Color Atlas of Skeletal Landmark Definitions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780443103155, 9781455725199

Color Atlas of Skeletal Landmark Definitions

1st Edition

Guidelines for Reproducible Manual and Virtual Palpations

Authors: Serge van Sint Jan
eBook ISBN: 9781455725199
Imprint: Churchill Livingstone
Published Date: 13th April 2007
Page Count: 208

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This book covers most skeletal landmarks that are palpable through manual palpation and virtual palpation (i.e., using 3D models generated from medical imaging). Each chapter focuses on a particular bone or segment and includes: a general anatomical presentation of the bone SL (using images showing real specimens and 3D bone models); very detailed descriptions of skeletal landmarks using manual palpation and virtual palpation. These definitions have been written in order to be reproducible. Each section includes detailed descriptions of all palpable skeletal landmarks for the current bone. Each landmark is described on one page. Also each landmark page is labelled by a unique acronym. The latter should be used for further data exchange and programming in order to guarantee that no redundant label exists.

Key Features

  • Full colour, over 500 full colour images
  • Each bone is described in a separate section, making referencing easy
  • Multidisciplinary approach

Table of Contents



1 Introduction

2 Skull

External occipital protuberance (SOP) [M}
Zygomatic arch (SZR) [R,L]
Zygomatic angle (SZA)[R,L]
Mastoid process (SMP)[R,L]
Supraorbital notch (SSN)[R,L]
Infraorbital foramen(SIF)[R,L]
Lateral corner of orbit (SLC)[R,L]
Lower edge of orbit (SLE)[R,L]
Nasion (SNA)[M]
GLabella (SGL)[M]
Anterior nasal spine (SNS)[M]

3 Jaw

Angle (JAN)[R,L]
Mental protuberance(JMP)[M]
Inferior crest (JIC)[M]

4 Spine

Spinous process (CV2 to CV7, TV1 to TV12, LV1 to LV5)[M]

5 Sternum

Jugular notch (SJN)[M]
Clavicular surface (SCS)[R,L]
Manubriosternal edge (SME)[M]
Xiphisternal joint (SXS)[M]

6 Ribs

Anterior aspect (RA2 to RA7)[R,L]
Medial aspect (RM2 to RM7)[R,L]
Lateral aspect (RL4 to RL10)[R,L]

7 Clavicle

Acromioclavicular joint (CAJ)[R,L]
Anterior concavity (CAA) [R,L]
Anterior convexity (CAE)[R,L]
Sternoclavicular joint (CSJ)[R,L]
Anterior sternoclavicular joint (CAS)[R,L}

8 Scapula

Inferior angle (SIA)[R,L]
Root of spine (SRS)[R,L]
Superior angle (SSA)[R,L]
Acromial angle (SAA) [R,L]
Acromial tip (SAT)[R,L]
Acromial edge (SAE)[R,L]
Coracoid tip (SCT) [R,L]
Acromioclavicular joint (SAJ) [R,L]

9 Humerus

Greater tubercle (HGT)[R,L]
Lesser tubercle (HLT)[R,L]
Deltoid tuberosity(HDT) [R,L]
Medial epicondyle (HME, HMU, HML)[R,L]
Lateral epicondyle (HLE)[R,L]

10 Ulna

Olecranon (UOA, UOM, UOL)[R,L]
Olecranon basis (UOB)[R,L]
Coronoid process (UCP)[R,L]
Dome (UHD)[R,L]
Head (UHE)[R,L]
Styloid process (USP)[R,L]
Distal radioulnar joint (URU)[R,L]

11 Radius

Head (RHE)[R,L]
Styloid process (RSP)[R,L]
Dorsal tubercle (RDT)[R,L]
Dorsal edge of distal radio-ulnar joint (RDE)[R,L]
Sigmoid notch (RSN)[R,L]

