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Clematographic Techniques in biology and medicine - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121472504, 9780323151498

Clematographic Techniques in biology and medicine

1st Edition

Editor: Alexis Burton
eBook ISBN: 9780323151498
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1971
Page Count: 412
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Cinematographic Techniques in Biology and Medicine gives a general survey of the many possibilities encompassing the utilization of cinematographic techniques in biomedical laboratory. In general, the book addresses the “how” and “why” of various cinematographic techniques in the biomedical field. First, the book describes the various features of cinematographic technique, including the motion picture film, camera, filming, editing, and projection. Then, the concept of television in biology and medicine is described, as the television has become increasingly important in the area of instruction. This book allows the scientists to gain knowledge on motion picture technology and television, as both techniques can be useful in the biomedical field.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Part One: The Motion Picture Film

Chapter 1. The Film

I. Definitions

II. Bases

III. Emulsion

IV. Antihalation Backing

V. Anticurl

VI. Edge Numbering

VII. Film Sizes

VIII. Which Format to Use?


Chapter 2. Classification of Films

I. Black and White Films

II. Color Films


Chapter 3. Handling, Storing, and Processing Film

I. Handling and Storing Film

II. Small-Volume Processing


Chapter 4. The Film Laboratory

I. Introduction

II. Processing

III. Printing

IV. Sound Services

V. Editorial Services

VI. Quality Control

Part Two: The Motion Picture Camera

Chapter 5. Principles and Definitions

I. General Considerations

II. Theoretical Description of the Camera

III. Camera Accessories

IV. Use and Maintenance of Cameras and Objectives

Chapter 6. Description of Some Commercial Cameras

I. Super 8 Cameras

II. 16 mm Cameras

III. 35 mm Cameras

IV. Selection of a Camera


Part Three : Filming

Chapter 7. Lighting

I. Sources of Light

II. Types of Light

III. Lighting Equipment

IV. Types of Illumination


Chapter 8. Exposure Determination and Exposure Meters

I. Introduction

II. Film Characteristics That Affect Exposure

III. Lighting and Illumination Factors Which Affect Exposure

IV. Exposure Meters

V. Techniques of Making Exposure Measurements

VI. Camera and Lens Factors in Making Exposures

VII. Test Exposures


Chapter 9. Synchronization of the Motion Picture Camera with External Devices

I. Definitions and Examples

II. Techniques


Chapter 10. Time-Lapse Cinematography

I. Principles

II. Time-Lapse Frequencies

III. Technique

IV. Special Considerations on Time-Lapse Cinemicrography


Chapter 11. High-Speed Cinematography of the Microcirculation

I. Introduction

II. Optical Supporting System

III. Light Sources

IV. Collimating Lenses and Heat Filters

V. Substage, Condenser, and Iris Diaphragm

VI. Stage

VII. Microscope and Mounting

VIII. Cameras and Mounting

IX. The Optical Magnification System

X. Film Exposure

XI. Tissues Available for Study

XII. Techniques Used in Cinematographic Study of the Mesentery and Omentum


Chapter 12. Adaptation of the Motion Picture Camera to Extreme Close-Up

I. Introduction

II. Basic Features of a Camera for Cinemacrography

III. Description of some Commercial Cameras Specially Designed for Cinemacrography

IV. A Few Examples

Chapter 13. Adaptation of the Motion Picture Camera to the Microscope

I. General Requirements

II. Lighting

III. Vibrations

IV. Possible Arrangements

V. Optical Connection between Camera and Microscope

VI. Exposure Determination

VII. Film Sizes and Types

VIII. Processing 201


Chapter 14. Oscilloscope Cameras and Continuous Recording

I. Definitions

II. General Description of the Continuous Recording Camera

III. Film Stocks


Chapter 15. Cinematography in Gross Anatomy Teaching

I. Purpose and Use of Films

II. Techniques

Chapter 16. Cineradiography—X-Ray Cinematography

I. Introduction

II. Equipment

III. Clinical Uses of Cineradiography


Chapter 17. Identification of Films: Titles

I. Introduction

II. Preparation of the Artwork

III. Transfer of Artwork to Film

IV. Laboratory Procedures

Chapter 18. Simple Animation

I. Animation of Objects

II. Animated Cartoons


Part Four: Editing

Chapter 19. Editing

I. Editing in the Film-Making Process

II. Editing Equipment


Chapter 20 . Sound Recording

I. Introduction

II. Methods for Adding Sound on Film

III. Situations Encountered in the Production of Scientific Films

IV. Editing the Sound Track and Correcting Mistakes

V. Preparation of the Final Sound Track for the Laboratory


Chapter 21 . Analyzing Films

I. Analyzing Films

II. Abstracting Film Frames


Part Five: Projection

Chapter 22. General Principles

I. Projection

II. The Motion Picture Projector—Principles


Chapter 2 3 . Description of Some Commercial Motion Picture Projectors

I. 16 mm Projectors

II. 35 mm Projectors

III. Super 8 Equipment

Part Six : Television in Biology and Medicine

Chapter 24. Introduction

I. Basic Concepts

II. Physical Principles

III. Equipment Arrangement Profile


Chapter 25. The Television Camera

I. Optics 355

II. The Image Pick-Up Tube

III. Luminance and Chrominance

IV. The Encoder

Chapter 26. The Film Chain

Chapter 27. The Video Tape Machine



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© Academic Press 1971
1st January 1971
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Alexis Burton

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