Clematographic Techniques in biology and medicine

Clematographic Techniques in biology and medicine

1st Edition - January 1, 1971

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  • Editor: Alexis Burton
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151498

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Cinematographic Techniques in Biology and Medicine gives a general survey of the many possibilities encompassing the utilization of cinematographic techniques in biomedical laboratory. In general, the book addresses the “how” and “why” of various cinematographic techniques in the biomedical field. First, the book describes the various features of cinematographic technique, including the motion picture film, camera, filming, editing, and projection. Then, the concept of television in biology and medicine is described, as the television has become increasingly important in the area of instruction. This book allows the scientists to gain knowledge on motion picture technology and television, as both techniques can be useful in the biomedical field.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors


    Part One: The Motion Picture Film

    Chapter 1. The Film

    I. Definitions

    II. Bases

    III. Emulsion

    IV. Antihalation Backing

    V. Anticurl

    VI. Edge Numbering

    VII. Film Sizes

    VIII. Which Format to Use?


    Chapter 2. Classification of Films

    I. Black and White Films

    II. Color Films


    Chapter 3. Handling, Storing, and Processing Film

    I. Handling and Storing Film

    II. Small-Volume Processing


    Chapter 4. The Film Laboratory

    I. Introduction

    II. Processing

    III. Printing

    IV. Sound Services

    V. Editorial Services

    VI. Quality Control

    Part Two: The Motion Picture Camera

    Chapter 5. Principles and Definitions

    I. General Considerations

    II. Theoretical Description of the Camera

    III. Camera Accessories

    IV. Use and Maintenance of Cameras and Objectives

    Chapter 6. Description of Some Commercial Cameras

    I. Super 8 Cameras

    II. 16 mm Cameras

    III. 35 mm Cameras

    IV. Selection of a Camera


    Part Three : Filming

    Chapter 7. Lighting

    I. Sources of Light

    II. Types of Light

    III. Lighting Equipment

    IV. Types of Illumination


    Chapter 8. Exposure Determination and Exposure Meters

    I. Introduction

    II. Film Characteristics That Affect Exposure

    III. Lighting and Illumination Factors Which Affect Exposure

    IV. Exposure Meters

    V. Techniques of Making Exposure Measurements

    VI. Camera and Lens Factors in Making Exposures

    VII. Test Exposures


    Chapter 9. Synchronization of the Motion Picture Camera with External Devices

    I. Definitions and Examples

    II. Techniques


    Chapter 10. Time-Lapse Cinematography

    I. Principles

    II. Time-Lapse Frequencies

    III. Technique

    IV. Special Considerations on Time-Lapse Cinemicrography


    Chapter 11. High-Speed Cinematography of the Microcirculation

    I. Introduction

    II. Optical Supporting System

    III. Light Sources

    IV. Collimating Lenses and Heat Filters

    V. Substage, Condenser, and Iris Diaphragm

    VI. Stage

    VII. Microscope and Mounting

    VIII. Cameras and Mounting

    IX. The Optical Magnification System

    X. Film Exposure

    XI. Tissues Available for Study

    XII. Techniques Used in Cinematographic Study of the Mesentery and Omentum


    Chapter 12. Adaptation of the Motion Picture Camera to Extreme Close-Up

    I. Introduction

    II. Basic Features of a Camera for Cinemacrography

    III. Description of some Commercial Cameras Specially Designed for Cinemacrography

    IV. A Few Examples

    Chapter 13. Adaptation of the Motion Picture Camera to the Microscope

    I. General Requirements

    II. Lighting

    III. Vibrations

    IV. Possible Arrangements

    V. Optical Connection between Camera and Microscope

    VI. Exposure Determination

    VII. Film Sizes and Types

    VIII. Processing 201


    Chapter 14. Oscilloscope Cameras and Continuous Recording

    I. Definitions

    II. General Description of the Continuous Recording Camera

    III. Film Stocks


    Chapter 15. Cinematography in Gross Anatomy Teaching

    I. Purpose and Use of Films

    II. Techniques

    Chapter 16. Cineradiography—X-Ray Cinematography

    I. Introduction

    II. Equipment

    III. Clinical Uses of Cineradiography


    Chapter 17. Identification of Films: Titles

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparation of the Artwork

    III. Transfer of Artwork to Film

    IV. Laboratory Procedures

    Chapter 18. Simple Animation

    I. Animation of Objects

    II. Animated Cartoons


    Part Four: Editing

    Chapter 19. Editing

    I. Editing in the Film-Making Process

    II. Editing Equipment


    Chapter 20 . Sound Recording

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for Adding Sound on Film

    III. Situations Encountered in the Production of Scientific Films

    IV. Editing the Sound Track and Correcting Mistakes

    V. Preparation of the Final Sound Track for the Laboratory


    Chapter 21 . Analyzing Films

    I. Analyzing Films

    II. Abstracting Film Frames


    Part Five: Projection

    Chapter 22. General Principles

    I. Projection

    II. The Motion Picture Projector—Principles


    Chapter 2 3 . Description of Some Commercial Motion Picture Projectors

    I. 16 mm Projectors

    II. 35 mm Projectors

    III. Super 8 Equipment

    Part Six : Television in Biology and Medicine

    Chapter 24. Introduction

    I. Basic Concepts

    II. Physical Principles

    III. Equipment Arrangement Profile


    Chapter 25. The Television Camera

    I. Optics 355

    II. The Image Pick-Up Tube

    III. Luminance and Chrominance

    IV. The Encoder

    Chapter 26. The Film Chain

    Chapter 27. The Video Tape Machine


Product details

  • No. of pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1971
  • Published: January 1, 1971
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323151498

About the Editor

Alexis Burton

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