Clinical Neuroendocrinology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124753600, 9780323144292

Clinical Neuroendocrinology

1st Edition

Editors: Luciano Martini
eBook ISBN: 9780323144292
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 628
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Clinical Neuroendocrinology covers the clinical significance of the advances made in the understanding of relationships between the actions of neurotransmitters and the hypothalamic control of pituitary secretions. This book contains 24 chapters that examine the interactions of target gland secretions with the effects of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones. This book begins with a discussion of the physiological regulation and clinical applications of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The subsequent chapters are devoted to neuroendocrine aspects, secretion, regulation, and analysis of gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Other chapters explore the regulations, tests, therapeutic implications, and clinical physiology of growth hormones and prolactin. This text also considers the chemical nature, brain pathways, mode of action, and clinical significance of other hormones, including corticotropin-releasing factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone release-inhibiting factor, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and related pituitary peptides. The remaining chapters examine the control mechanisms and pathophysiology of vasopressin, oxytocin, and neurophysins. Clinical neuroendocrinologists and researchers will find this book of great value.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter 1 Physiology and Nature of Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones

I. General Introduction

II. Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF)

III. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH)

IV. The LH- and FSH-Releasing Hormone (LH-RH/FSH-RH)

V. Prolactin Release-Inhibiting Factor (PIF)

VI. Prolactin-Releasing Factor (PRF)

VII. Growth Hormone Release-Inhibiting Hormone (GH-RIH; Somatostatin)

VIII. Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor (GH-RF)

IX. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Release-Inhibiting Factor (MIF)


Chapter 2 Role of Central Cholinergic and Aminergic Neurotransmitters in the Control of Anterior Pituitary Hormone Secretion

I. Introduction

II. Role of Cholinergic Neurotransmitters

III. Role of Catecholaminergic Neurotransmitters

IV. Role of Indoleaminergic Neurotransmitters

V. Conclusions


Chapter 3 TSH and TRH: Their Physiological Regulation and the Clinical Applications of TRH

I. Normal TSH Control, TSH Rhythm, and Nature of Feedback

II. The TRH Test

ΙII. Other Test Procedures for TSH Reserve


Chapter 4 TRH: Clinical Investigations for Nonendocrine Actions in Man

I. Introduction

II. Mental Depression

III. TSH Response in Mental Depression

IV. Miscellaneous Clinical Trials with TRH

V. Summary


Chapter 5 Normal Gonadotropin Secretion in Females

I. Episodic Secretion of Pituitary Gonadotropins

II. Circadian Studies of Pituitary Gonadotropin Secretion

III. Gonadotropin Secretion during the Normal Menstrual Cycle

IV. Ovarian Steroid Secretion during the Normal Menstrual Cycle

V. Temporal Relationships between Ovarian Steroids and Gonadotropins at Midcycle

VI. The Reciprocal Relationship between the Ovarian Hormones and the Pituitary Gonadotropins

VII. Hormonal Changes during Menstrual Cycles in the Premenopausal Period

VIII. Gonadotropin Secretion before and after Menopause

IX. Effects of Exogenous Sex Steroids on the Pituitary Gonadotropin Secretion in Women

X. Effect of Synthetic Sex Steroids on Gonadotropin Secretion during the Menstrual Cycle

XI. Effects of Clomiphene Citrate on the Pituitary Gonadotropin Secretion in Normal Women

XII. Effects of Exogenous Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone in Normal Women during the Menstrual Cycle

XIII. Present Concept of the Regulation of the Human Menstrual Cycle


Chapter 6 Neuroendocrine Aspects of the Regulation of Cyclic Gonadotropin Release in Women

I. Introduction

II. The Three-Component System

III. Clinical Aspects

IV. Summary


Chapter 7 Gonadotropin Secretion in Male Subjects

I. Introduction

II. Gonadotropin Secretion at Different Stages of Life in the Male

III. Regulation of Gonadotropin Secretion in Males

IV. Conclusions


Chapter 8 Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

I. Introduction

II. Gn-RH in Normal Subjects

III. Gn-RH in Pathological States

IV. Gn-RH Therapy


Chapter 9 Test Procedures for Gonadotropin Reserve Other than Gn-RH

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms of Action of Clomiphene

III. Clinical Use of Clomiphene

IV. 2-Hydroxyestrone


Chapter 10 Growth Hormone

I. Introduction

II. Regulation of Growth Hormone Secretion

III. Tests of Growth Hormone Secretion

IV. Disordered Growth Hormone Secretion


Chapter 11 Growth Hormone Release-Inhibiting Hormone (GH-RIH, Somatostatin)

