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Circuit Design: Know It All - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781856175272, 9780080949659

Circuit Design: Know It All

1st Edition

Authors: Darren Ashby Bonnie Baker Ian Hickman Walt Kester Robert Pease Tim Williams Bob Zeidman
eBook ISBN: 9780080949659
Imprint: Newnes
Published Date: 25th August 2008
Page Count: 1248
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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Fundamentals 1.1 Electrical fundamentals 1.2 Passive components 1.3 D.C. circuits 1.4 Alternating voltage and current 1.5 Circuit simulation 1.6 Intuitive Circuit Design 1.7 Learn an Intuitive Approach 1.8 “Lego” Engineering 1.9 Troubleshooting Circuits References Chapter 2 The Semiconductor diode References Chapter 3 Understanding diodes and their problems 3.1 Speed Demons 3.2 Turn ’Em Off-Turn ’Em On… 3.3 Other Strange Things That Diodes Can Do to You… 3.4 Zener, Zener, Zener… 3.5 Diodes That Glow in the Dark, Efficiently 3.6 Solar Cells 3.7 Assault and Battery References Chapter 4 Bipolar transistors References Chapter 5 Field effect transistors References Chapter 6 Identifying and avoiding transistor problems 6.1 More Beta-More Better? 6.2 Field Effect Transistors 6.3 Power Transistors May Hog Current 6.4 Apply the 5-Second Rule 6.5 Fabrication Structures Make a Difference 6.6 Power-Circuit Design Requires Expertise 6.7 MOSFETS Avoid Secondary Breakdown References Chapter 7 Fundamentals 7.1 Digital Technology References Chapter 8 Number Systems 8.1 Introduction 8.2. Decimal–Unsigned Binary Conversion 8.3 Signed Binary Numbers 8.4 Gray Code 8.5 Binary Coded Decimal 8.6 Octal-Binary Conversion 8.7. Hexadecimal-Binary Conversion Chapter 9 Binary Data Manipulation 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Logical Operations 9.3 Boolean Algebra 9.4 Combinational Logic Gates 9.5 Truth Tables References Chapter 10 Combinational Logic Design 10.1 Introduction 10.2 NAND and NOR logic 10.3 Karnaugh Maps 10.4 Don’t Care Conditions References Chapter 11 Sequential Logic Design 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Level Sensitive Latches and Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops 11.3 The D Latch and D-Type Flip-Flop 11.4 Counter Design 11.5 State Machine Design 11.6 Moore versus Mealy State Machines 11.7 Shift Registers 11.8 Digital Scan Path References Chapter 12 Memory 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Random Access Memory 12.3 Read-Only Memory Chapter 13 Selecting a design route 13.1 Introduction 13.2 DISCRETE IMPLEMENTATION 13.3 MASK PROGRAMMABLE ASICs 13.4 FIELD PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC 13.5 VHDL 13.6 CHOOSING A DESIGN ROUTE Chapter 14 Designing with logic ICs 14.1 Logic ICs Chapter 15 Interfacing 15.1 Mixing analogue and digital 15.2 Generating digital levels from analogue inputs 15.3 Protection against externally-applied overvoltages 15.4 Isolation 15.5 Classic data interface standards 15.6 High performance data interface standards Chapter 16 DSP and digital filters 16.1 Origins of Real-World Signals and Their Units of Measurement 16.2 Reasons for Processing Real-World Signals 16.3 Generation of Real-World Signals 16.4 Methods and Technologies Available for Processing Real-World Signals 16.5 Analog Versus Digital Signal Processing 16.6 A Practical Example 16.7 Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters 16.8 FIR Filter Implementation in DSP Hardware Using Circular Buffering 16.9 Designing FIR Filters 16.10 Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters 16.11 IIR Filter Design Techniques 16.12 Multirate Filters 16.13 Adaptive Filters References Chapter 17 Dealing with high speed logic References on Dealing with High Speed Logic

