Coal and Coalbed Gas - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123969729, 9780123972811

Coal and Coalbed Gas

1st Edition

Fueling the Future

Authors: Romeo Flores
eBook ISBN: 9780123972811
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969729
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 3rd December 2013
Page Count: 720
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Bridging the gap in expertise between coal and coalbed gas, subfields in which opportunities for cross training have been nonexistent, Coal and Coalbed Gas sets the standard for publishing in these areas. This book treats coal and coalbed gas as mutually inclusive commodities in terms of their interrelated origin, accumulation, composition, distribution, generation, and development, providing a balanced understanding of this energy mix.

Currently considered a non-renewable energy resource, coalbed gas, or coalbed methane, is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds. In recent years, countries have begun to seek and exploit coal for its clean gas energy in an effort to alleviate environmental issues that come with coal use, making a book on this topic particularly timely. This volume takes into account processes of coalification, gasification, and storage and reservoir characterization and evaluation and looks at water management and environmental impacts as well.

Key Features

  • Covers environmental issues in the development of coalbed gas
  • Includes case studies, field guides and data, examples, and analytical procedures from previous studies and investigations
  • Accessible by a large multidisciplinary market by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic


Geologists, exploration geologists, geophysicists, reservoir engineers, petroleum engineers, biogeochemists, environmental scientists, microbiologists, resource economists, water management specialists, hydrologists, land managers, ecologists, and policy makers and government manager in natural gas/petroleum and mining

Table of Contents

Author’s Biography

Romeo M. Flores



SI/Metric Units

Chapter 1. Introduction and Principles


Key Items


Philosophical Overview and Scope

Learning Metaphors

Definitions and Terminologies

Basic Principles

Global Coal Endowment

From Past to Future Coal Production

Coal Use in a Carbon-Constrained World


Chapter 2. Coal as Multiple Sources of Energy


Key Items

Overview of Resources

Coal as Resource of Coalbed Gas

Coal Resources vs Gas Production Potential

Coal Mining Development and Gas Outbursts

Gas Outbursts vs Coal Development

Global Exploitation and Utilization of CMM and AMM

Petroleum Derived from Coal

Coal Hydrocarbons as Petroleum Systems


Chapter 3. Origin of Coal as Gas Source and Reservoir Rocks


Key Items

Coal as Source and Reservoir of Coalbed Gas

Genesis of Peat to Coal: Concepts

Peat-Forming Environments

Types of Peatlands

Controls on Development of Peatlands

Evolution of Peatlands

Marsh to Bog Progression

Metaphors for Peatlands

Peat Types: Fibric, Hemic, and Sapric

Processes of Peatification, Gasification, and Diagenesis

Origin of Peat Gas: A Biogenic Generation

Depositional Systems of Peat (Coal)

Transformation of Peat to Coal: Differences in Concept and Time

Analogs of Economic Coal and Coalbed Gas Reservoir

Attributes of Peat Bog Relevant to Coal

Rates of Vertical Peat (Coal) Accumulation

Transformation of Peat Bogs to Coalbed Gas Reservoirs

Scaling Peat Facies to Reservoir Level


Chapter 4. Coalification, Gasification, and Gas Storage


Key Items

Transformation of Peat to Coal

Bituminization, Debituminization, and Graphitization of Organic Matter (Metamorphism)

Influence of Coalification on Gas Reservoir Properties

Coal Rank Classification System

Effects of Maturation on Coal Properties

Role of Vitrinite Reflectance

Types of Gas Generation during and Post Coalification (Maturation)

Gas Sorption, Storage, and Diffusion

Role of Hydrostatic Pressure in Gas Desorption


Chapter 5. Coal Composition and Reservoir Characterization


Key Items


Coal Composition

Variations and Values of Microlithotypes in Coalbed Gas Reservoirs

Relationship of Permeability and Porosity in Coal

Reservoir Characterization

Insights of Reservoir Characterization of Gas Plays in the Powder River Basin


Chapter 6. Resource Evaluation Methodologies


Key Points

The Methodology Conundrum

Coal Resources vs Gas Resources

Universal Guidelines to Coal Resources Assessment

Coal Resource Assessment Methodology

Data Collection

Coalbed Gas Resource and Reserve Assessments

Assessment of Coalbed Gas as a Petroleum System

Methodologies: Room for Improvement


Chapter 7. Coalbed Gas Production


Key Items


Drilling Technology

Well Completion

Role of Coal Geology in Completion Strategy

Reservoir Stimulation

Coal Reservoir Characterization vs Well Completion and Stimulation

Wireline Logging Tools

Basic Logging Tools

Virtues of Hi-Tech Logging Tools

Toward Coalbed Gas Development

Gas Gathering Systems

Fueling the Future with Coalbed Gas


Chapter 8. Co-Produced Water Management and Environmental Impacts


Key Items


Co-Produced Water

Origin of Co-Produced Water

Isotopic Signatures of Co-Produced Water

Volume and Composition of Co-Produced Water

Composition of Water

Environmental Impacts and Concerns on Co-Produced Water Disposal

Beneficial Uses of Co-Produced Water

Managing Australian Co-Produced Water


Chapter 9. Worldwide Coalbed Gas Development


Key Items


Global Gas Supply and Demand

Role of World's Coal to Coalbed Gas Exploitation

Global Coalbed Gas Regions: OECD vs NOCED

United States



United Kingdom





Other Potential Tertiary Coal Basins


Chapter 10. Coal and Coalbed Gas: Outlook


Key Items


Historical Perspectives on Natural Gas and Associated Biogenic Gas

Biogenic Natural Gas

Biogenic Coalbed Gas

Future Sustainability of Coalbed Gas

Future Challenges of Coal to Biogenic Gas

Coal Outlook

Coalmine Gas Outlook


Science of Coal and Coalbed Gas

Technology of Coal and Coalbed Gas




No. of pages:
© Elsevier Science 2014
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Author

