Coastal Ocean Observing Systems - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128020227, 9780128020616

Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

1st Edition

Editors: Yonggang Liu Heather Kerkering Robert Weisberg
eBook ISBN: 9780128020616
Paperback ISBN: 9780128020227
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 23rd June 2015
Page Count: 490
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Coastal Ocean Observing Systems provides state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge in coastal ocean observing systems, along with guidance on establishing, restructuring, and improving similar systems. The book is intended to help oceanographers understand, identify, and recognize how oceanographic research feeds into the various designs of ocean observing systems. In addition, readers will learn how ocean observing systems are defined and how each system operates in relation to its geographical, environmental, and political region.

The book provides further insights into all of these problem areas, offering lessons learned and results from the types of research sponsored and utilized by ocean observing systems and the types of research design and experiments conducted by professionals specializing in ocean research and affiliated with observing systems.

Key Features

  • Includes international contributions from individuals working in academia, management, and industry
  • Showcases the application of science and technology in coastal observing systems
  • Highlights lessons learned on partnerships, governance structure, data management, and stakeholder relationships required for successful implementation
  • Provides insight into how ocean research transfers to application and societal benefit


Primary: oceanographers, particularly those who conduct coastal and ocean observations and research or model waves and ocean circulation, water quality, biological and geological ocean surface currents and subsurface.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 1. Introduction to Coastal Ocean Observing Systems
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Coastal Ocean Observing Systems Development
    • 3. Science and Technology Advancement
    • 4. Societal Benefits
    • 5. Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 2. National Ocean Observing Systems in a Global Context
    • 1. Why Do We Need Ocean Observing?
    • 2. Answering the Call—National and Global Ocean Observing Infrastructures
    • 3. Ocean Observing Technologies
    • 4. Access to the Data
    • 5. Modeling and Analysis
    • 6. Education and Outreach
    • 7. Summary
  • Chapter 3. The Importance of Federal and Regional Partnerships in Coastal Observing
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Why a Partnership Approach to Coastal Ocean Observing?
    • 3. The IOOS Approach
    • 4. Building Partnerships Through Data Accessibility
    • 5. Private Sector Partnerships
    • 6. Case Studies
    • 7. Conclusion
  • Chapter 4. Basic Tenets for Coastal Ocean Ecosystems Monitoring
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. The Tenets
    • 3. Recent Application Examples
    • 4. Experimental Design
    • 5. Summary and Recommendations
  • Chapter 5. The Monitoring of Harmful Algal Blooms through Ocean Observing: The Development of the California Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Alert Program
    • 1. Introduction and Background
    • 2. The CalHABMAP Network
    • 3. Development of an HAB Forecasting Capability
    • 4. Toxin and Species Methods Intercomparison
    • 5. Economic Analysis
    • 6. Summary and Recommendations
  • Chapter 6. Sustained Ocean Observing along the Coast of Southeastern Australia: NSW-IMOS 2007–2014
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. NSW-IMOS in the National Context
    • 3. The NSW-IMOS Infrastructure—Design of the Array
    • 4. Assessing the Design of the Shelf Mooring Array
    • 5. Shortcomings and Recommendations for the Future
    • 6. Conclusions
  • Chapter 7. Projeto Azul: Operational Oceanography in an Active Oil and Gas Area Southeastern Brazil
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Santos Basin Ocean Dynamics
    • 3. Observations and Database
    • 4. Results
    • 5. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Data Assimilation
    • 6. Final Remarks and Future Steps
  • Chapter 8. Zooplankton Data from High-Frequency Coastal Transects: Enriching the Contributions of Ocean Observing Systems to Ecosystem-Based Management in the Northern California Current
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. High-Frequency Coastal Transects
    • 3. What Can Zooplankton Data Tell Us about the NCC?
    • 4. Zooplankton-Based Ecosystem Indicators
    • 5. Discussion
  • Chapter 9. The IMOS Ocean Radar Facility, ACORN
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. ACORN
    • 3. Current Measurements, Accuracy, and Applications
    • 4. Wave and Wind Measurements, Accuracy, and Applications
    • 5. Prospects for Further Development
  • Chapter 10. How High-Resolution Wave Observations and HF Radar–Derived Surface Currents are Critical to Decision-Making for Maritime Operations
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Wave and Surface Current Measurement Program Overview and Supporting Information
    • 3. Case Studies
    • 4. Summary
  • Chapter 11. Observing Frontal Instabilities of the Florida Current Using High Frequency Radar
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Background: The Florida Current
    • 3. Instrumentation and Experimental Design
    • 4. Cyclonic Shear-Zone Instability
    • 5. Anticyclonic Shear-Zone Instability
    • 6. Summary
  • Chapter 12. Fine-Scale Tidal and Subtidal Variability of an Upwelling-Influenced Bay as Measured by the Mexican High Frequency Radar Observing System
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Results
    • 3. Discussion and Conclusions
  • Chapter 13. Effect of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Noise Energy on WERA Performance Using the “Listen Before Talk” Adaptive Noise Procedure on the West Florida Shelf
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Background
    • 3. System Operational Characteristics and Problem Definition
    • 4. Quantifying the Variations in the Local Noise Field Present
    • 5. Summary
  • Chapter 14. Ocean Remote Sensing Using X-Band Shipborne Nautical Radar—Applications in Eastern Canada
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Wave Algorithms
    • 3. Wind Algorithms
    • 4. Experimental Results
    • 5. Conclusion
  • Chapter 15. Estimating Nearshore Bathymetry from X-Band Radar Data
    • 1. Introduction: The Radar Imaging of Sea Waves
    • 2. Sea Surface Current and Bathymetry Reconstruction from Radar Data
    • 3. Inversion Procedures
    • 4. Estimation Results on Real-World Data
    • 5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 16. Wind, Wave, and Current Retrieval Utilizing X-Band Marine Radars
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Wind Measurements
    • 3. Wave and Current Measurements
    • 4. Summary
  • Chapter 17. Glider Salinity Correction for Unpumped CTD Sensors across a Sharp Thermocline
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. A Sharp Thermocline
    • 3. Methods
    • 4. Thermal Lag Correction Results
    • 5. Summary and Discussions
  • Chapter 18. New Sensors for Ocean Observing: The Optical Phytoplankton Discriminator
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. History of the OPD
    • 3. Methodology
    • 4. Systems Level Integration
    • 5. Applications
    • 6. Validation and Results
    • 7. Future Development/Plans
  • Chapter 19. Observing System Impacts on Estimates of California Current Transport
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Historical Analyses of the California Current System
    • 3. Quantifying the Impact of the Observations on Ocean Circulation Analyses
    • 4. Control Vector Impacts on Alongshore Transport
    • 5. Observation Impacts on Alongshore Transport
    • 6. Summary and Conclusions
  • Chapter 20. Assimilation of HF Radar Observations in the Chesapeake–Delaware Bay Region Using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and the Four-Dimensional Variational (4DVAR) Method
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. HF Radar Observations
    • 3. The Model
    • 4. The Assimilation System
    • 5. Experiments and Results
    • 6. Validation
    • 7. Conclusion
  • Chapter 21. System-Wide Monitoring Program of the National Estuarine Research Reserve System: Research and Monitoring to Address Coastal Management Issues
    • 1. Introduction to the NERRS
    • 2. Introduction to the NERRS System-Wide Monitoring Program
    • 3. Abiotic SWMP Components
    • 4. Biologic SWMP Components
    • 5. Habitat Mapping and Change Analysis
    • 6. Sentinel Sites Program for Evaluating Climate Change Impacts
    • 7. NERRS SWMP Data Management
    • 8. Conditions Across the NERRS
    • 9. Data Applications: Water Quality Assessment, Public Health
    • 10. Data Applications: Storm Surge
    • 11. Data Applications: Education
    • 12. Summary, Conclusions, and Challenges
  • Chapter 22. Integrating Environmental Monitoring and Observing Systems in Support of Science to Inform Decision-Making: Case Studies for the Southeast
    • 1. Introduction
    • 2. Role of Monitoring and Observing Systems in the Southeast
    • 3. The Role of Data Management to Support Collaboration and Integration
    • 4. Case Studies
    • 5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 23. One System, Many Societal Benefits: Building an Efficient, Cost-Effective Ocean Observing System for the Gulf of Mexico
    • 1. Origin of the GCOOS “System of Systems” Construct
    • 2. The Gulf of Mexico: National Treasure and Economic Driver
    • 3. A Comprehensive Blueprint for Monitoring in the Gulf of Mexico
    • 4. Challenges Quantifying the Return on Investment of a Gulf Observing System
    • 5. Myriad Gulf Issues, One Comprehensive System
    • 6. Summary
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2015
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About the Editor

