Climate Change - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444635242, 9780444635358

Climate Change

2nd Edition

Observed Impacts on Planet Earth

Editors: Trevor Letcher
eBook ISBN: 9780444635358
Paperback ISBN: 9780444635242
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 14th October 2015
Page Count: 632
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Description

Earth's climate is always changing. As the debate over the Earth's climate has grown, the term "climate change" has come to refer primarily to changes we've seen over recent years and those that are predicted to be coming, mainly as a result of human behavior. Climate Change: Observed Impacts on Planet Earth, Second Edition, serves as a broad, accessible guide to the science behind this often political and heated debate by providing scientific detail and evidence in language that is clear to both the climatologist and the non-specialist.

The book contains 35 chapters on all scientific aspects of climate change, written by the world's authority of each particular subject. It collects the latest information on all of these topics in one volume. In this way, readers can make connections between the various topics covered in the book, leading to new ways of solving problems and looking at related issues. The book also contains major references and details for further research and understanding on all issues related to climate change, giving a clear indication of a looming crisis in global warming and climate change.

Key Features

  • Provides an up-to-date account of the current understanding of climate change and global warming
  • Includes 23 updated chapters and 12 new chapters
  • Includes coverage on modeling climate change, geological history of climate change, and on engineering aspects of climate change
  • Written by the world’s leading experts on the issues related to climate change