12 Hand

Pisiformis (HPI)[R,L]
Hamatum hook (HHH)[R,L]
Navicular tubercle (HNT)[R,L]
Basis (MBi)[R,L]
Head (HLi, HMi)[R,L]
Sesamoid bones (MSL, MSM)[R,L]
Basis (Bpi, BCi, BDi)[R,L]
Head (PLi, PMi, CLi, CMi, DLi, DMi)[R,L]

13 Sacral bone

Spinous process of 2nd sacral vertebrae (SS2)[M]

14 Iliac bone

Anterior superior iliac spine (IAS)[R,L]
Posterior superior iliac spine (IPS)[R,l}
Posterior inferior iliac spine (IPI)[R,L]
Ischial tuberosity, inferior angle (IIT)[R,L]
Pubic joint, anterior angle (IPJ)[M]
Pubis spine (IPP)[R,L]
Crest tubercle (ICT)[R,L]
Centre of acetabulum (IAC)[R,L]

15 Femur

Greater trochanter (FTc, FTa, FTp)[R,L]
Tubercle of the adductor magnus muscle (FAM)[R,L]
Medial epicondyle (FME)[R,L]
Medial sulcus (FMS)[R,L]
Lateral epicondyle (FLE, FUE, FBE) [R,L]
Popliteal sulcus (FPS)[R,L]
Antero-medial ridge of the patellar surface groove (FMG)[R,L]
Antero-lateral ridge of the patellar surface groove (FLG) [R,L]
Most distal point of the medial condyle (FMC)[R,L]
Most distal point of the lateral condyle (FLC)[R,L]
Center of head (FCH)[R,L]

16 Patella

Apex (PAX)[R,L]
Centre of medial edge (PME)[R,L]
Centre of lateral edge (PLE)[R,L]
Centre (PCE)[R,L]

17 Tibia

Tibial tuberosity (TTC, TTM, TTL) [R,L]
Medial ridge of tibial plateau (TMR)[R,L]
Lateral ridge of tibial plateau (TLR)[R,L]
Gerdy’s tubercle (TGT)[R,L]
Apex of the medial malleolus (TAM)[R,L]

18 Fibula

Apex of the styloid process (FAX)[R,L]
Neck (FNE) [R,L]
Apex of the lateral malleolus (FAL)[R,L]

19 Foot

Posterior surface (FCC, FCM, FCL)[R,L]
Sustentaculum tali (FST) [R,L]
Tuberosity (FNT)[R, L]
Greater apophysis (FGA)[R,L]
Neck (FNK) [R, L]
Head (FHE) [R, L]
Peroneal trochlea (FPT) [R, L]
Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal bone (FMT) [R, L]
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th head (FM1, FM2, FM3, FM4, FM5) [R, L]
Basis (Bpi, BCi, BDi) [R, L]
*Head (PLi, PMi, CLi, CMi, DLi, DMi) [R, L]

20 Approximation of centroid and radius



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© Churchill Livingstone 2007
Churchill Livingstone
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About the Author

Serge van Sint Jan

Coauthor of one book chapter:G. Clapworthy, I. Belousov, A. Savenko, W. Sun, J. Tan, S. Van Sint Jan. Medical visualisation, biomechanics, figure animation and robot teleoperation: themes and links. IN: A. Leonardis, F. Solina, R. Bajcsy (eds), Confluence of Computer Vision & Computer Graphics, Kluwer Publishers, 2000More than twenty publications in peer-reviewed international journal. Several are currently being reviewed.Often present at conferences.Van Sint had the chance to gain experience during the last decade in all fields necessary to work on this multidisciplinary topic (i.e., anatomy, biomechanics, clinical problems, computer graphics). This experience allowed him to know the current limitations around motion analysis. He published several papers on these topics.First as Lecturer, then as Associate Professor in Anatomy, since 1990, he also developed knowledge about pedagogical techniques, including needs from students and the relevance of new visualization technologies in Education. The book is being written using this past experience. He was also supported by several colleagues around the world who have given their feedback.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, University of Brussels, Belgium