Combustion - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122858505, 9780323157346

Combustion

1st Edition

Authors: Irvin Glassman
eBook ISBN: 9780323157346
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 292
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Description

Combustion deals with the underlying principles of combustion and covers topics ranging from chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to detonation, oxidation characteristics of fuels, and flame phenomena in premixed combustible gases. Diffusion flames, ignition, and coal combustion are also discussed.
This book consists of nine chapters and begins by introducing the reader to heats of reaction and formation, free energy, the equilibrium constant, and flame temperature calculations. The next chapter explores the rates of reactions and their temperature dependency; simultaneous interdependent and chain reactions; pseudo-first-order reactions; and pressure effect in fractional conversion. The explosion limits and oxidation characteristics of fuels such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons are also considered. The remaining chapters look at the laminar flame speed and stability limits of laminar flames, along with deflagration and detonation, burning in convective atmospheres, and the theory of thermal ignition. The final chapter is devoted to the burning of coal. This monograph will be a useful resource for students and teachers of physics.

Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter One: Chemical Thermodynamics

A. Heats of Reaction and Formation

B. Free Energy, the Equilibrium Constant, and Flame Temperature Calculations

References

Chapter Two: Chemical Kinetics

A. The Rates of Reactions and Their Temperature Dependency

B. Simultaneous Interdependent and Chain Reactions

C. Pseudo-First-Order Reactions

D. Pressure Effect in Fractional Conversion

References

Chapter Three: Explosive and General Oxidation Characteristics of Fuels

A. The Criterion for Explosion

B. Explosion Limits and Oxidation Characteristics of Hydrogen

C. Explosion Limits and Oxidation Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide

D. Explosion Limits and Oxidation Characteristics of Hydrocarbons

1. Organic Nomenclature

2. Explosion Limits, Cool Flames, and General Mechanisms

3. Detailed Oxidation Mechanisms of Hydrocarbons

References

Chapter Four: Flame Phenomena in Premixed Combustible Gases

A. The Laminar Flame Speed

1. The Theory of Mallard and Le Chatelier

2. The Theory of Zeldovich, Frank-Kamenetskii, and Semenov

3. The Laminar Flame and the Energy Equation

4. Flame Speed Measurements

5. Experimental Results and Physical and Chemical Effects

B. Stability Limits of Laminar Flames

1. Flammability Limits

2. Quenching Distance

3. Flame Stabilization (Low Velocity)

4. Stability Limits and Design

C. Turbulent Flames

1. Work of Damköhler and Schelkin

2. The Characteristic Time Approach

3. Experimental Results and Physical and Chemical Effects

D. Stirred Reactor Theory

E. Flame Stabilization in High Velocity Streams

References

Chapter Five: Detonation

A. Introduction

1. Premixed and Diffusion Flames

2. Explosion, Deflagration, and Detonation

3. The Onset of Detonation

B. The Detonation Velocity

1. Characterization of the Hugoniot Curve and the Uniqueness of the Chapman-Jouguet Point

2. Determination of the Speed of Sound in the Burned Gases for Conditions above the Chapman-Jouguet Point

3. Calculation of the Detonation Velocity

C. The Structure of the Detonation Wave

D. Comparison of Detonation Calculations with Experimental Results

E. Detonation Limits

References

Chapter Six: Diffusion Flames

A. Gaseous Fuel Jets

1. Appearance

2. Structure

3. Theoretical Considerations

B. Burning of Condensed Phases

1. General Mass Burning Considerations and the Evaporation Coefficient

2. Single Fuel Droplets in Quiescent Atmospheres

C. Burning in Convective Atmospheres

1. The Stagnant Film Case

2. The Longitudinally Burning Surface

3. The Flowing Droplet Case

4. Burning Rates of Plastics; The Small a Assumption and Radiation Effects

References

Chapter Seven: Ignition

A. Concepts

B. The Theory of Thermal Ignition

1. The Stationary Solution—The Critical Mass and Spontaneous Ignition Problems

2. The Non-stationary Solution

References

Chapter Eight: Environmental Combustion Considerations

A. The Nature of Photochemical Smog

1. Primary and Secondary Pollutants

2. The Effect of NOx

3. The Effect of SOx

B. NOx Formation and Reduction

1. The Structure of the Nitrogen Oxides

2. The Effect of Flame Structure

3. Atmospheric Nitrogen Kinetics

4. Fuel-Bound Nitrogen Kinetics

5. The Formation of NO2

6. The Reduction of NOx

7. The Partial Equilibrium Assumption

C. SOx Emissions

1. The Product Composition and Structure of Sulfur Compounds

2. Oxidative Mechanisms of Sulfur Fuels

D. Particulate Formation

1. Characteristics of Soot

2. Mechanisms of Soot Formation in Flames

3. Influence of Physical and Chemical Parameters on Soot Formation

4. Particulates from Liquid Hydrocarbon Pyrolysis

E. Stratospheric Ozone

1. The HOx Catalytic Cycle

2. The NOx Catalytic Cycle

3. The CIOx Catalytic Cycle

References

Chapter Nine: The Combustion of Coal

A. Diffusional Kinetics

B. The Burning Rate of Carbon

C. The Burning of Porous Chars

D. The Burning Rate of Ash-Forming Coal

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
292
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323157346

About the Author

Irvin Glassman

Dr. Irvin Glassman received both his undergraduate and graduate degrees in Chemical Engineering from The Johns Hopkins University. In 1950 he joined Princeton University, and is currently Robert H. Goddard Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. He has also been American Cyanamid Professor of Envirionmental Sciences and Director of Princeton's Center for Energy and Evironmental Studies. For 15years Dr. Glassman represented the United States as a member (and former chairman) of the Propulsion and Energetics Panel of AGARD/NATO. He has been a member of numerous committees, task forces, and research teams, and is currently a member of The National Academy of Engineering and many other professional and honorary societies. Dr. Glassman is listed in Who's Who in America, Who's Who in the World, Outstanding Educators of America, and American Men of Science.

Affiliations and Expertise

Princeton University, NJ, USA