Clinical Neuroendocrinology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444596024, 9780444626127

Clinical Neuroendocrinology, Volume 124

1st Edition

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Editors: Eric Fliers Marta Korbonits J.A. Romijn
Hardcover ISBN: 9780444596024
eBook ISBN: 9780444626127
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 9th October 2014
Page Count: 456
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Table of Contents

  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Section 1: Clinical aspects of hypothalamic function
    • Development
      • Chapter 1: Genetic aspects of hypothalamic and pituitary gland development
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Development of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis
        • Congenital hypopituitarism and associated defects
        • Overlap between congenital hypopituitarism and midline defects with kallmann syndrome
        • Conclusion and future directions
      • Chapter 2: Neuroendocrinology of pregnancy and parturition
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The hypothalamus–pituitary–target gland axes during pregnancy
        • The placenta: a neuroendocrine organ
        • Stress-related hormones: implications in physiologic pregnancy and parturition and in obstetric complications
        • Conclusions
    • Vasopressin, oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone
      • Chapter 3: Disorders of water metabolism: diabetes insipidus and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion
        • Abstract
        • Water metabolism
        • Sodium metabolism
        • Hypo-osmolality
        • Hyperosmolality
      • Chapter 4: The role of oxytocin and vasopressin in emotional and social behaviors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nonclinical populations
        • Clinical populations
        • Future directions
      • Chapter 5: Corticotropin-releasing hormone and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in psychiatric disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Corticotropin-releasing hormone and basal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity
        • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning in major depression
        • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning in bipolar disorder
        • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning in schizophrenia
        • Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning in anxiety disorders
        • Conclusion
        • Acknowledgments
    • Metabolism
      • Chapter 6: Genetic aspects of human obesity
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Human monogenic obesity
        • Human pleiotropic and “syndromic” obesity
        • New technologies to identify genetic components of obesity
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 7: Sleep characteristics and insulin sensitivity in humans
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Sleep physiology and glucose homeostasis
        • Sleep deprivation and insulin resistance
        • Sleep disorders and insulin resistance
        • Diabetes mellitus, metabolic dysregulation, and sleep disorders
        • Potential mechanisms linking impaired sleep and insulin resistance
        • Future research suggestions
      • Chapter 8: Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones during critical illness: a dynamic neuroendocrine response
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The thyroid axis
        • The somatotropic axis
        • The gonadal axis
        • The lactotropic axis
        • The adrenal axis
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 9: Central regulation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis: focus on clinical aspects
        • Abstract
        • Introduction and outline
        • Hypothalamus and pituitary
        • Central hypothyroidism
        • Central hyperthyroidism
        • Conclusion
  • Section 2: Disorders of the pituitary gland
    • Diagnostic approach
      • Chapter 10: Evaluation of pituitary function
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Reasons for undertaking pituitary investigations
        • Approach to the patient in pituitary clinic
        • Principles of pituitary assessment
        • Basal pituitary blood tests
        • Evaluation of the pituitary–adrenal axis
        • Evaluation of the pituitary–thyroid axis
        • Evaluation of the pituitary–gonadal axis
        • Prolactin
        • Growth hormone deficiency in adults
        • Antidiuretic hormone deficiency: diabetes insipidus
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 11: Imaging of pituitary pathology
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Magnetic resonance imaging
        • Imaging of pituitary adenomas
        • Differential diagnosis
        • Computed tomography
        • Spect/Pet
        • Summary
    • Pituitary pathologies
      • Chapter 12: Nonfunctioning pituitary tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • The asymptomatic, incidental, clinically nonfunctioning adenoma (pituitary incidentaloma)
        • Symptomatic clinically nonfunctioning adenomas
      • Chapter 13: Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Causes of hyperprolactinemia
        • Clinical features of hyperprolactinemia
        • Laboratory assessment of hyperprolactinemia
        • Radiologic diagnosis of prolactinomas
        • Prevalence rates of prolactinomas
        • Treatment of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinoma
        • Adverse effects of dopamine agonists
        • Withdrawal of dopamine agonist treatment
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 14: Acromegaly
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology
        • Signs and symptoms
        • Diagnosis of acromegaly