Readership

Environmental scientists, climatologists, energy researchers

Table of Contents

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  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part 1. A Geological History of Climate Change
    • Chapter 1. Climate Change Through Earth's History
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate Models
      • 3. Long-Term Climate Trends
      • 4. Early Climate History
      • 5. Phanerozoic Glaciations
      • 6. The Mesozoic – Early Cenozoic Greenhouse
      • 7. Development of the Cenozoic Icehouse
      • 8. Astronomical Modulation of Climate
      • 9. Milankovitch Cyclicity in Quaternary (Pleistocene) Climate History
      • 10. Quaternary Sub-Milankovitch Cyclicity
      • 11. The Holocene
      • 12. Climate of the Anthropocene
      • 13. Conclusions
  • Part 2. Indicators of Climate Change
    • Chapter 2. Global Surface Temperatures
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Basic Data Availability
      • 3. Analyses of Land Surface Air Temperatures
      • 4. Analyses of Sea Surface Temperatures
      • 5. Global Changes
      • 6. Uncertainty Quantification
      • 7. Characterization of Extremes and Variability
      • 8. Future Research Directions
      • 9. Conclusions
    • Chapter 3. Arctic Sea Ice
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Observed Changes in the State of Arctic Sea Ice
      • 3. Classifying and Comprehending the Observed Changes
      • 4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Antarctic Sea Ice Changes and Their Implications
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Why Antarctic Ice Is Different
      • 3. Snow on the Ice
      • 4. The Annual Ice Cycle and Its Changes
      • 5. What Is Happening to the Ice?
      • 6. Response of the Antarctic to Changes Elsewhere
    • Chapter 5. Land Ice: Indicator and Integrator of Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Mass Balance of Glaciers and Ice Sheets
      • 3. Long-term Behaviour
      • 4. Observations of Recent Changes
      • 5. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 6. Poleward Expansion of the Atmospheric Circulation
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere
      • 3. Evidence for Circulation Change
      • 4. Cause for Circulation Change
      • 5. Emerging Dynamical Mechanisms
      • 6. Summary, Outstanding Problems, and Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
    • Chapter 7. Weather Pattern Changes in the Tropics and Mid-latitudes
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Observed Changes in Sea Level Pressure
      • 3. Observed Changes in Extratropical Patterns
      • 4. Changes in Tropical Patterns
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 8. Bird Ecology
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Indicators of Change
      • 3. Conclusions
    • Chapter 9. Mammal Ecology
      • 1. Introduction: How Does Climate Impact Mammals?
      • 2. Climate Impacts Scale from Local to Global, Daily to Geological
      • 3. Demonstrated Impacts of Climate Change on Mammals
      • 4. Conclusion: Linking Time and Space in Mammal Responses to Climate
    • Chapter 10. Insect Communities
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Range Changes
      • 3. Changes in Phenology
      • 4. Physiology
      • 5. Responses to Other Climactic Variables
      • 6. Insect Communities Under Climate Change
      • 7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 11. Sea Life (Pelagic Ecosystems)
      • 1. Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems
      • 2. Observed Impacts on Pelagic and Planktonic Ecosystems
      • 3. Conclusion and Summary of Key Indicators
    • Chapter 12. Changes in Coral Reef Ecosystems
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Tropical Coral Reef Ecosystems
      • 3. The Associated Fauna of Coral Reefs
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 13. Marine Biodiversity and Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate Change in the Oceans
      • 3. Effects of Climate Change on Marine Biodiversity
      • 4. Cumulative Impacts and Indirect Effects of Climate Change
      • 5. Biodiversity as Insurance against Climate Change Impacts
      • 6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 14. Intertidal Indicators of Climate and Global Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate Change and Biogeography
      • 3. Mechanisms and Microclimate
      • 4. Additional Impacts of Global Change
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 15. Plant Ecology
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Changes in Phenology
      • 3. Changes in Distribution
      • 4. Community Composition
      • 5. Plant Growth
      • 6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 16. Rising Sea Levels
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Is Sea Level Rising?
      • 3. Why Is Sea Level Rising?
      • 4. Are Contemporary Rates of Sea Level Rise Unusual?
      • 5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 17. Ocean Current Changes
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Variable Ocean
      • 3. Oceanographer's Tools
      • 4. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation
      • 5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 18. Ocean Acidification
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Evidence from Observations
      • 3. Model Predictions of Future Change
      • 4. Impacts
      • 5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Feedback to Climate
      • 6. Adaptation, Recovery and Mitigation
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 19. Lichens
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Predicted Effects
      • 3. Observed Effects
      • 4. Uncertain Effects
      • 5. Habitats with Vulnerable Lichens
    • Chapter 20. Coastline Degradation as an Indicator of Global Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Sea Level Rise and Coastal Systems
      • 3. Climate Change and Global/Relative Sea Level Rise
      • 4. Increasing Human Utilization of the Coastal Zone
      • 5. Climate Change, Sea Level Rise and Resulting Impacts
      • 6. Recent Impacts of Sea Level Rise