Romeo Flores

Romeo Flores

Dr. Romeo M. Flores is a consulting geologist and conducts assessments, workshops/lectures, and field trips on coal and coalbed gas for energy companies and scientific organizations. He is an Associate with Cipher Coal Consulting, consulting, advising, lecturing, and training personnel/staff of clients on assessments of coal and coalbed gas. Expert member of Science Advisory Board/Technical Consultant with Next Fuel Inc. advising and providing expertise on coal and biogenic gas in projects on sustaining gas production in low rank coals worldwide. Scientist with AECOM Technical Services Inc. advising AECOM/BLM on hydrostratigraphic modeling of groundwater using coalbed gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Consultant with Mitchell (Beijing) Energy Technology Services Ltd Co. (China) on shale gas. He has advised and conducted workshops on coal reservoirs as well as conducted field trips in the Powder River Basin for the CBM Group of Anadarko Petroleum Corporation (Denver, Colorado). Carried out lectures and advised on shale gas for Chongqing Energy Group (China). Consulted and conducted lectures/workshops on coal, coalbed gas, and biogenic gas for Shanxi Lanyan Coalbed Methane Group Co., Ltd (China). Trained/lectured on coal and coalbed gas for the staff of Ephindo CBM Energy (Indonesia).

Dr. Flores is a retired Research Scientist of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) where he assessed and investigated coal and coalbed methane resources in the United States from 1975 to 2010. He was project chief and group leader managing estimation of coal and coalbed methane reserves in the conterminous U.S. and Alaska coal basins. He worked with State Geological Surveys, Federal Agencies, and coal mining and coalbed methane companies to implement the USGS National Coal, Oil, and Gas Assessments Programs.

Dr. Flores managed Technical Assistance projects on coal and coalbed methane in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, China, Indonesia, New Zealand, Philippines, and South Africa. He advised and trained staff of foreign government and non-governmental agencies to explore, develop, and commercialize coal and coalbed methane.

Dr. Flores authored over 500 publications in national and international scientific journals, edited 15 special journal volumes, and presented over 250 talks at national and international scientific conferences. He graduated BS from University of the Philippines, MS from Tulsa University, and PhD from Louisiana State University. He is a recipient of the U.S. Department of Interior Meritorious Service Award and Distinguished Service Award, Geological Society of America Gilbert Cady Goal Geology Award, University of the Philippines Distinguished Alumni in Geology Award, and a Erskine Fellow of the University of Canterbury, New Zealand. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Coal Geology for two decades.

Affiliations and Expertise

Cipher Coal Consulting, Christchurch, New Zealand; Next Fuel Inc., Fort Collins, CO, USA; and AECOM Technical Services Inc., Fort Collins, CO, USA


"Flores presents this industrial guide to coal and coalbed gas, aiming to balance the availability of coal as a resource with associated environmental concerns. After introducing principles of coal discovery and usage, the multipotency of coal as an energy source is discussed. Several chapters address the production of gas from coal, including necessary conditions and the chemistry and geology of coal maturity.", February 2014
"It’s an amazingly broad book and covers the fundamentals of coal formation, its geology, utilization and, quite importantly, how coal acts as a reservoir for gas…For all the students and especially the engineers out there, I’d go further than saying it is an essential book to have, I’d have to insist that it is mandatory.", November 21, 2013
“It is rare for a book to be so comprehensive on such a diverse topic such as coal. I'd recommend this for both the seasoned coal professional as well as the newly initiated.”—Dr. Tim A. Moore, Managing Director, Cipher Consulting Ltd, New Zealand
“[Coal and Coalbed Gas] is a very much anticipated book… in that it provides a complete, comprehensive review of coal from genesis to coalbed gas resource management, something that was lacking in single, publically available publications….”—Russell Stands-Over-Bull, PhD, Sr. Geologic Advisor, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, USA
"Romeo Flores is a world-leading expert on coal geology… [T]here has not been an authoritative book on coalbed methane, until now.”—Dr. David B. Rutledge, California Institute of Technology, USA
"Dr. Romey Flores is a world-class expert in coal geology, coalbed methane, and a pioneer in biogenic CBM…. This is a must-read book for scientists, engineers, and managers involved in coal and CBM."—Dr. Song Jin, President and CTO, Next Fuel Inc., USA
“[Flores] has clearly explained the widespread application of the fundamentals of coal geology in the exploration of coalbed methane…. A textbook of this kind that synthesizes various aspects of geology, geochemistry and reservoir properties of coal has been long overdue.”—Dr. Mohinudeen Faiz, Principal Geologist, Origin Energy, Australia
“[This book] presents a well-balanced, up-to-date… discussion of both disciplines [coal geology and coalbed gas] in terms of the science and technology, including recent experiments to generate biogenic gas from microbial activity.”—Dr. Frank G. Etheridge, Professor Emeritus, Colorado State University, USA

Ratings and Reviews