Cleaning with Solvents: Methods and Machinery - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780323225205, 9780323226967

Cleaning with Solvents: Methods and Machinery

1st Edition

Authors: John Durkee
eBook ISBN: 9780323226967
Hardcover ISBN: 9780323225205
Imprint: William Andrew
Published Date: 19th March 2014
Page Count: 370
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High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently.

Low emission open-top vapor degreasers, enclosed machines of the vacuum and pressurized type, cosolvent machines, and adsorption of "tailpipe emissions" are covered in detail and fully illustrated in color. This unique book covers material known by designers and manufacturers of solvent cleaning machines, but not collected and organized for the benefit of users.

The comprehensive coverage provided by John Durkee makes this book relevant and timely not only for readers who wish to know more about how solvent cleaning equipment works but also those who are under pressure from environmental regulators or corporate management to find effective alternatives and those engaged in non-solvent cleaning operations who are unsatisfied with their cleaning results.

Key Features

  • Clear, straightforward explanations of how various types of cleaning solvents should be managed to clean parts
  • Full-color, hand-drawn illustrations and photographs of the important internal sections of solvent cleaning machines
  • Design calculations of operating parameters in solvent cleaning machines


Engineers and scientists involved in precison cleaning across sectors including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor / electronics, etc.

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Disclaimer
  • What You Can Do with This Book
  • A Note on Organization
  • Units Used in This Book
  • External References Cited in This Book
  • Chapter 1. Open-Top Cleaning Equipment for Vapor Degreasing
    • 1.1. The Cleaning Machines
    • 1.2. The Cleaning Processes/ Methods
    • 1.3. A Basic Principle About Cleaning with Solvents
    • 1.4. Suitable Process Design
    • 1.5. Process Design for Solvent Cleanup (Recovery)
    • 1.6. Open-Top Vapor Degreasers (OTVDs)
    • 1.7. The Process of Vapor Degreasing
    • 1.8. How Parts are Dried
    • 1.9. The Meaning of “Free” Rinsing2121This is a pun based on the description of aqueous cleaning agents with low surface tension. It is that they easily wet surfaces and leave little residue when rinsing is completed.
    • 1.10. A Single-Sump Vapor Degreaser
    • 1.11. About Cooling in the Rinse Sump
    • 1.12. Keeping Solvent in the Tank (or Why Vapor Degreasers are Tall)
    • 1.13. About the Cover
    • 1.14. Stability of the Vapor Cloud
    • 1.15. Sizing the Boilup Heater
    • 1.16. Cooling Off
    • 1.17. A Time for Drying
    • 1.18. Cycle Times for Vapor Degreasing
    • 1.19. Coolants are Cool
    • 1.20. Superheat is Hot!
    • 1.21. Lip Vents – Not a Really Good Idea
    • 1.22. Programmable Hoists – A Really Good Idea
    • 1.23. Avoid the Draft
    • 1.24. Summary about Emission Control Technologies
    • 1.25. A Vapor Degreaser – an Energy Transfer Unit
    • 1.26. Loss of Vapor Containment in Large Vapor Degreasers
    • 1.27. Continuously Operating Battalion Degreasers (Inlines)
    • 1.28. Emission Control – the Halogenated Solvents NESHAP
    • 1.29. The Amended 1994 Halogenated Solvents NESHAP
    • 1.30. Cold Cleaning with VOC-Exempt Solvents
    • 1.31. A Unique Cold Cleaning Process
    • 1.32. Intrinsically Safe Equipment for Cold Cleaning
    • 1.33. A Methodology for Cold Cleaning
    • 1.34. Notes about the Design and Operation of the Cold Cleaning Process
    • 1.35. Warm Cold Cleaning
    • 1.36. Summary about Cold Cleaning
  • Chapter 2. Enclosed Vapor Degreasers
    • 2.1. Types of Enclosed Vapor Degreasers
    • 2.2. Vacuum Pumps
    • 2.3. Temperature Reduction as a Result of Vacuum
    • 2.4. Sizing of Vacuum Pumps
    • 2.5. Vessels for Enclosed Machines
    • 2.6. Enclosed Vapor Degreasers for Cleaning Tubing
    • 2.7. The Chilling Effect of Purchase Price
    • 2.8. Useful Lives
    • 2.9. Solvent Management in Enclosed Machines
    • 2.10. Storage of Solvent in Enclosed Machines
    • 2.11. Commercial Vacuum Degreasers
    • 2.12. Management of Vacuum (Vapor)
    • 2.13. Removal of Solvent Vapor from the Work Chamber by Vacuum
    • 2.14. Selection of Operating Temperature
    • 2.15. It’s About What You Dew
    • 2.16. Chamber Fulfillment
    • 2.17. Management of Water Contamination
    • 2.18. Drying of Parts in Enclosed Vapor Degreasers
    • 2.19. Cleaning Processes in All Enclosed Machines
    • 2.20. Superheated Solvent Vapor
    • 2.21. The Parts Dictate the Process Details
    • 2.22. Vacuum as an Aid to Removing Non-Volatile Soils
    • 2.23. Repetition of Cleaning Steps
    • 2.24. Critical Immersion Cleaning with Ultrasonics
    • 2.25. Summary of Airtight Machines
  • Chapter 3. Cosolvent Machines
    • 3.1. The Reason for Cosolvent Machines
    • 3.2. The Nomenclature
    • 3.3. Rinsing Rules
    • 3.4. The Cosolvent Classification SystemG
    • 3.5. Process Description: Class I – Semi-aqueous
    • 3.6. Cosolvent Process Description: Class II – Immiscible
    • 3.7. Cosolvent Process Description: Class III – Miscible
    • 3.8. Process Description: Class IV – Azeotropic
    • 3.9. Comparison Between Cosolvent Processes
  • Chapter 4. “Tailpipe” Treatment of Fugitive Solvent Emissions
    • 4.1. Use of Black Holes
    • 4.2. The Nature of the Adsorbent – Activated Carbon
    • 4.3. Characterization of an Activated Carbon Adsorbent
    • 4.4. Specification of Activated Carbon
    • 4.5. The Simplicity of Tailpipe Treatment
    • 4.6. Collection of Fugitive Solvents
    • 4.7. Use of an Adsorbent
    • 4.8. Design of Adsorption Systems
    • 4.9. The Imperfect Perfectly-Mixed Vessel
    • 4.10. Design of the Adsorption System for Use with Enclosed Vapor Degreasers
    • 4.11. An Incremental Use of Vacuum
    • 4.12. Design Results for Adsorbers Used with Enclosed Vapor Degreasers
    • 4.13. Recommendation about Use of Adsorbers with Enclosed Vapor Degreasers
    • 4.14. Design of Adsorption Systems for Open-Top Vapor Degreasers
    • 4.15. Design of the Adsorption Systems for Open-Top Vapor Degreasers
    • 4.16. Regeneration of the Adsorption Bed
    • 4.17. Transition from Simplicity to Complexity
    • 4.18. Pollution Tradeoffs
    • 4.19. Different Solvents Engender Different Outcomes
    • 4.20. Life Without Desorption
    • 4.21. Operation of Adsorption Systems
    • 4.22. Economics of Adsorption Systems
    • 4.23. Alternate Visions
    • 4.24. Strategic Conclusions
  • Appendix A1. Basic Data about Cleaning Solvents
  • Appendix A2. Calculations about Adsorption of Solvents
  • Index


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© William Andrew 2014
William Andrew
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About the Author

John Durkee

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant in Cleaning Technology and Processes, Texas, USA

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