Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds

Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds

1st Edition - April 6, 2012

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  • Editors: Nissim Garti, Neil Widlak
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043448
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780983079125

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This book covers the progress of the last 10 years of studies on cocoa butter. Descriptions of several aspects, including physical characteristics such as rheology, hardness, melt profiles, etc., studied by new and advanced techniques are included. Similarly, the polymorphism of cocoa butter is reconsidered in light of studies done by synchrotron DSC, FTIR, and SAXS techniques. These data are complemented by new understandings on the cause of the crystallization and transitions of the polymorphs. Other aspects such as the effect of minor components, emulsifiers, and other fats are discussed in great detail in this book.

Key Features

  • Brings together all that is known about cocoa butter into one book
  • Describes physical characteristics of cocoa butter including rheology, hardness, and melt profiles
  • Reconsiders polymorphism of cocoa butter in light of recent studies by various analytical techniques
  • Presents new understandings on the cause of crystallization and transitions of polymorphs


food scientists, food formulators, analytical and physical chemists, R and D, food engineers

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Chapter 1: Chocolate and Cocoa Butter—Structure and Composition
      • Introduction
      • Chocolate Composition and Structure
      • Cocoa Butter Composition
      • Structure and Polymorphism of Cocoa Butter
      • Effect of Cocoa Butter Composition and Structure on Chocolate Composition and Structure
    • Chapter 2: Theobroma cacao—An Introduction to the Plant, Its Composition, Uses, and Health Benefits
      • Introduction
      • Cacao and Cocoa—From Tree to Factory
      • Industrial Processing of Cocoa
      • Cocoa–Chemical Composition and Health
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 3: Cocoa Polyphenols
      • Introduction
      • Cocoa Polyphenols on Skin Structure Experiment
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4: Phase Behavior of Saturated Triacylglycerides—Influence of Symmetry and Chain Length Mismatch
      • Introduction
      • Materials and Methods
      • Melting Behavior and Phase Development of the Symmetrical/Asymmetrical TAG Binary Systems
      • Phase Diagrams of the Symmetrical/Asymmetrical TAG Binary Systems
      • Comparison of the Phase Behavior of the Symmetrical/Asymmetrical Binary Systems with CLM = 2, 4, 6, and 8
    • Chapter 5: Molecular Composition Dynamics and Structure of Cocoa Butter
      • Introduction
      • Materials and Methods
      • Shear Work
      • Chemical Makeup and Structure
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 6: Polymorphism and Mixing Phase Behavior of Major Triacylglycerols of Cocoa Butter
      • Introduction
      • Polymorphism and Mixing Behavior of Fats
      • Polymorphism of Cocoa Butter and Its Component TAGs
      • Mixing Behavior of POP, POS, and SOS
      • SOS/POS Mixture
      • SOS/POP Mixture
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 7: Causes and Best Manufacturing Practices to Minimize Bloom in Confections
      • Introduction
      • Definition and Characterization
      • Overview of Key Attributes in Confectionery Fats
      • Causes
      • Key Factors Contributing to Bloom from Composition to Oil Migration
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 8: Morphology of Chocolate Fat Bloom
      • Introduction
      • Classification by Morphology of Chocolate Fat Bloom
      • Type 1 Bloom
      • Type 2 Bloom
      • Type 3 Bloom
      • Other Types
      • Summary
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 9: Effect of Minor Components on Cocoa Butter Polymorphism and Kinetics of Crystallization
      • Introduction
      • Minor Components
      • Free Fatty Acids
      • FFA Effects on Microstructure
      • Diglycerides
      • Phospholipids
      • Sterol and Sterol Esters
      • Total Minor Lipids
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 10: Noncocoa Ingredients on Cocoa Butter Crystallization
      • Introduction
      • Effect of Sugar with or without Emulsifier on Cocoa Butter Crystallization
      • Lecithin
      • Milk Powder
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 11: Impact of Cocoa Butter Origin on Crystal Behavior
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of Cocoa Butter from Different Origins
      • Effect of Environmental Conditions and Agronomic Practices on Cocoa Butter Composition
      • Crystallization Habit of Cocoa Butter from Different Origins
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 12: Effect of Emulsifiers on Cocoa Butter and Chocolate Rheology, Polymorphism, and Bloom
      • Introduction
      • Rheology
      • Lecithins as a Rheology Modifier
      • Effect of Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (PGPR)
      • Glycerol Monostearate and Mixtures
      • Other Emulsifiers and Additives
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 13: Methods of Studying Cocoa Butter and Bloom
      • Introduction
      • Scanning Probe Microscopy
      • Colorimetry
      • Confocal Microscopy
      • Raman Microscopy
      • Thermal Analysis
      • Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy
      • High Performance Liquid Chromatography
      • Low Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscopy
      • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
      • Profilometry
      • X-ray Diffraction
    • Chapter 14: New Method to Study Molecular Interactions in Fats–Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction
      • Introduction
      • Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction
      • Examples of Microbeam XRD Experiments
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 15: Milk Fat and Cocoa Butter
      • Introduction
      • Milk Fat and Milk Fat Fractions
      • Phase Behavior of Cocoa Butter-milk Fat Blends
      • Crystallization and Microstructure of Milk Fat and Cocoa Butter Blends
      • Milk Fat in Chocolate
      • Summary
    • Chapter 16: Molecular Interactions of Triacylglycerides in Blends of Cocoa Butter with trans-free Vegetable Oils
      • Introduction
      • Crystallization of Blends of Cocoa Butter with trans-free Vegetable Oils
      • Supercooling and Cooling Rate Effect on Crystallization of Cocoa Butter-Vegetable Oil Blends
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17: Methods and Technologies Related to Shea Butter Chemophysical Properties and to the Delivery of Bioactives in Chocolate and Related Products
      • Introduction
      • Shea Butter Chemical Composition
      • Shea Butter Physical Properties
      • Industrial Chocolate Application
      • Analytical Tools and Methodologies
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 18: Enzymatic and Other Modification Techniques to Produce Cocoa Butter Alternatives
      • Introduction
      • Modification Techniques for the Production of CBAs
      • Common Substrates
      • Alternative Substrates
      • Detection Techniques
    • Chapter 19: Confectionery Fats
      • Introduction
      • Principal Sources of Confectionery Fats and Their Components
      • Cocoa Butter Equivalents
      • POP/POSt/StOSt Ternary Phase Behavior
      • Cocoa Butter Replacers
      • Cocoa Butter Substitutes
      • Bloom Retarding Fats
      • Filling Fats, Filled Products, and Compatibility
      • Factors in Selection of Fat Type
    • Chapter 20: Future of Cocoa Butter Research
      • Introduction
      • Future Work Recommendations
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 540
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press and AOCS Press 2012
  • Published: April 6, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press and AOCS Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128043448
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780983079125