I. Introduction

II. Localization

III. Mechanism of Action

IV. Actions on Pituitary Function

V. Actions on Extrapituitary Hormones

VI. Therapy


Chapter 12 Therapeutic Implications of Dopaminergic Drugs in Acromegaly

I. Introduction

II. GH Secretion and Neurotransmitters

III. Medical Therapy for Acromegaly


Chapter 13 Nature of Prolactin and Its Measurement

I. Introduction

II. Purification and Characterization

III. Measurement of Prolactin

IV. The Form of Prolactin in Serum

V. Comparison of Methods


Chapter 14 Prolactin: Clinical Physiology and the Significance and Management of Hyperprolactinemia

I. Introduction

II. Secretory Patterns

III. Normal Control of Prolactin Secretion

IV. Physiological Role of Prolactin

V. Dynamic Tests for Prolactin Secretion

VI. Disorders of Prolactin Secretion

VII. Mechanisms of Hypogonadism in Hyperprolactinemia

VIII. Conclusions


Chapter 15 The Nature of CRF and Its Relationship to Vasopressin

I. Introduction

II. Chemical Nature of Vasopressin and CRF

III. Dissimilarity of Vasopressin and CRF: In Vitro Studies

IV. Brain Pathways and ACTH Regulation

V. Response to Vasopressin Administration in Normal Subjects

VI. Vasopressin as a Test of Hypothalamic-Pituitary (ACTH) Function

VII. Response to Vasopressin Administration in Patients Receiving Corticosteroid

VIII. Response to Vasopressin Administration in Patients with Cushing's Disease or Syndrome


Chapter 16 MIF-I: Actions in Man

I. Introduction

II. Parkinson's Disease

III. Mental Depression

IV. Tardive Dyskinesia

V. MSH Release

VI. Summary


Chapter 17 Human Adrenocorticotropin and Lipotropin (MSH) in Health and Disease

I. Introduction

II. Nature of ACTH and Related Peptides

III. Measurement of ACTH

IV. Physiological Mechanisms Controlling ACTH Secretion

V. Assessment of Basal ACTH Secretion

VI. Dynamic Tests of ACTH Secretion

VII. ACTH and Cushing's Syndrome

VIII. ACTH and Adrenocortical Failure

IX. Nature of ß-LPH, γ-LPH, and ß-MSH

X. Measurement of ß-LPH, γ-LPH, and ß-MSH

XI. Physiology and Pathophysiology of ßh-LPH Secretion: Relationship to MSH

XII. ACTH and ß-LPH-Related Peptides in the Fetus

XIII. The Endorphins


Chapter 18 Central Nervous System Actions of MSH and Related Pituitary Peptides

I. Introduction

II. Behavioral Studies with Rats

III. Behavioral Studies with Human Beings

IV. Other CNS Effects of MSH and ACTH Analogues

V. Discussion


Chapter 19 Measurement of Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones in Biological Systems

I. General Principles

II. Biological Assays

III. Radioimmunoassays and Receptor Assays

IV. Problems Associated with Assays in Biological Fluids

V. Significance of Assay Results

VI. Conclusions


Chapter 20 The Neuroendocrine System and Puberty

I. Neuroendocrine Control of Gonadotropins before Puberty

II. Puberal Maturation of Neuroendocrine Control

III. Neuroendocrine Control in Pathological Conditions

IV. Concluding Comments


Chapter 21 Pathological States Involving the Pineal

I. Neuroanatomy and Cytology of the Pineal

II. Synthesis and Metabolism of Melatonin

III. Physiology of the Pineal Organ

IV. Biological Effects of Pineal Compounds

V. Pineal Pathology


Chapter 22 Vasopressin

I. Introduction

II. Nature

ΙΠ. Control Mechanisms

IV. Neurotransmitters

V. Effects of Vasopressin

VI. Drug Interactions

VII. Pathophysiology

VIII. Conclusions


Chapter 23 Oxytocin

I. Introduction

II. The Nature of Oxytocin

III. The Synthesis and Release of Oxytocin

IV. The Control of Oxytocin Release

V. The Measurement of Oxytocin

VI. Function of Oxytocin in Labor

VII. Function of Oxytocin in Lactation

VIII. Other Functions of Oxytocin

IX. Disorders Involving Oxytocin Secretion


Chapter 24 Neurophysins

I. Introduction

II. Oxytocin Neurophysin and Vasopressin Neurophysin

III. Human Neurophysins: Nicotine-Stimulated Neurophysin (NSN) and Estrogen-Stimulated Neurophysin (ESN)

IV. Conclusions



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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Luciano Martini

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