Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases

Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases

2nd Edition - January 1, 1961

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  • Author: Bernard Lewis
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258393

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Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases, Second Edition focuses on the processes, methodologies, and reactions involved in combustion phenomena. The publication first offers information on theoretical foundations, reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, and reaction between carbon monoxide and oxygen. Discussions focus on the fundamentals of reaction kinetics, elementary and complex reactions in gases, thermal reaction, and combined hydrogen-carbon monoxide-oxygen reaction. The text then elaborates on the reaction between hydrocarbons and oxygen and combustion waves in laminar flow. The manuscript tackles combustion waves in turbulent flow and air entrainment and burning of jets of fuel gases. Topics include effect of turbulence spectrum and turbulent wrinkling on combustion wave propagation; ignition of high-velocity streams by hot solid bodies; burners with primary air entrainment; and description of jet flames. The book then takes a look at detonation waves in gases; emission spectra, ionization, and electric-field effects in flames; and methods of flame photography and pressure recording. The publication is a valuable reference for readers interested in combustion phenomena.

Table of Contents

  • Contents

    Preface to Second Edition

    Preface to First Edition

    List of Principal Symbols

    Part I. Chemistry and Kinetics of the Reactions Between Gaseous Fuels and Oxidants

    Chapter I. Theoretical Foundations

    1. Elementary and Complex Reactions in Gases

    2. Some Fundamentals of Reaction Kinetics

    3. The Steady-State Reaction Rate. Branched-Chain and Thermal Explosion Limits

    4. Chain Initiation and Chain Breaking at the Wall

    5. Chain Initiation in the Volume and Chain Breaking at the Wall

    Chapter II. The Reaction Between Hydrogen and Oxygen

    1. The Thermal Reaction

    2. Sensitization and Inhibition of the Thermal Reaction by Additives

    Chapter III. The Reaction Between Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    1. The Explosion Peninsula

    2. The Water-Catalyzed Reaction

    3. The Combined Hydrogen-Carbon Monoxide-Oxygen Reaction

    4. Sensitization and Inhibition by Additives

    Chapter IV. The Reaction Between Hydrocarbons and Oxygen

    1. Methane and Formaldehyde

    2. Ethane, Acetaldehyde, Ethylene, and Acetylene

    3. Propane and Propylene

    4. Cool Flames and Two-Stage Ignition

    5. Discussion of Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Oxidation

    6. Engine Knock

    Part II Flame Propagation

    Chapter V. Combustion Waves in Laminar Flow

    1. Introduction

    2. The Adiabatic Plane Combustion Wave

    3. General Description of Heat Sink and Flow Effects

    4. Principle of Stabilization of Combustion Waves in Laminar Streams

    5. Quenching of Combustion Waves in Divergent Propagation

    6. Measurements of Limits of Flame Stabilization and Quenching

    7. Structure of Laminar Burner Flames

    8. Development of a Flame in a Laminar Flow Field from an Ignition Source

    9. Laminar Flame Propagation in Tubes

    10. Observations on Flames in Tubes; Effect of Vibrations and Gravity

    11. Wrinkling and Disruption of Combustion Waves by Diffusional Stratification of Fuel-Oxidant Mixtures

    12. Limits of Inflammability

    13. Ignition by Electric Sparks

    14. Ignition by Other Sources

    15. Combustion Waves in Closed Vessels

    16. Determination of Burning Velocity

    Chapter VI. Combustion Waves in Turbulent Flow

    1. Description of Turbulent Burner Flames

    2. Concepts of Turbulent Flow

    3. Turbulent Burning Velocity

    4. Effect of Turbulence Spectrum and Turbulent Wrinkling on Combustion Wave Propagation

    5. Flame Stabilization in High-Velocity Flow by Pilot Flames

    6. Flame Stabilization by Bluff Bodies

    7. Ignition of High-Velocity Streams by Hot Solid Bodies

    Chapter VII. Air Entrainment and Burning of Jets of Fuel Gases

    1. Description of Jet Flames

    2. Theory of Laminar Jet Flames

    3. Theory of Turbulent Jet Flames

    4. Burners with Primary Air Entrainment

    Chapter VIII. Detonation Waves in Gases

    1. Introductory Remarks

    2. Theory of Shock and Detonation Waves

    3. The Calculation of Detonation Velocity and Comparison with Experiment

    4. Measurements of Detonation Velocity; Limits of Detonability; Pulsating and Spinning Detonations

    5. Transition from Flame to Detonation

    Chapter IX. Emission Spectra, Ionization, and Electric-Field Effects in Flames

    1. Flame Spectra

    2. Ions and Electric-Field Effects

    Chapter X. Methods of Flame Photography and Pressure Recording

    1. Flame Photography

    2. Measurement of Pressure Rise in Closed Vessel

    Part III. State of the Burned Gas

    Chapter XI. Temperature, Pressure, and Volume of the Burned Gas

    1. Thermodynamic Functions of Gases from Band Spectroscopy

    2. Adiabatic Explosions in Closed Vessels

    3. Adiabatic Flames at Constant Pressure

    Chapter XII. Temperature and Radiation of the Burned Gas

    1. Characteristics of Thermal Radiation

    2. Experimental Investigations of Radiation from Flames

    3. Measurement of Temperature of Stationary Nonluminous Flames

    4. Measurement of Temperature and Emissivity of Soot-Forming Flames

    Part IV. Problems in Technical Combustion Processes

    Chapter XIII. Industrial Heating

    Chapter XIV. Internal Combustion Engines

    1. Engine Cycles

    2. Combustion Process in the Otto Engine

    3. Combustion Process in the Diesel Engine

    4. Combustion in Jet Engines

    5. Combustion of Liquid Propellants in Rockets

    Appendix A—Data for Thermochemical Calculations

    Table 1. Energy Content of Gases

    Table 2. Equilibrium Constants of Various Reactions and Energies of Reaction at Absolute Zero

    Table 3. Heats of Combustion

    Table 4. Heats of Reaction for Hydrogen Peroxide

    Table 5. Heats of Decomposition of Gaseous Aldehydes, Ketones, and Acids

    Appendix B—Limits of Inflammability

    Table 1. Limits of Inflammability of Gases and Vapors with Air

    Table 2. Limits of Inflammability of Gases and Vapors with Oxygen

    Limits of Inflammability in Air Diluted with Various Inert Gases

    Table 3. Maximum safe Percentage of Oxygen in Mixtures of Combustibles with Air and C02 or N2 (room temperature and 1 atmosphere pressure)

    Lower Limits of Inflammability of Solvent Mixtures with Air

    Table 4. Inflammability of Vapors of Mixtures of Ethyl Acetate, Ethyl Alcohol, and Toluene

    Limits of Inflammability of Gases at High Pressures

    Limits of Inflammability of Gases at Reduced Pressures

    Extinction of Gasoline-Air Flames by Halogenated and Inert Gases

    Appendix C—Flame Temperatures

    Table 1. Flame Temperatures

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 752
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1961
  • Published: January 1, 1961
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483258393

About the Author

Bernard Lewis

Affiliations and Expertise

Combustion and Explosives Research, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

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