 866
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Comparative Biochemistry: A Comprehensive Treatise, Volume IV: Constituents of Life — Part B focuses on the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms. Composed of various literature, the book first looks at the optical asymmetry of metabolites. The natural occurrence of D-amino acids and L-sugars; significance of purity; optical asymmetry and protein structure; and the relationship of optical asymmetry and cancer are discussed. The text also discusses structural studies on cellulose, starch, and glycogen; biochemistry of lignin formation; structure and localization of nucleic acids; and intraspecific and interspecific variations of protein molecules. The book considers the metabolism of aromatic amino acids, structural and chemical properties of keratin-forming tissues, sclerotization, and blood coagulation. The text further discusses metamorphosis and biochemical adaptation in amphibians. The importance of intrinsic tissue sensitivity in tadpoles; comparative morphological alterations; and the increase in serum albumin and serum protein are considered. The book focuses as well on the structure, distribution, and metabolism of porphyrins, pteridines, and carotenoids. The selection is a good source of data for researchers wanting to study the distribution, biogenesis, and metabolism of cells and organisms.

Table of Contents

Contributors to Volume IV


Contents of Volumes I, II, III, V, and VI

Phylogenetic Charts

1. The Optical Asymmetry of Metabolites

I. Introduction

II. The Significance of Optical Purity

III. Absolute Configuration

IV. The Natural Occurrence of D-Amino Acids and L-Sugars

V. Optical Asymmetry and Protein Structure

VI. Optical Asymmetry and Cancer

VII. The Origin of Optical Activity and the Origin of Life

VIII. Conclusions


2. Cellulose, Starch, and Glycogen

I. Cellulose: General Introduction

II. Starch: Structure of Amylose and Amylopectin

III. Glycogen: Structural Studies


3. The Biochemistry of Lignin Formation

I. Introduction

II. The Microbiological Degradation of Cellulose

III. The Aromatization Process in Microorganisms

IV. Lignification in Higher Plants

V. Conclusion


4. Nucleic Acids

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Localization of the Nucleic Acids

III. Comparative Structure of the Nucleic Acids

IV. Biological Specificity of the Nucleic Acids


5. Protein Molecules: Intraspecific and Interspecific Variations

I. Introduction

II. Scope and Mechanics of the Review

III. Quantitative Comparisons of Amino Acid Compositions of Unfractionated Proteins

IV. Antibiotics

V. Hormones

VI. Enzymes

VII. Muscle Proteins

VIII. Blood Proteins

IX. Miscellaneous Proteins

X. Attempts to Govern the Structures of Protein Molecules

XI. Comparisons among Heterologous Proteins

XII. Perspectives

Notes Added in Proof


6. Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids

I. Introduction

II. Biosynthesis

III. Metabolism of Phenylalanine and Tyrosine

IV. Metabolism of Tryptophan


7. Structural and Chemical Properties of Keratin-Forming Tissues

I. Introduction

II. Biological Properties of Keratinizing Tissues

III. Structural Properties of Horny Tissues

IV. Chemical Composition of Horny Tissues

V. Epidermal Keratin

VI. Hair Keratin

VII. Quill, Feather, and Horn Keratin

VIII. One-Component and Two-Component Theories of Keratin

IX. Concluding Remarks


8. Sclerotization

I. Introduction

II. Sclerotization

III. Systematic Distribution of Sclerotin

IV. Enzymes

V. Variety of Sclerotins

VI. Conclusions


9. Silk and Other Cocoon Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Main Importance of Studies on Silk

III. The Protein "Fibroin" and Its Varieties

IV. Fibroins of the Parallel-ß Type

V. Fibroins of the Cross-ß Type

VI. The a-Form of Silk

VII. Silk Which is Collagen

VIII. Silk Which is Chitin

IX. Further Cases of "Silk" in the Cross-ß Form

X. The Other Cocoon Protein — the Sericin Fraction

XI. The Proteins of Other Cocoons

XII. Byssus Silk

XIII. Microscopy

XIV. Taxonomy and the Structure of Silk

XV. Summary and Conclusions


10. Blood Coagulation

I. Introduction

II. Systems of Coagulation in the Different Zoological Groups

III. Comparison of Coagulation Systems among the Zoological Groups

IV. Conclusions


11. Metamorphosis and Biochemical Adaptation in Amphibia

I. Introduction

II. Comparative Morphological Alterations at Metamorphosis

III. Comparative Endocrine Regulation of Metamorphosis

IV. Importance of Intrinsic Tissue Sensitivity in the Tadpole

V. Biochemical Changes of Direct Adaptive Value during Anuran Metamorphosis

VI. The Shift from Ammonotelism to Ureotelism during Anuran Metamorphosis

VII. The Increase in Serum Albumin and Serum Protein

VIII. The Change in the Molecular Properties and Biosynthesis of Hemoglobin

IX. Alterations in Digestive Mechanisms

X. The Effect on Respiration

XI. Additional Biochemical Alterations during Anuran Metamorphosis

XII. The Second Metamorphosis

XIII. Conclusion



12. Porphyrins: Structure, Distribution, and Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Porphyrins and Their Metal Complexes

III. Occurrence of Porphyrins in Invertebrates

IV. Origin and Function of the Porphyrins in Invertebrates

V. Occurrence of Porphyrins in Vertebrates

VI. Conclusion


13. Pteridines: Structure and Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Folic Acid Compounds

III. Simple Pteridines

IV. Biosynthesis of the Pteridine Ring

V. Riboflavin

VI. Conclusion


14. Carotenoids: Structure, Distribution, and Function

I. Introduction

II. Structures of Naturally Occurring Carotenoids

III. Distribution in Nature

IV. Conclusions


15. Comparative Biochemistry of the Alkali Metals

I. Chemistry of the Alkali Metals

II. General Distribution of the Alkalies

III. Alkali Metals as Required Nutrients

IV. Selective Combination of Alkali Metals with Cell Constituents and Particulates

V. The Action of Alkali Metals on Enzyme Systems and Cellular Metabolism

VI. The Physiological and Pharmacological Effects of the Alkali Metals

VII. The Regulation of the Alkali Metals in Body Fluids and Cells

VIII. The Sodium and Potassium Balance of the Whole Organism

IX. The Evolution of the Ionic Balance of Cells and Body Fluids

X. The Significance of Ion Gradients

XI. Conclusion


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1962
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Marcel Florkin

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