Unexploded military ordnance and toxic chemicals, some dating back to World War I, are a worldwide concern, especially at closed military bases that will be redeveloped for housing or civilian use. In Europe and Asia, many munitions sites are former battlegrounds; in Russia and its former territories, sites are used for storage and waste disposal. Experts estimate that the United States alone could spend between $50 and 250 billion dollars to cleanup these sites, many of which are in high-population density, residential areas. You might live near one such site right now.
This book gives detailed instructions for cleaning up military ordnance sites, and lists of explosives, chemical warfare materials and breakdown products that the soil and groundwater must be tested for. Also included are archival studies; remote sensing techniques; geophysical techniques; safety issues; a chemical weapons, explosives and ordnance primer; known and unknown range lists; and a case study of documents written for cleaning up one of the worst examples yet: Spring Valley in the District of Columbia. It disproves myths, common misconceptions and lies, and explains what, how, and where to look for munitions and their residual contamination.
- Author is an award winning and world-renowned expert in weapons of mass destruction.
- Meets the needs of explosive and ordnance demolition personnel, as well as environmental scientists, insurance agents, and building contractors.
- Includes the primary documents written (by the author) for the cleanup of one of the worst sites in the United States (Spring Valley, District of Columbia).
- Subject of the book is of worldwide concern with former battlegrounds in Europe and Asia, as well as storage and waste disposal sites in Russia and former Soviet territories.
- The only text available with clear and complete instructions on proper cleanup of military ordnance sites including a detailed list of explosives, chemical warfare material and breakdown products.
This book is written for environmentalists, regulators, policy makers, contractors, and activist citizens who are unaware of munitions issues, as well as for military munitions experts and decision-makers needing to understand the critical environmental and health risks arising from munitions issues. It will also be essential reading for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other personnel responsible for cleaning up active and Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS).
Part 1 The Cleanup of Chemical and Explosive Munitions 1 Cleaning Up Old Munitions Sites 1.1 A Primer on the Science and Concepts of Cleaning Up a Range Site 1.2 A Historical Background of Old Munitions Sites 1.3 New Requirements for Old Munitions 1.3.1 Final Military Munitions Rule 1.3.2 Management Principles for Implementing Response Actions at Closed, Transferring, and Transferred (CTT) Ranges 1.3.3 The Nonexistent Range Rule 1.3.4 Chemical Weapons Convention 1.3.5 Base Realignment and Closure Act 1.3.6 Defense Environmental Restoration Program 1.3.7 Primary Purpose of the New UXO Rules 2 Limitations and Expertise in Remediating Munitions Sites 2.1 State and Local Regulators Need to Develop Their Own Expertise in Remediating Munitions Sites 2.1.1 Examples of the Military's Lack of Experience in Environmental Cleanup 2.1.2 The EPA Also Lacks Experience in Some Regions with Military Issues 2.1.3 Barriers Unique to Military Site Remediation 3 Ordnance and Related Munitions Cleanup Issues 3.1 Introduction 3.1.1 Extent of the Munitions Problem Generally 3.1.2 Land Mines 3.1.3 Munitions Burials by the Civilian Conservation Corps 3.2 Extent of the Explosive Munitions Problem 3.2.1 Storage Depots 3.2.2 Manufacturing Facilities for Explosives 184.108.40.206 Toluol 220.127.116.11 Nitrates 18.104.22.168 Nitrogen Fixation 22.214.171.124 Other Explosive Precursors 126.96.36.199 Powder Manufacture 188.8.131.52 TNT Production 184.108.40.206 Ammonium Nitrate Production 220.127.116.11 Picric Acid Production
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- © William Andrew 2008
- 13th May 2008
- William Andrew
- eBook ISBN:
- Hardcover ISBN:
Department of the Environment Defense Unit, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.