      • 7. Global Warming and Coasts at Latitudinal Extremes
      • 8. The Challenge to Understand Contemporary Impacts
      • 9. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 21. Plant Pathogens as Indicators of Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climatic Variables and Plant Disease
      • 3. Evidence That Simulated Climate Change Affects Plant Disease in Experiments
      • 4. Evidence That Plant Disease Patterns Have Changed Due to Climate Change
  • Part 3. Modelling Climate Change
    • Chapter 22. Statistical Modelling of Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Bayesian Modelling
      • 3. Modelling Climate Change
      • 4. Modelling the Cost of Climate Change
      • 5. Conclusions
    • Chapter 23. A Modelling Perspective of Future Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Climate Models
      • 3. Evaluation of Climate Models
      • 4. Future Climate Change Projections
      • 5. Conclusions
  • Part 4. Possible Roles in Causing Climate Change
    • Chapter 24. The Role of Atmospheric Gases
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Myths, Facts, Lies and Opinions About the Greenhouse Effect
      • 3. Origin of the Greenhouse Effect: ‘Primary’ and ‘Secondary’ Effects
      • 4. The Physical Chemistry Properties of Greenhouse Gases
      • 5. Has Anything Changed in the Last Decade?
    • Chapter 25. The Variation of the Earth's Movements (Orbital, Tilt and Precession)
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Astronomical Parameters
      • 3. Orbital-induced Climate Change
      • 4. Conclusion
    • Chapter 26. The Role of Volcanic Activity in Climate and Global Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Aerosol Loading, Spatial Distribution and Radiative Effect
      • 3. Volcanoes and Climate
      • 4. Summary
    • Chapter 27. Atmospheric Aerosols and Their Role in Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Life Cycle of Tropospheric Aerosols
      • 3. The Spatial Distribution of Tropospheric Aerosols
      • 4. Aerosol-Radiation Interactions
      • 5. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions
      • 6. The Net Radiative Forcing of Aerosols
      • 7. The Role of Aerosols in Climate Feedback Mechanisms
      • 8. The Role of Aerosols in Potential Climate Engineering Schemes
    • Chapter 28. Climate Change and Agriculture
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Agriculture and Climate Change
      • 3. Sources of Emissions from Agriculture
      • 4. Accelerated Soil Erosion
      • 5. Mitigation Potential of Agriculture
      • 6. Conclusions
      • List of Abbreviations
    • Chapter 29. Widespread Surface Solar Radiation Changes and Their Effects: Dimming and Brightening
      • 1. Introduction – Solar Radiation Basics
      • 2. Solar Radiation above the Atmosphere
      • 3. Solar Radiation Below the Atmosphere
      • 4. Trends in Surface Solar Radiation, or Global Dimming and Brightening
      • 5. The Causes of Dimming and Brightening
      • 6. Influence of Solar Radiation Changes (Global Dimming and Brightening) on Climate
      • 7. Conclusions
    • Chapter 30. Space Weather and Cosmic Ray Effects
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Solar Activity, Cosmic Rays and Climate Change
      • 3. The Influence on the Earth's Climate of the Solar System Moving around the Galactic Centre and Crossing Galaxy Arms
      • 4. The Influence of Molecular-dust Galactic Clouds on the Earth's Climate
      • 5. The Influence of Interplanetary Dust Sources on the Earth’s Climate
      • 6. Space Factors and Global Warming
      • 7. The Influence of Asteroids on the Earth's Climate
      • 8. The Influence of Nearby Supernova on the Earth's Climate
      • 9. Discussion and Conclusions
  • Part 5. Engineering, Societal and Forestry Aspects of Climate Change
    • Chapter 31. Engineering Aspects of Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Role of the Engineer
      • 3. Global Greenhouse Gases
      • 4. Engineering Aspects of the ‘Spheres’
      • 5. Engineering and the Carbon Cycle
      • 6. Nutrient Engineering
      • 7. Albedo Engineering
      • 8. Engineering-based Decision-making
    • Chapter 32. Societal Adaptation to Climate Change
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Risk and Vulnerability
      • 3. Disease Occurrence and Transmission
      • 4. Ocean and Large-scale Surface Water Changes
      • 5. Shifting Biomes and Resilience
      • 6. Extreme Events
      • 7. Food and Water Supply
      • 8. Conclusions
    • Chapter 33. Climate Impacts and Adaptations in Forest Management
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. How Climate is Changing and How that Affects Forests
      • 3. Modelling and Uncertainty
      • 4. Mitigation and Adaptation
      • 5. Resilient Forest Ecosystems and Management
      • 6. The Silviculture of Resilience
      • 7. Adaptation in Practice
      • 8. Challenges for the Future
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
632
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780444635358
Paperback ISBN:
9780444635242

About the Editor

Trevor Letcher

Trevor M Letcher is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. He is a past Director of the International Association of Chemical Thermodynamics and his research involves the thermodynamics of liquid mixtures and energy from landfill. He was awarded the South African Chemical Institute’s Gold medal in 1999 and in 2000 he was awarded the South African Gold medal by the South African Association for the Advancement of Science. He has published over 250 papers in peer review journals and has edited, co-edited and written eleven books in his research and related fields. His latest books include Unraveling Environmental Disasters (2012), Materials for a Sustainable Future (2012), Waste (2011), Heat Capacities (2010), Climate Change (2009) and Future Energy (2008).

His leisure activities involve regular hikes with the Mendip Ramblers, woodwork (long case clocks) and wood turning, gardening at home and on his allotment, theatre, reading and playing golf.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, School of Chemistry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa