Cognitive Sciences - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125226202, 9781483219004

Cognitive Sciences

1st Edition

Basic Problems, New Perspectives, and Implications for Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Maria Nowakowska
eBook ISBN: 9781483219004
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1986
Page Count: 392
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Description

Cognitive Sciences: Basic Problems, New Perspectives, and Implications for Artificial Intelligence presents models and theories that describe and analyze some selected topics in the cognitive sciences and their implications for artificial intelligence (AI). These topics range from problems of observability and its restrictions or distortions of the subjective perception of time, to visual perception, memory, and communication. Extensive use is made of fuzzy set theory.

Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the distortion of time perception and the relationship between objective and subjective time. An explanatory concept used here is that of a pre-event (being a candidate for an event to be stored in memory) and the concept of a dynamic event-representation of an object (events on events) generated by the perceiver in the process of perceptual work. The discussion then turns to the notion of an event that underlies the theory of time; the semantics of multimedial languages of verbal and non-verbal communication; and problems of the mechanisms underlying the formation of judgments, as well as the problems of expression of these judgments in forms ranging from simple answers to binary questions and the generation of texts or discourses. The book also considers memory and perception before concluding with a description of stochastic models of expertise formation, opinion change, and learning.

This monograph will appeal to specialists in the fields of cognitive sciences and AI.

Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

1. A New Theory of Time

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The Objective and Subjective Time Scales

1.3 Psychological Models of Formation of Judgments w(a, b)

1.4 Mechanisms of Comparison of Time Intervals

1.5 Some Problems of Existence of Events: An Alternative Approach

1.6 Time and Frequency of Events

1.7 Fuzzification of Time and Stochastic Processes

1.8 Comments

1.9 Summary and Discussion

Appendix

2. Events and Observability

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Spatial and Temporal Fuzziness of Objects

2.3 Predicates

2.4 Predicates and Events

2.5 Theory of Events

2.6 Events in Probability Theory and Causal Relations

2.7 Fuzzy Markov Chains

2.8 Observability Constraints

2.9 Filters and Masks

Appendix

3. Multimedial Units and Languages: Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

3.1 Introduction

3.2 The Basic Conceptual Scheme

3.3 Semantics

3.4 Pragmatic Semantics

3.5 Definition of a Unit in the General Case

3.6 Languages of Particular Media

3.7 Fuzzy Unit and Perception

3.8 A Formal Approach to Dialogues

4. Judgment Formation and Problems of Description

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Models of Answering Questions

4.3 Verbal Copies and Classification Theory

4.4 Complex Descriptions: A Theory of Texts

4.5 Generation of a Text

4.6 Texts and a Theory of Knowledge

4.7 An Algebraic Approach to Discourses and Their Goals

Appendix

5. Memory and Perception: Some New Models

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Memory with Event-Time Horizon

5.3 A Model of Memory of Sentences: Application of the Model of Variable Storage Horizon

5.4 Models of Perception Processes

5.5 Heuristic Model of Memory

5.6 Eye Control Allocation for Hand Movements in Multitask Situations with Some Possible Applications to the Foundations of Robotics

Appendix

6. Stochastic Models of Expertise Formation, Opinion Change, and Learning

6.1 Introduction

6.2 A Model of Expertise Formation

6.3 Time Allocation to Topics in a Course of Study

6.4 Informational Synergy

6.5 Comments

Appendix

A.1 Relation

A.2 Fuzzy Sets

A.3 Probability

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
392
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1986
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483219004

About the Author

Maria Nowakowska

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