About the Editors

Nissim Garti


Nissim Garti obtained his B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has been a full professor since 1990 and holds the Ratner Chair of Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry. He also serves as a Board Member Elect and Director of the Hebrew University Governors Executive Board since January 2011. Nissim is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards including the Rockefeller Award, the Israel President Award for one of the most innovative inventions in 60 years of the existence of the country, Life-Time Achievement Award of the Food Society, the Chang Award of the AOCS, the Corporate Research Achievement Award of the AOCS for 2011, and many others. His achievements include publishing over 380 original (research) refereed papers in peer reviewed journals; writing over 60 review chapters in scientific books; granted over 80 patents; edited 7 books and additional 4 in preparation; invited to over 180 conferences as keynote, session, and invited speaker; and educated and tutored 38 Ph.D. students and 84 M.Sc. students. Nissim is a member of the board of directors of several academic institutions in Israel and consults for several Israeli and global industries. Nissim’s expertise, competence, and active research is in colloid chemistry, emulsion technology, dispersed systems, delivery new vehicles, microemulsions and lyotropic liquid crystals, crystallization phenomena, interfacial reactions and reactivity, amphiphilic proteins, hydrocolloids, dendrimers, nutraceuticals, and food science.


Nissim Garti is Professor of Chemistry at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. One of the founders of Adumim Chemicals Ltd., NutraLease Ltd.—a company focused on a nano-encapsulation technology for nutraceuticals, and LDS (Lyotropic Delivery Systems). He received B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, in 1969, 1971 and 1974 respectively. Garti was awarded: Life Time Achievement of the Israeli Association for Food Research and Technology, Tel-Aviv, 2009; The Chung Scientific Award of the AOCS for Outstanding Scientific and Technology Achievements, Orlando, 2009; The Most Innovative Israeli Nanotechnology Award Winner of the CMNC Society, “Food Goes Nano- Liquid Nano Vehicles for Nutraceuticals solubilization and delivery,” Chicago, USA, 2005; The Japanese Award for the Promotion of Senior Foreign Scientists, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan, 2003; The Best Invention and Innovation of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1997; The Most Innovative Food Ingredient Award in Europe (FIE), London, 1997; and The Japan Oil Chemical Society Forum Award for Outstanding Achievement, “Polymorphism in Fats,” Nara, Japan, 1997. Professor Garti is the author of more than 400 publications and holds over 70 patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Ratner Chair of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel

Neil Widlak

Neil R. Widlak is currently the Director of Product Service and Development for ADM Cocoa in North America. Neil started his exploration into the wonderful world of fat crystallization after receiving his B.S. in Food Science from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, and working for Kraft Foods as a scientist in Kraft’s shortening and margarine research labs. Neil earned a Master’s in Food Science from the University of Illinois and Masters in Business Administration from Lake Forest Graduate School of Management, while continuing to work at Kraft. During this time Neil became active in the AOCS, serving as a board member for the North Central Section, Edible Applications Division and as a Member at Large, AOCS Governing Board. Neil chaired numerous AOCS symposia on crystallization of lipids for annual meetings, in addition to chairing three AOCS international conferences on the physical properties of fats and oils in 1997, 2000 and 2009. Neil received the AOCS Fellow Award in 2011.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director, Product Service and Development, ADM Cocoa

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