        • Tumoral and functional pituitary assessment
        • Prognosis and outcome
        • Management and treatment
        • Conclusion
      • Chapter 15: Cushing's disease
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Clinical features and diagnosis
        • Management
        • Conclusion
        • Notes added in proof
      • Chapter 16: Craniopharyngioma
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology and pathology
        • Clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis
        • Imaging studies
        • Treatment strategies
        • Sequelae
        • Adult-onset craniopharyngioma
        • Questions and treatment perspectives
        • Conclusions
        • Note
        • Acknowledgments
      • Chapter 17: Rathke's cleft cyst
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Presenting manifestations
        • Location and imaging features
        • Natural history
        • Treatment
        • Recurrence
        • Acknowledgments
      • Chapter 18: Alternative causes of hypopituitarism: traumatic brain injury, cranial irradiation, and infections
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Traumatic brain injury
        • Cranial irradiation
        • Infections in the hypothalamic–pituitary region
        • Parasites in the pituitary: toxoplasma gondii
        • Summary
        • Acknowledgment
    • Therapeutic approach to pituitary tumors
      • Chapter 19: Surgical approach to pituitary tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Historical background
        • Surgery
        • Transsphenoidal approaches
        • Transcranial approaches
        • Complications
        • Final remarks
      • Chapter 20: Medical approach to pituitary tumors
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Nonfunctional adenoma
        • Prolactinoma
        • Acromegaly
        • Cushing's disease
        • Thyrotropin-secrecting adenoma
      • Chapter 21: Radiation therapy in the management of pituitary adenomas
        • Abstract
        • Introduction
        • Background on fractionated radiation therapy and single-fraction radiosurgery
        • Clinical outcomes of radiation therapy in pituitary adenomas
        • Sequelae after radiation therapy
        • Conclusion
  • Section 3: Controversial issues and hot topics
    • Chapter 22: Nelson syndrome: definition and management
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Effective diagnosis of Nelson syndrome
      • Predictive factors for the onset and progression of Nelson syndrome
      • Pathophysiology of Nelson syndrome
      • Pathologic features of corticotropinomas in Nelson syndrome
      • Effective management of Nelson syndrome
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 23: Familial pituitary tumors
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pituitary tumorigenesis
      • Pituitary adenomas of genetic origin
      • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) OMIM #131100
      • Familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA): Related omim entries: Pituitary adenoma, growth hormone-secreting #102200 and AIP605555
      • Carney complex syndrome (CNC): Related omim entries: CNC1 #160980, PRKAR1A 188830
      • McCune–Albright Syndrome: OMIM 174800
      • Conclusion
      • Abbreviations
    • Chapter 24: Long-term effects of treatment of pituitary adenomas
      • Abstract
      • Treatment of pituitary adenomas: The historical perspective
      • Mortality
      • Hypopituitarism and mortality
      • Cardiovascular morbidity and pituitary disease
      • Failure to mimic physiologic hormone secretion with substitution
      • Hypothalamic dysfunction
      • Quality of life
      • Cognitive function and psychopathology
      • Acromegalic arthropathy as a model for disease-specific persistent morbidity
      • Implications for treatment and follow-up
    • Chapter 25: Neuroendocrine mechanisms in athletes
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Neuroendocrine alterations in athletes
      • Impact on bone metabolism of athletic activity and associated neuroendocrine changes
      • Impact on neurocognitive function
      • Impact on fertility
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
    • Chapter 26: Uncertainties in endocrine substitution therapy for central hypocortisolism
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Clinical assessment for hypocortisolism
      • Dynamic tests of hypocortisolism
      • Standard treatments for hypocortisolism
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 27: Uncertainties in endocrine substitution therapy for central endocrine insufficiencies: hypothyroidism
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Facts and uncertainties in central hypothyroidism diagnosis
      • Facts and uncertainties in central hypothyroidism replacement therapy
      • Novel perspectives for therapy of central hypothyroidism
    • Chapter 28: Uncertainties in endocrine substitution therapy for central endocrine insufficiencies: growth hormone deficiency
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (e.g., caused by treatment with prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood)
      • Patients with growth hormone deficiency and multiple hormone deficiencies caused by nonsecreting pituitary macroadenomas treated by surgery
      • Patients with growth hormone deficiency and multiple hormone deficiencies and with hypothalamic involvement caused by a craniopharyngioma
      • General uncertainties of growth hormone therapy
      • Conclusion
    • Chapter 29: Autoimmune hypophysitis: new developments
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Pituitary autoantibodies
      • IGG4-Related hypophysitis
      • ANTI-PIT-1 Antibody syndrome
      • Autoimmunity and metabolic disease
      • Conclusion
      • Abbreviations
  • Index


