Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781483231556, 9781483258393

Combustion, Flames and Explosions of Gases

2nd Edition

Authors: Bernard Lewis
eBook ISBN: 9781483258393
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1961
Page Count: 752
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Description

Combustion, Flames, and Explosions of Gases, Second Edition focuses on the processes, methodologies, and reactions involved in combustion phenomena.
The publication first offers information on theoretical foundations, reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, and reaction between carbon monoxide and oxygen. Discussions focus on the fundamentals of reaction kinetics, elementary and complex reactions in gases, thermal reaction, and combined hydrogen-carbon monoxide-oxygen reaction. The text then elaborates on the reaction between hydrocarbons and oxygen and combustion waves in laminar flow.
The manuscript tackles combustion waves in turbulent flow and air entrainment and burning of jets of fuel gases. Topics include effect of turbulence spectrum and turbulent wrinkling on combustion wave propagation; ignition of high-velocity streams by hot solid bodies; burners with primary air entrainment; and description of jet flames. The book then takes a look at detonation waves in gases; emission spectra, ionization, and electric-field effects in flames; and methods of flame photography and pressure recording.
The publication is a valuable reference for readers interested in combustion phenomena.

Table of Contents


Contents

Preface to Second Edition

Preface to First Edition

List of Principal Symbols

Part I. Chemistry and Kinetics of the Reactions Between Gaseous Fuels and Oxidants

Chapter I. Theoretical Foundations

1. Elementary and Complex Reactions in Gases

2. Some Fundamentals of Reaction Kinetics

3. The Steady-State Reaction Rate. Branched-Chain and Thermal Explosion Limits

4. Chain Initiation and Chain Breaking at the Wall

5. Chain Initiation in the Volume and Chain Breaking at the Wall

Chapter II. The Reaction Between Hydrogen and Oxygen

1. The Thermal Reaction

2. Sensitization and Inhibition of the Thermal Reaction by Additives

Chapter III. The Reaction Between Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

1. The Explosion Peninsula

2. The Water-Catalyzed Reaction

3. The Combined Hydrogen-Carbon Monoxide-Oxygen Reaction

4. Sensitization and Inhibition by Additives

Chapter IV. The Reaction Between Hydrocarbons and Oxygen

1. Methane and Formaldehyde

2. Ethane, Acetaldehyde, Ethylene, and Acetylene

3. Propane and Propylene

4. Cool Flames and Two-Stage Ignition

5. Discussion of Mechanism of Hydrocarbon Oxidation

6. Engine Knock

Part II Flame Propagation

Chapter V. Combustion Waves in Laminar Flow

1. Introduction

2. The Adiabatic Plane Combustion Wave

3. General Description of Heat Sink and Flow Effects

4. Principle of Stabilization of Combustion Waves in Laminar Streams

5. Quenching of Combustion Waves in Divergent Propagation

6. Measurements of Limits of Flame Stabilization and Quenching

7. Structure of Laminar Burner Flames

8. Development of a Flame in a Laminar Flow Field from an Ignition Source

9. Laminar Flame Propagation in Tubes

10. Observations on Flames in Tubes; Effect of Vibrations and Gravity

11. Wrinkling and Disruption of Combustion Waves by Diffusional Stratification of Fuel-Oxidant Mixtures

12. Limits of Inflammability

13. Ignition by Electric Sparks

14. Ignition by Other Sources

15. Combustion Waves in Closed Vessels

16. Determination of Burning Velocity

Chapter VI. Combustion Waves in Turbulent Flow

1. Description of Turbulent Burner Flames

2. Concepts of Turbulent Flow

3. Turbulent Burning Velocity

4. Effect of Turbulence Spectrum and Turbulent Wrinkling on Combustion Wave Propagation

5. Flame Stabilization in High-Velocity Flow by Pilot Flames

6. Flame Stabilization by Bluff Bodies

7. Ignition of High-Velocity Streams by Hot Solid Bodies

Chapter VII. Air Entrainment and Burning of Jets of Fuel Gases

1. Description of Jet Flames

2. Theory of Laminar Jet Flames

3. Theory of Turbulent Jet Flames

4. Burners with Primary Air Entrainment

Chapter VIII. Detonation Waves in Gases

1. Introductory Remarks

2. Theory of Shock and Detonation Waves

3. The Calculation of Detonation Velocity and Comparison with Experiment

4. Measurements of Detonation Velocity; Limits of Detonability; Pulsating and Spinning Detonations

5. Transition from Flame to Detonation

Chapter IX. Emission Spectra, Ionization, and Electric-Field Effects in Flames

1. Flame Spectra

2. Ions and Electric-Field Effects

Chapter X. Methods of Flame Photography and Pressure Recording

1. Flame Photography

2. Measurement of Pressure Rise in Closed Vessel

Part III. State of the Burned Gas

Chapter XI. Temperature, Pressure, and Volume of the Burned Gas

1. Thermodynamic Functions of Gases from Band Spectroscopy

2. Adiabatic Explosions in Closed Vessels

3. Adiabatic Flames at Constant Pressure

Chapter XII. Temperature and Radiation of the Burned Gas

1. Characteristics of Thermal Radiation

2. Experimental Investigations of Radiation from Flames

3. Measurement of Temperature of Stationary Nonluminous Flames

4. Measurement of Temperature and Emissivity of Soot-Forming Flames

Part IV. Problems in Technical Combustion Processes

Chapter XIII. Industrial Heating

Chapter XIV. Internal Combustion Engines

1. Engine Cycles

2. Combustion Process in the Otto Engine

3. Combustion Process in the Diesel Engine

4. Combustion in Jet Engines

5. Combustion of Liquid Propellants in Rockets

Appendix A—Data for Thermochemical Calculations

Table 1. Energy Content of Gases

Table 2. Equilibrium Constants of Various Reactions and Energies of Reaction at Absolute Zero

Table 3. Heats of Combustion

Table 4. Heats of Reaction for Hydrogen Peroxide

Table 5. Heats of Decomposition of Gaseous Aldehydes, Ketones, and Acids

Appendix B—Limits of Inflammability

Table 1. Limits of Inflammability of Gases and Vapors with Air

Table 2. Limits of Inflammability of Gases and Vapors with Oxygen

Limits of Inflammability in Air Diluted with Various Inert Gases

Table 3. Maximum safe Percentage of Oxygen in Mixtures of Combustibles with Air and C02 or N2 (room temperature and 1 atmosphere pressure)

Lower Limits of Inflammability of Solvent Mixtures with Air

Table 4. Inflammability of Vapors of Mixtures of Ethyl Acetate, Ethyl Alcohol, and Toluene

Limits of Inflammability of Gases at High Pressures

Limits of Inflammability of Gases at Reduced Pressures

Extinction of Gasoline-Air Flames by Halogenated and Inert Gases

Appendix C—Flame Temperatures

Table 1. Flame Temperatures

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
752
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1961
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483258393

About the Author

Bernard Lewis

Affiliations and Expertise

Combustion and Explosives Research, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania