Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)

Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)

Characteristics, Utilization and Beneficiation

1st Edition - April 29, 2017

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  • Authors: Tom Robl, Anne Oberlink, Rod Jones
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009451
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081010471

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Coal Combustion Products (CCPs): Their Nature, Utilization and Beneficiation is a valuable resource for engineers and scientists from the coal, cement, concrete, and construction industries seeking an in-depth guide to the characteristics, utilization, beneficiation, and environmental impacts of coal combustion by-products. Researchers in universities working in this area will also find much to expand their knowledge. The book provides a detailed overview of the different waste materials produced during power generation from coal, exploring their nature, beneficiation techniques, applications, and environmental impacts. Strong focus is placed on coal fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization materials, and their employment in cement, concrete, gypsum products, aggregates, road construction, geotechnics, and agriculture, among other products and industries. Part 1 focuses on the nature of coal ashes, with chapters on their origin, generation, and storage, both in ponds and landfill. The coal combustion by-products produced as a result of clean coal technologies are the focus of the final chapter in the section. The next group of chapters in Part 2 considers the utilization of different waste materials, including the key products coal fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization materials. This is followed by a contribution reviewing the latest research into innovative and advanced uses for coal ash. After an introduction to ash quality problems and quality monitoring, Part 3 concentrates on the essential area of by-product beneficiation techniques, in other words how to maximize the quality of materials for the end user. Topics covered include separation methods, thermal processing, and chemical passivation. The final section of the book addresses environmental issues, including the use of coal combustion by-products in green construction materials and the essential health and safety considerations associated with their use.

Key Features

  • An essential reference on the nature, reactivity, beneficiation, potential and environmental risks of coal-combustion by-products
  • Contains an in-depth review of the origin and geochemistry of coal ash
  • Explores the utilization of coal combustion by-products as supplementary cementitious materials to reduce the anthropomorphic greenhouse gas emissions associated with the use of ordinary Portland cement concrete
  • Describes the essential area of the toxicology of coal combustion by-products


Engineers and scientists in the coal-fired power generation and heating industries; Engineers and scientists in cement companies, civil construction companies, concrete and brick industry; Managers in the coal combustion product trade industry; Researchers in universities working in this area (from depts of energy, civil, chemical, geological and environmental engineering); Governmental entities, as regulators and environment authorities.

Table of Contents

  • Part One: Nature of coal combustion products

    1: An introduction to the nature of coal

    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Coal formation and rank
    • 1.2 Coal composition and mineralogy
    • 1.3 Coal beneficiation
    • 1.4 Coal pulverizing
    • 1.5 Future trends for clean coal technologies

    2: Generation and nature of coal fly ash and bottom ash

    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Common types of coal utilization
    • 2.2 Methods for CCP analysis
    • 2.3 Classification for standards
    • 2.4 Other solid fuels

    3: Flue-gas desulfurization products and other air emissions controls

    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 FGD for SO2 control
    • 3.3 SO3 controls
    • 3.4 NOX controls
    • 3.5 Mercury controls

    Part Two: Utilization of coal combustion products

    4: Introduction to the utilization of coal combustion products

    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 Utilization in the United States
    • 4.3 Utilization in Australia
    • 4.4 Utilization in Europe
    • 4.5 Utilization in the United Kingdom
    • 4.6 Utilization in Israel
    • 4.7 Utilization in South Africa
    • 4.8 Utilization in India
    • 4.9 Utilization in China
    • 4.10 Conclusion

    5: Coal fly ash as a pozzolan

    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Definitions
    • 5.3 Origin of fly ash
    • 5.4 Properties of fly ash and bottom ash
    • 5.5 Pozzolanic reaction of fly ash
    • 5.6 Influence of fly ash on the properties of concrete
    • 5.7 Examples of use in concrete
    • 5.8 Specifications for the use of fly ash in concrete
    • 5.9 High-volume fly ash concrete
    • 5.10 Use of bottom ash
    • 5.11 Road bases
    • 5.12 Structural pipe bedding
    • 5.13 Slope stabilization
    • 5.14 Summary

    6: The utilization of flue-gas desulfurization materials

    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Highway applications
    • 6.3 Wallboard
    • 6.4 Agricultural applications
    • 6.5 Cement manufacturing
    • 6.6 Livestock feeding and hay storage pads
    • 6.7 Waste stream pollutant fixation
    • 6.8 Landfill liner and cap
    • 6.9 Land reclamation
    • 6.10 Conclusions

    7: Fly ash-based geopolymer chemistry and behavior

    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Fly ashes used as precursors for alkali activation
    • 7.3 AAFA materials: (N,K)–A–S–H gel framework
    • 7.4 Tailored mix design for targeted properties (activators, class of ash, chemistry trends)
    • 7.5 Structural behavior of AAFA
    • 7.6 Fly ash for lightweight materials
    • 7.7 Commercial adoption of geopolymer concrete
    • 7.8 The case for performance-based standards
    • 7.9 Conclusions

    Part Three: The beneficiation of coal combustion materials

    8: Ash beneficiation, quality, and standard criteria

    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 National ash standards
    • 8.3 Beneficiation technologies

    9: Assessing ash quality and performance

    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgments
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Carbon content and loss on ignition
    • 9.3 Adsorption-based tests for characterizing carbon in fly ash
    • 9.4 Particle size measurement
    • 9.5 Analysis for incompatibilities
    • 9.6 Setting time delays and their mitigation
    • 9.7 Strength development issues and their mitigation
    • 9.8 Summary