Clinical Neuroendocrinology, a volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology Series gives an overview of the current knowledge in the field of clinical neuroendocrinology. It focuses on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. It integrates a large number of medical disciplines, including clinical endocrinology, pediatrics, neurosurgery, neuroradiology, clinical genetics, and radiotherapy. Psychological consequences of various disorders and therapies, as well as therapeutic controversies, are discussed. It is the first textbook in the field to address all these aspects by a range of international experts.

Key Features

  • All contributors are recognized experts in the different fields of clinical neuroendocrinology
  • The book provides expanded coverage on hypothalamic mechanisms in human pathophysiology
  • The book includes current perspectives, diagnosis and treatment of pituitary diseases


Researchers, clinicians and advanced students in the fields of neuroendocrinology, neurology and clinical neuroscience


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2014
9th October 2014
Hardcover ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Editors

Eric Fliers Editor

Eric Fliers is Professor of Endocrinology at the University of Amsterdam, serving as head of the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism at the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam since 2007. He received a PhD in Neuroscience on the functional neuroanatomy of the human hypothalamus, followed by his MD (with honors), both from the University of Amsterdam. He was subsequently trained as an internist-endocrinologist. Fliers was one of the founders of the Netherlands Brain Bank. His current research interests include the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, and the neuro-endocrine response to illness. Eric Fliers is the current chair of the Dutch Endocrine Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Marta Korbonits Editor

Prof. Márta Korbonits is a clinical academic endocrinologist with special interest in pituitary tumorigenesis and as well as metabolic effects of hormones. She graduated in medicine at Semmelweis Medical School in Budapest and works in the Department of Endocrinology at Barts and the London School of Medicine at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital in London since 1991, where currently she is Co-Centre Head. She received an MD and a PhD from the University of London and was a recipient of a Medical Research Council Clinician Scientist Fellowship to study ghrelin physiology and genetics. Her current interests include hormonal regulation of the metabolic enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase, the physiology and pathophysiology of ghrelin and endocannabinoids and pituitary tumours including familial cases. She has a large collection of familial isolated pituitary adenoma families and works on both the clinical characterization as well as molecular aspects of this disease.

She has published over 160 papers, numerous book chapters, and edited two books in the field of Endocrinology and has been an invited speaker on medical conferences all over the world. She serves on the editorial board of several prestigious endocrine journals and serves as referee for numerous high-impact journals and grant-giving bodies. She was heading the Program Organizing Committee of the Society for Endocrinology for three years, served on the Executive Committee of the Pituitary Society and ENEA and currently the European Society of Clinical Investigation and is an elected member of the Association of Physicians of Great Britain and Ireland. She has received numerous awards including the Nicholas Zervas Lectureship at Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School and the prestigious Society for Endocrinology Medal.

She shares her time between clinical patient care, clinical research and laboratory based research as well as teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

Affiliations and Expertise

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK

J.A. Romijn Editor

Johannes A. (Hans) Romijn was trained in internal medicine in the Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, followed by fellowships in intensive care and clinical endocrinology. He was professor and chairman of Medicine and of Endocrinology at the Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands between 1998 and 2010. Since 2010 he serves as professor and chairman of the Division and Department of Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam in The Netherlands. He is currently the Editor-in-Chief of the European Journal of Endocrinology, the leading journal of the European Society of Endocrinology. His research focuses on the pathophysiology of endocrine and metabolic regulation, with a special focus on clinical neuroendocrinology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands