Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123984517, 9780123984968

Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention

1st Edition

Signals of the Mind

Editors: George Mangun
eBook ISBN: 9780123984968
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123984517
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 22nd October 2013
Page Count: 304
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Description

Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention explores the fundamental mechanisms of attention and related cognitive functions from cognitive neuroscience perspectives. Attention is an essential cognitive ability that enables humans to process and act upon relevant information while ignoring distracting information, and the capacity to focus attention is at the core of mental functioning. Understanding the neural bases of human attention remains a key challenge for neuroscientists and psychologists, and is essential for translational efforts to treat attentional deficits in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Cognitive electrophysiology is at the center of a multidisciplinary approach that involves the efforts of psychologists, neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, and neurologists to identify basic brain mechanisms and develop translational approaches to improve mental health. This edited volume is authored by leading investigators in the field and discusses methods focused on electrophysiological recordings in humans, including electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potential (ERP) methods, and also incorporates evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cognitive Electrophysiology of Attention illuminates specific models about attentional mechanisms in vision, audition, multisensory integration, memory, and semantic processing in humans.

Key Features

  • Provides an exhaustive overview of attention processes, going from normal functioning to the pathological, and using a combination of methodological tools
  • An important reference for electrophysiology researchers looking at underlying attention processes rather than the methods themselves
  • Enables researchers across a broad range of cognitive-process and methodological specialties to stay current on particular hypotheses, findings, and methods
  • Edited and authored by the worldwide leaders in the field, affording the broadest, most expert coverage available

Readership

Neuroscientists, cognitive neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists; academic neurologists and psychiatrists with research careers

Table of Contents

Dedication

Preface

Foreword

References

Contributors

Acknowledgments

Section I: Spatial Attention

Introduction

Chapter 1. Profiling the Spatial Focus of Visual Attention

Abstract

Introduction

The Spatial Profile of Visual Attention—Conflicting Observations

The Spatial Profile of Visual Attention Varies with Demands on Feedforward and Feedback Processing in Visual Cortex

Surround Attenuation and the Role of Distractors in Visual Search

Summary

References

Chapter 2. How the Brain Prevents and Terminates Shifts of Attention

Abstract

Introduction

Basics of N2pc and Pd

Active Suppression of a Salient Distractor

Sensory Confounds and the Hillyard Principle

Active Suppression of a Memory-Matching Distractor

A Common Mechanism for Preventing and Terminating Attention

Active Suppression after Involuntary Capture of Attention

The Signal Suppression Hypothesis: Competition between the Attend-to-Me Signal and Active Suppression

References

Chapter 3. Neuronal and Neural-Population Mechanisms of Voluntary Visual-Spatial Attention

Abstract

Effects of Voluntary Visual-Spatial Attention on Neuronal Spike Rates

When Multiple Stimuli are Presented Within a Neuron's Receptive Field

Attentional Contrast-Gain and the Biased-Competition Model

The Normalization Model of Attention

Resolving Within-Receptive-Field Stimulus Competition: Attentional Modulation of Fast-Spiking Inhibitory Interneurons and Facilitation of Gamma-Band Oscillations of Neural Excitability

Attentional Reduction of Lateral Interference in Low-Level Visual Areas

Interim Summary

Attentional Enhancement of Neural Population Responses by Synchronization

Preserving Perceptual Fidelity In Spite of Strong Attentional Modulation of Visual Responses

Conclusions

Afterthoughts: Attention vs Awareness

References

Chapter 4. Sequential Effects in the Central Cue Posner Paradigm: On-line Bayesian Learning

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 5. EEG–fMRI Combination for the Study of Visual Perception and Spatial Attention

Abstract

Introduction

Identification of the Neural Source of VEP Components

Spatiotemporal Mapping of Motion Processing

Identification of the Neural Sources Modulated by Spatial Attention

Conclusions

References

Chapter 6. Source Localization of Visual Stimuli in Peripersonal Space

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Method

Results

Discussion

Appendix

References

Chapter 7. Involuntary Cross-Modal Spatial Attention Influences Visual Perception

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Cross-Modal Cueing of Attention Enhances Perceptual Sensitivity

Cross-Modal Influences on Time-Order Perception

Cross-Modal Cueing of Attention Alters Visual Appearance

Salient Sounds Activate the Visual Cortex

Cross-Modal Cueing Affects Illusory Line Motion

Concluding Remarks

References

Section II: Feature and Object Attention

Introduction

Chapter 8. Object-Category Processing, Perceptual Awareness, and the Role of Attention during Motion-Induced Blindness

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Chapter 9. Feature- and Object-Based Attention: Electrophysiological and Hemodynamic Correlates

Abstract

Introduction

Neurophysiological Evidence for Feature-Based Selection

Feature-Selection and Object-Based Attention: Neurophysiological Findings

Functional Neuroimaging Evidence for Feature-Based Selection

Feature-Selection in Object-Based Attention: Functional Neuroimaging Evidence

The Timing of Feature-Based Attentional Selection

General Conclusions

References

Chapter 10. Neural Mechanisms of Feature-Based Attention

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Selection Units of Visual Attention and the Feature Similarity Gain Model

Top-Down Sensory Gain or Sharpening of Tuning Functions

The Steady State Visual Evoked Potential as Solution to Overcome Limitations of Previous Studies

Feature-Based Selection and Its Global Effect

Feature-Based Attention and Visual Search

Suppression of Neural Responses of the Unattended Feature Follows Amplification of the To-Be-Attended One

Feature-Based vs Location-Based Selection

Neural Circuits of Feature-Based and Spatial Attention

Feature-Based vs Object-Based Selection

Summary

References

Chapter 11. Effects of Preparatory Attention to Nonspatial Features in the Visual Cortex

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Controlling for Nonselective Effects

Eliminating Spatial Attention

Attending to Features or Dimensions

Controlling for Stimulus-Driven Effects

Measuring the Appropriate Neural Activity

Assessing Synchrony

Conclusions

References

Chapter 12. The Neural Basis of Color Binding to an Attended Object

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Behavioral Results

Event-Related Brain Potential Results

Discussion

Conclusions

References

Chapter 13. Switching Attention between the Local and Global Levels in Visual Objects

Abstract

Introduction

Selective Attention When Faced by Two Streams of Stimuli

Attention to the Hierarchical Levels of Compound Object

Rapid Visual Object Transformation as a Research Tool

Direct Timing of Between-Level Attentional Shifts in Compound Figures

Sustained Attention to the Levels of a Compound Figure

Attentional Modulation of the ERPs Elicited by Different Levels of a Compound Figure

Applications of Rapid Object Transformation in the Study of Autism

Conclusions

References

Chapter 14. Contour Integration: Sensory, Perceptual, and Attention-Based ERP Components

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Experiment 1: Identifying the CIN

Experiment 2: Distinguishing the CIN from the Selection Negativity

Experiment 3: Modulation of CIN Amplitude by Spatial Attention and Task Relevance

Experiment 4: Contour Integration without Conscious Perception

Experiment 5: Modulation of CIN Latency by Task Relevance

General Discussion

Conclusion

References

Chapter 15. Attentional Control of Multisensory Integration is Preserved in Aging

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results

Event-Related Potential Responses

Discussion

Author Contributions

References

Section III: Attention and Cognitive Processes

Introduction

Chapter 16. An Evolutionary Perspective on Attentional Processes

Abstract

Crypsis as an Adaptation to the Development of Sensory Systems

Evolutionary Responses to Crypsis

Examination of Brain Regions Supporting the Detection of Objects with Crypsis

Limitations

Conclusions

References

Chapter 17. Stimulus-Preceding Negativity (SPN) and Attention to Rewards

Abstract

Electrophysiology of Reward Processing

Decomposition of the Contingent Negative Variation

Goal-Directed Attention

Early SPN Research

Two Attention Networks

Neuroimaging Data

Parkinson’s Disease

Response-Contingent Incentives

Valence Specificity

References

Chapter 18. A Neural Measure of Item Individuation

Abstract

Overview of Selection-Dependent Electrophysiological Activity

Individuation Limits in Rapid Enumeration

Individuation Limits in Visual Search

Individuation Limits in Spatiotemporal Updating

Individuation Limits in WM Storage

Sensitivity to Perceived Number of Items

General Discussion

Conclusions

References

Chapter 19. Selective Attention, Processing Load, and Semantics: Insights from Human Electrophysiology

Abstract

Acknowledgments

The N400 as an Index of Conceptual and Lexical Processing

Is Attention to Perceptual Features Necessary for Semantic Processing?

Preparing to Process Words: How Abstract is Preparatory Attention?

Task Relevance of Semantic Information

Semantic Access and Processing Load

References

Chapter 20. Altered N400 Congruity Effects in Parkinson’s Disease without Dementia

Abstract

Introduction

Methods

Results

Discussion

References

Chapter 21. Oscillations and Behavior: The Role of Phase–Amplitude Coupling in Cognition

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Introduction

PAC and Visual Perception

PAC and Attention

PAC and Memory

Entrainment of Neuronal Oscillations and PAC as a Coding Mechanism

Neural Dynamics in the Abnormal Brain

Can PAC be Reliably Measured Using Scalp EEG?

Conclusions

References

Index

Details

No. of pages:
304
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780123984968
Hardcover ISBN:
9780123984517

About the Editor

George Mangun

Affiliations and Expertise

Dean of Social Sciences and Professor of Psychology and Neurology, University of California, Davis

Reviews

"Editor Mangun presents this text on the neural mechanisms of attention in three parts, drawing on EEG, ERP, fMRI, and neural population research. Part I discusses spatial attention,…Part II addresses higher-order processes of feature and object attention,...Part III explores the interaction of attention with cognitive processes,…"--ProtoView.com, February 2014