    10: Air classification

    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Purposes and beneficiation
    • 10.3 Theory and fundamental parameters
    • 10.4 Air classifiers
    • 10.5 Practical uses
    • 10.6 Alternative technologies
    • 10.7 Future trends
    • 10.8 Summary and conclusions

    11: Electrostatic beneficiation of fly ash

    • Abstract
    • 11.1 The benefits and challenges of electrostatic separation
    • 11.2 The importance of fly ash properties in electrostatic separation
    • 11.3 Fundamentals of electrostatics
    • 11.4 Electrostatic separator concepts to separate unburned carbon from fly ash
    • 11.5 Commercial electrostatic separation of unburned carbon from fly ash
    • 11.6 Summary and conclusion

    12: Thermal processing

    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Background
    • 12.2 Effects of thermal beneficiation
    • 12.3 Commercial thermal beneficiation
    • 12.4 Summary

    13: Chemical passivation

    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Limitations of traditional testing
    • 13.3 Adsorption tests
    • 13.4 Automated methods
    • 13.5 Chemical passivation
    • 13.6 Summary

    14: Recovery, processing, and usage of wet-stored fly ash

    • Abstract
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.2 Storage of fly ash
    • 14.3 Wet-storage effects on fly ash
    • 14.4 Processing of stockpile and ponded ash
    • 14.5 Direct use of stockpile ash in concrete
    • 14.6 Observations and practical issues

    15: Fly ash refinement and extraction of useful compounds

    • Abstract
    • 15.1 Quality improvement
    • 15.2 Extraction of valuable compounds
    • 15.3 Integral treatment technologies
    • 15.4 Concluding remarks

    Part Four: Coal products and the environment

    16: Coal products and the environment

    • Abstract
    • 16.1 Environmental benefits of coal product recycling
    • 16.2 Risk assessment in the management of coal products
    • 16.3 Ash as an internationally traded commodity and the future of the industry

    17: Coal combustion products in green building

    • Abstract
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 What is green building?
    • 17.3 How do CCPs contribute to green products?
    • 17.4 How coal combustion products are treated in the green building standards
    • 17.5 Measuring impacts of construction materials using LCA
    • 17.6 Standard specifications and project specifications
    • 17.7 Challenges and opportunities for greater use of CCPs

    18: Coal ash in context

    • Abstract
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.2 Overview
    • 18.3 What is coal ash?
    • 18.4 What constituents are present in coal ash?
    • 18.5 Coal ash constituents in US soils
    • 18.6 Human health risk assessment
    • 18.7 Ecological risk assessment
    • 18.8 What does it mean for something to be toxic?
    • 18.9 How is exposure evaluated?
    • 18.10 Target risk levels
    • 18.11 USEPA uses toxicity and exposure information for environmental assessment
    • 18.12 Using USEPA screening levels to evaluate coal ash
    • 18.13 Studies testing the toxicity of coal ash
    • 18.14 Site-specific conceptual site models
    • 18.15 How is risk assessment used on a site-specific basis?
    • 18.16 How common is a complete groundwater drinking water pathway?
    • 18.17 Risk evaluations of the TVA Kingston release
    • 18.18 Evaluations of the Dan River spill in North Carolina
    • 18.19 Evaluations of private well water in the vicinity of North Carolina ash ponds
    • 18.20 Summary

    19: Environmental impact and corrective action

    • Abstract
    • 19.1 Introduction and context
    • 19.2 Regulatory framework (as relevant for corrective action of surface impoundments)
    • 19.3 Site assessments
    • 19.4 Corrective action
    • 19.5 Sustainable closure and postclosure care
    • 19.6 Conclusion

    20: Storage of coal combustion products in the United States: Perspectives on potential human health and environmental risks

    • Abstract
    • 20.1 Background
    • 20.2 History of evaluation of potential human health and ecological risk associated with CCP management
    • 20.3 Damage cases
    • 20.4 Exposure pathways
    • 20.5 Facility design
    • 20.6 Hydrogeological environment
    • 20.7 Human health and environmental impacts associated with storing CCP in surface impoundments
    • 20.8 Human health and environmental impacts associated with storing CCP in landfills
    • 20.9 Corrective actions
    • 20.10 Impacts associated with surface impoundment closure alternatives
    • 20.11 Summary

    21: Ash as an internationally traded commodity

    • Abstract
    • 21.1 Introduction
    • 21.2 High-volume surplus markets
    • 21.3 International trade: Challenges
    • 21.4 International trade: Opportunities
    • 21.5 Summary

Product details

  • No. of pages: 564
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2017
  • Published: April 29, 2017
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081009451
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081010471

About the Authors

Tom Robl

Thomas Robl is a Senior Advisor for the Materials Technologies Group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER). He is a member of the University of Kentucky Graduate Faculty and is a Director of the American Coal Association and Co-Chairman of the World of Coal Ash International Symposium. He received a PhD from the University of Kentucky in 1977 in Geology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Advisor for the Materials Technologies Group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, USA

Anne Oberlink

Anne Oberlink is a Senior Research Scientist for the Materials Technologies group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK CAER). She is co-editor of the Coal Combustion and Gasification Products Journal, a journal collaboratively published by UK CAER and the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA). She received her second Masters of Science in Chemistry from the University of Kentucky in 2010.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Research Scientist, Materials Technologies Group at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, USA

Rod Jones

Rod Jones is Professor of Civil Engineering and the Director of the Concrete Technology Unit at the University of Dundee in Scotland. He’s a Chartered Civil Engineer and is a leading researcher in the field of cement and concrete technology. His research work lies in the areas of engineering design, sustainable construction, durability performance, utilisation of industrial by-products, enhancing service-life performance.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Civil Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, University of Dundee, Scotland

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