Yonggang Liu

Dr. Yonggang Liu is a physical oceanographer expertized in coastal ocean circulation patterns, dynamics, and interactions, previously in the Asian Marginal Seas & the Northeast Pacific coasts, and presently in the eastern Gulf of Mexico (West Florida Shelf). He diagnoses ocean processes by integrating various types of oceanographic data obtained from coastal ocean observing systems, satellites, and numerical models, and develops and applies novel data analysis methods in meteorology and oceanography. He is also interested in applying oceanography to environmental issues of societal importance, such as modelling the trajectories of the Deep water Horizon oil spill and the red tide.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA

Heather Kerkering

Heather Kerkering is the Director of the Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS), overseeing operations of the largest region in the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Ms. Kerkering holds a Masters in Environmental Management from Duke University and a B.A. in Environmental Science from the University of Virginia. In 2005, she launched the Central and Northern California Ocean Observing System (CeNCOOS) at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. In her decade with ocean observing systems, she has participated in numerous regional, national, and international initiatives. She has been an active Board member of the IOOS Association since 2005.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System, Honolulu, HI, USA

Robert Weisberg

Dr. Robert H. Weisberg is a physical oceanographer engaged in ocean circulation and ocean atmosphere interaction studies in the tropics, on continental shelves, and in estuaries. His research presently emphasizes the West Florida Shelf and the interactions that occur between the shelf and the deep ocean and between the shelf and the estuaries. Through his Ocean Circulation Group he maintains a coordinated program of real-time, in-situ measurements, analyses, and numerical circulation models aimed at describing and understanding the processes that determine WFS water properties. Applications include harmful algal blooms, fisheries, hurricane storm surge, waves and other topics of societal concern, most recently the tracking of oil spilled from the Deep water Horizon well.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, USA