Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision-Making

Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision-Making

1st Edition - October 27, 2021

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  • Author: Maggie Toplak
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128166451
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128166369

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Description

Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgment and Decision-Making reviews the existing literature on the development of reasoning, judgment and decision-making, with a primary focus on measures from the heuristics and biases tradition. The book presents a model based on cognitive sophistication to examine the development of judgment and decision-making, including age related differences in developmental samples, associations with intellectual abilities and executive functions, and associations with dispositional tendencies that support judgment and decision-making. Additional sections cover the empirical findings of a longitudinal study conducted over seven years that tie together the discussed aspects related to cognitive sophistication. This book will provide a much-needed description of the theoretical and conceptual issues, a review of empirical findings, and an integrative summary of the implications for developmental models of reasoning, judgment and decision-making.

Key Features

  • Explores whether individual heuristics and biases are associated
  • Reviews individual differences in cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions
  • Examines reasoning from the lens of cognitive sophistication
  • Discusses the implications for models, including dual process models
  • Tests and elaborates using empirical findings from a longitudinal study

Readership

Researchers and students who work in neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, philosophy, and linguistics

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1: Defining cognitive sophistication in the development of judgment and decision-making
  • Abstract
  • Measuring miserly information processing in adult samples: Implications for developmental samples
  • Laying the groundwork for studying the development of judgment and decision-making
  • The assessment of rational thinking in developmental samples: Using adult models and stimulus equivalence
  • Process and knowledge as key dimensions for a taxonomy of judgment and decision-making performance: Task level factors
  • Cognitive sophistication and the development of judgment and decision-making: Individual level factors
  • Longitudinal developmental study description
  • Summary and organization of book
  • References
  • 2: Foundations for the development of judgment and decision-making: Cognitive abilities, thinking dispositions, and specific knowledge
  • Abstract
  • Processing that supports rational thinking: Cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions
  • Cognitive abilities: Intelligence and executive function task performance
  • Thinking dispositions
  • How cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions index sources of cognitive failure on judgment and decision-making tasks
  • Development of cognitive abilities: Intelligence and executive function task performance
  • Development of thinking dispositions
  • Specific knowledge: Facilitators and inhibitors
  • Knowledge facilitator: Probabilistic numeracy
  • Knowledge inhibitor: Superstitious thinking
  • Summary: Foundations for the development of judgment and decision-making
  • References
  • 3: Development of the ability to detect and override miserly information processing
  • Abstract
  • Dual process models and miserly information processing in adult samples
  • Extending dual process models from adult samples to developmental samples
  • The developmental origins of miserly information processing
  • The assessment of resistance to miserly information processing in developmental samples: Ratio bias
  • The assessment of resistance to miserly information processing in developmental samples: Belief bias syllogisms
  • The assessment of resistance to miserly information processing in developmental samples: Cognitive reflection
  • Confidence ratings on miserly information processing tasks
  • Summary: Resistance to miserly information processing as an additional foundation to support the development of rational thinking performance
  • References
  • 4: Recognizing the diagnosticity of statistical information in development: Base rate sensitivity
  • Abstract
  • Base rate sensitivity as a measure of rational thinking
  • Base rate sensitivity and development
  • Base rate sensitivity and correlations with individual differences
  • Data patterns from longitudinal developmental study
  • Summary: The development of base rate sensitivity
  • References
  • 5: Preference for larger delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards in development: Prudent temporal discounting
  • Abstract
  • Prudent temporal discounting as a measure of rational thinking
  • Temporal discounting and development
  • Temporal discounting correlations with individual differences
  • Data patterns from longitudinal developmental study
  • Summary: The development of prudent temporal discounting
  • References
  • 6: Understanding descriptive invariance in development: Framing effects
  • Abstract
  • Resistance to framing as a direct measure of rational thinking
  • Framing effects and development
  • Data patterns from developmental longitudinal study
  • Summary: Framing effects and development
  • References
  • 7: Correlations between judgment and decision-making tasks in developmental samples
  • Abstract
  • Correlations between judgment and decision-making paradigms in adult samples
  • Correlations between judgment and decision-making paradigms in developmental samples
  • Data patterns from developmental longitudinal study
  • Summary of Toplak and Flora (2020): The developmental trajectory of a Resistance to Cognitive Biases Composite
  • Separating rational thinking measures from resistance to miserly information processing: The Rational Thinking Composite
  • Summary: Associations between rational thinking tasks and predictors of performance in developmental samples
  • References
  • 8: Real-world correlates of judgment and decision-making paradigms in developmental samples
  • Abstract
  • Correlations with real-world outcomes in adult samples
  • Correlations with real-world outcomes in developmental samples
  • Data patterns from developmental longitudinal study
  • Positive outcomes
  • Negative outcomes
  • Male/female differences in real-world behaviors
  • Summary: Considerations and promising next steps of real-world correlates and judgment and decision-making in developmental samples
  • References
  • 9: The emergence of rational thinking in development: Conclusions and future directions
  • Abstract
  • Context for the operationalization and empirical study of judgment and decision-making in developmental samples
  • Cognitive sophistication: Age and individual differences in cognitive abilities and thinking dispositions as predictors of rational thinking in developmental samples
  • Resistance to miserly information processing as a measure of detection and override in developmental samples
  • Defining task characteristics for developmental samples: Process and knowledge in rational thinking tasks
  • Summary: Does rational thinking improve over the course of development?
  • Implications for models of the development of rational thinking
  • Real-world correlates and implications for training rational thinking in developmental samples
  • References
  • Appendix A: Tasks and measures used in developmental longitudinal study
  • Cognitive abilities (Chapter 2)
  • Thinking dispositions (Chapter 2)
  • Specific knowledge: Probabilistic numeracy (Chapter 2)
  • Miserly information processing tasks (Chapter 3)
  • Sample problem added at Time 3
  • Cognitive reflection test—Sample items
  • Calibration question following cognitive reflection task at Time 2
  • Belief bias syllogisms
  • Calibration question after belief bias syllogisms (Time 2 and Time 3)
  • Base rate sensitivity (Chapter 4)
  • Temporal discounting (Chapter 5)
  • Attribute framing problems (Chapter 6)
  • Other side thinking task
  • Procedure across all three timepoints
  • References
  • Appendix B: Cross-sectional age comparisons on cognitive ability, thinking disposition, probabilistic numeracy and superstitious thinking measures
  • Cognitive ability measures: Intelligence and executive function task performance
  • Thinking dispositions
  • Specific knowledge: Probabilistic numeracy
  • Superstitious Thinking Scale
  • Appendix C: Real-world outcomes questionnaire
  • Youth report (Time 2 and Time 3)
  • Parent report
  • References
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 298
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2021
  • Published: October 27, 2021
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128166451
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128166369

About the Author

Maggie Toplak

Dr. Toplak’s research spans cognitive science and clinical research. She studies cognitive science models of rational thinking and decision-making in typically developing samples and in developmental psychopathology. She has published over 50 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters across the fields of decision-making and clinical research, including two books: Individual Differences in Judgement and Decision-Making: A Developmental Perspective (Psychology Press, 2016) and The Rationality Quotient: Toward a Test of Rational Thinking (MIT Press, 2018), the latter of which won the 2017 PROSE Award in Education Theory.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor, Clinical Developmental Program, Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada

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