Citrus Fruit Processing - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128031339, 9780128031483

Citrus Fruit Processing

1st Edition

Authors: Zeki Berk
eBook ISBN: 9780128031483
Paperback ISBN: 9780128031339
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 11th July 2016
Page Count: 330
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Description

Citrus Fruit Processing offers a thorough examination of citrus—from its physiology and production to its processing, including packaging and by-product processing. Beginning with foundational information on agricultural practices, biology, and harvesting, Citrus Fruit Processing goes on to describe processing in the context of single-strength juices, concentrated juices, preserves, and nutrition. New technologies are constantly emerging in food processing, and citrus processing is no different. This book provides researchers with much-needed information on these technologies, including state-of-the-art methodologies, all in one volume.

Key Features

  • Offers completely up-to-date coverage of scientific research on citrus and processing technology
  • Explores all aspects of citrus and its processing, including biochemistry, technology, and health
  • Provides an easy-to-follow organization that highlights the many aspects of citrus processing, including agricultural practices, juice processing, byproducts, and safety
  • Describes processing in the context of single-strength juices, concentrated juices, preserves, and nutrition

Readership

Technologists and managers involved in the industrial processing of citrus fruit; Food scientists involved in citrus-related research; Technologists and managers involved in fresh citrus fruit handling; Food technology/ food science/ food engineering students and teaching staff.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Chapter 1: Introduction: history, production, trade, and utilization
    • Abstract
    • 1.1. History of citriculture
    • 1.2. Production of citrus fruit
    • 1.3. Trade and utilization
  • Chapter 2: Morphology and chemical composition
    • Abstract
    • 2.1. Anatomy of the citrus fruit
    • 2.2. Constituents of the epicarp
    • 2.3. Constituents of the mesocarp
    • 2.4. Constituents of the endocarp
  • Chapter 3: Biological aspects of citriculture
    • Abstract
    • 3.1. The root system
    • 3.2. Shoots, stems, and leaves
    • 3.3. Flowering and fruiting
    • 3.4. Breeding and genetic improvement
  • Chapter 4: Agricultural production practice
    • Abstract
    • 4.1. Soil
    • 4.2. Climate
    • 4.3. Propagation
    • 4.4. The orchard
    • 4.5. Irrigation
    • 4.6. Fertilization, plant nutrition
    • 4.7. Pruning
    • 4.8. Pest and disease management, orchard sanitation
    • 4.9. Harvesting
  • Chapter 5: Diseases and pests
    • Abstract
    • 5.1. Diseases
    • 5.2. Pests
  • Chapter 6: Postharvest changes
    • Abstract
    • 6.1. Respiration
    • 6.2. Transpiration
    • 6.3. Changes in mechanical properties
    • 6.4. Changes in taste and aroma
    • 6.5. Stem-end rind breakdown
    • 6.6. Chilling injury
    • 6.7. Postharvest pathogens
    • 6.8. Optimal storage conditions
  • Chapter 7: Packing house operations
    • Abstract
    • 7.1. Location of the packing house
    • 7.2. Packing flow diagram
    • 7.3. Transport and reception of the raw material
    • 7.4. Degreening
    • 7.5. Buffer storage
    • 7.6. Dumping
    • 7.7. Soaking (drenching)
    • 7.8. Presorting
    • 7.9. Washing
    • 7.10. Drying
    • 7.11. Waxing
    • 7.12. Grading, labeling
    • 7.13. Sizing
    • 7.14. Packaging
  • Chapter 8: Production of single-strength citrus juices
    • Abstract
    • 8.1. Introduction and terminology
    • 8.2. Procurement of fruit for the processing industry
    • 8.3. Harvesting, loading, and transporting to the processing plant
    • 8.4. Reception and storage
    • 8.5. Washing, inspection, sizing
    • 8.6. Extraction of juice and essential oil
    • 8.7. Chilling
    • 8.8. Screening
    • 8.9. Deaeration
    • 8.10. Homogenization
    • 8.11. Pulp wash
    • 8.12. Pasteurization
    • 8.13. Single-strength juices from concentrate
    • 8.14. Clarified juices
    • 8.15. Reduced acidity and debittered orange and grapefruit juices
    • 8.16. Blended juices
    • 8.17. “Raw” or unpasteurized juice
    • 8.18. Fermented “juices”
  • Chapter 9: Production of citrus juice concentrates
    • Abstract
    • 9.1. Introduction
    • 9.2. Principles of evaporation
    • 9.3. Energy economy in evaporation
    • 9.4. Types of evaporators
    • 9.5. Condensers
    • 9.6. Essence (aroma) recovery
    • 9.7. The 72 0Bx concentrate
    • 9.8. Concentration by reverse osmosis and osmotic evaporation
    • 9.9. Freeze concentration
    • 9.10. Packaging and storage of concentrates
  • Chapter 10: By-products of the citrus processing industry
    • Abstract
    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Peels and rag
    • 10.3. Bases for the manufacture of citrus flavored beverages
    • 10.4. Pulp and juice sacs
    • 10.5. Pectin
    • 10.6. Citrus fiber
    • 10.7. Essential oils and limonene
    • 10.8. Citrus seeds
  • Chapter 11: Miscellaneous citrus products
    • Abstract
    • 11.1. Introduction
    • 11.2. Canned grapefruit segments
    • 11.3. Canned mandarin segments
    • 11.4. Candied peel and fruit
    • 11.5. Jams, jellies, and marmalades
    • 11.6. Dehydrated citrus juice
  • Chapter 12: Shelf life of citrus products: packaging and storage
    • Abstract
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Shelf life of single strength juices
    • 12.3. Shelf life of citrus concentrates
    • 12.4. Shelf life of citrus by-products
    • 12.5. Shelf life of miscellaneous citrus products
  • Chapter 13: Nutritional and health-promoting aspects of citrus consumption
    • Abstract
    • 13.1. Vitamins
    • 13.2. Antioxidants
    • 13.3. Bioactivity of citrus essential oils
    • 13.4. Fiber
    • 13.5. Dental health
    • 13.6. Obesity
    • 13.7. Minerals
  • Chapter 14: Quality assurance and authentication
    • Abstract
    • 14.1. Routine quality control and quality assurance
    • 14.2. Food safety and HACCP
    • 14.3. Authentication of citrus origin
  • Appendix I: Codex standard for orange juice preserved exclusively by physical means 1 codex stan 45-1981 (world-wide standard)
  • Appendix II: Codex standard for concentrated orange juice preserved exclusively by physical means 1 Codex Stan 64-1981 (World-wide Standard)
  • Appendix III: Codex standard for certain canned citrus fruits (Codex Stan 254-2007)
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
330
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128031483
Paperback ISBN:
9780128031339

About the Author

Zeki Berk

Zeki Berk

Dr. Berk is a chemical engineer and food scientist with a long history of work in food engineering, including appointments as a professor at Technion IIT, MIT, and Agro-Paris and as a consultant at UNIDO, FAO, the Industries Development Corporation, and Nestle. He is the recipient of the International Association of Food and Engineering Life Achievement Award (2011), and has written 6 books (3 with Elsevier) and numerous papers and reviews. His main research interests include heat and mass transfer and kinetics of deterioration.

Affiliations and Expertise

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa

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