Chapter 18 Bridging the Gap Between Analog and Digital 18.1 Try to Measure Temperature Digitally 18.2 Road Blocks Abound 18.3 The Ultimate Key to Analog Success 18.4 How Analog and Digital Design Differ 18.5 Time and Its Inversion 18.6 Organizing Your Toolbox 18.7 Set Your Foundation and Move On, Out of the Box References Chapter 19 Op Amps 19.1 The.Magical.Mysterious.Op-Amp 19.2 Understanding Op Amp Parameters 19.3 Additional Parameter Information 19.4 Modeling Op Amps 19.5 Finding the Perfect Op Amp References Chapter 20 Converters-Analog Meets Digital 20.1 ADCs 20.2 Types of ADCs 20.3 ADC Comparison 20.4 Sample and Hold 20.5 Real Parts 20.6 Microprocessor Interfacing 20.7 Clocked Interfaces 20.8 Serial Interfaces 20.9 Multichannel ADCs 20.10 Internal Microcontroller ADCs 20.11 Codecs 20.12 Interrupt Rates 20.13 Dual-Function Pins on Microcontrollers 20.14 Design Checklist Chapter 21 Sensors 21.1 Instrumentation and control systems 21.2 Transducers 21.3 Sensors 21.4 Switches 21.5 Semiconductor temperature sensors 21.6 Thermocouples 21.7 Threshold detection 21.8 Outputs 21.9 LED indicators 21.10 Driving high-current loads 21.11 Audible outputs 21.12 Motors 21.13 Driving mains connected loads Chapter 22 Active filters 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Fundamentals of Low-Pass Filters 22.3 Low-Pass Filter Design 22.4 High-Pass Filter Design 22.5 Band-Pass Filter Design 22.6 Band-Rejection Filter Design 22.7 All-Pass Filter Design 22.8 Practical Design Hints 22.9 Filter Coefficient Tables References Chapter 23 Radio-Frequency (RF) Circuits 23.1 Modulation of radio waves 23.2 Low-power RF amplifiers 23.3 Stability 23.4 Linearity 23.5 Noise and dynamic range 23.6 Impedances and gain 23.7 Mixers 23.8 Demodulators 23.9 Oscillators References Chapter 24 Signal Sources 24.1 Voltage references 24.2 Non-sinusoidaI waveform generators 24.3 Sine wave generators 24.4 Voltage-controlled oscillators and phase detectors References Chapter 25 EDA Design Tools for Analog and RF 25.1 The Old Pencil and Paper Design Process 25.2 Is Your Simulation Fundamentally Valid? 25.3 Macromodels: What Can They Do? 25.4 Concluding Remarks 25.5 VHDL-AMS 25.6 Summary References Chapter 26 Useful Circuits 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Boundary Conditions 26.3 Amplifiers 26.4 Computing Circuits 26.5 Oscillators 26.6 Some.of.My.Favorite.Circuits. References Chapter 27 Programmable Logic to ASICs 27.1 Programmable Read Only Memories (PROMs) 27.2 Programmable Logic Arrays (PLAs) 27.3 Programmable Array Logic (PALs) 27.4 The Masked Gate Array ASIC 27.5 CPLDs and FPGAs 27.6 Summary References Chapter 28 Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLDs) 28.1 CPLD Architectures
28.2 Function Blocks 28.3 I/O Blocks 28.4 Clock Drivers 28.5 Interconnect 28.6 CPLD Technology and Programmable Elements 28.7 Embedded Devices 28.8 Summary: CPLD Selection Criteria References Chapter 29 Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) 29.1 FPGA Architectures
29.2 Configurable Logic Blocks 29.3 Configurable I/O Blocks 29.4 Embedded Devices 29.5 Programmable Interconnect 29.6 Clock Circuitry 29.7 SRAM vs. Antifuse Programming 29.8 Emulating and Prototyping ASICs 29.9 Summary References Chapter 30 Design Automation and Testing for FPGAs 30.1 Simulation 30.2 Simple test bench: instantiating components 30.3 Libraries 30.4 Synthesis 30.5 Physical design flow 30.6 Place and route 30.7 Timing analysis 30.8 Design pitfalls 30.9 VHDL issues for FPGA design 30.10 Summary References Chapter 31 Integrating processors onto FPGAs 31.1 Introduction 31.2 A simple embedded processor 31.3 Soft core processors on an FPGA 31.4 Summary Chapter 32 Implementing digital filters in VHDL 32.1 Introduction
32.2 Converting S-domain to Z-domain 32.3 Implementing Z-domain functions in VHDL 32.4 Basic low pass filter model 32.5 FIR filters 32.6 IIR filters 32.7 Summary Chapter 33 Overview 33.1 Microprocessor systems 33.2 Single-chip microcomputers 33.3 Microcontrollers 33.4 Microprocessor systems 33.5 Data types 33.6 Data storage 33.7 Microprocessor operation 33.8 A microcontroller system Chapter 34 Microcontroller Toolbox 34.1 Microcontroller Supply and Reference 34.2 Resistor Networks 34.3 Multiple Input Control 34.4 AC Control 34.5 Voltage Monitors and Supervisory Circuits 34.6 Driving Bipolar Transistors 34.7 Driving MOSFETs 34.8 Reading Negative Voltages 34.9 Example Control System Chapter 35 Overview 35.1 Power.Supplies Chapter 36 Specifications Chapter 37 Off the shelf versus roll your own 37.1 Costs Chapter 38 Input and output parameters 38.1 Voltage
38.2 Current 38.3 Fuses 38.4 Switch-on surge, or inrush current 38.5 Waveform distortion and interference 38.6 Frequency 38.7 Efficiency 38.8 Deriving the input voltage from the output 38.9 Low-load condition 38.10 Rectifier and capacitor selection 38.11 Load and line regulation 38.12 Ripple and noise 38.13 Transient response Chapter 39 Batteries 39.1 Initial considerations 39.2 Primary cells 39.3 Secondary cells 39.4 Charging Chapter 40 Layout and Grounding for Analog and Digital Circuits 40.1 The Similarities of Analog and Digital Layout Practices 40.2 Where the Domains Differ – Ground Planes Can Be a Problem 40.3 Where the Board and Component Parasitics Can Do the Most Damage 40.4 Layout Techniques That Improve ADC Accuracy and Resolution 40.5 The Art of Laying Out Two-Layer Boards 40.6 Current Return Paths With or Without a Ground Plane 40.7 Layout Tricks for a 12-Bit Sensing System 40.8 General Layout Guidelines – Device Placement 40.9 General Layout Guidelines – Ground and Power Supply Strategy 40.10 Signal Traces 40.11 Did I Say Bypass and Use an Anti-Aliasing Filter? 40.12 Bypass Capacitors 40.13 Anti-Aliasing Filters 40.14 PCB Design Checklist References Chapter 41 Safety 41.1 Safety classes 41.2 Insulation types 41.3 Design considerations for safety protection 41.4 Fire hazard Chapter 42 Design for Production 42.1 Checklist 42.2 The dangers of ESD Chapter 43 Testability 43.1 In-circuit testing 43.2 Functional testing 43.3 Boundary scan and JTAG 43.4 Design techniques Chapter 44 Reliability 44.1 Definitions 44.2 The cost of reliability 44.3 Design for reliability 44.4 The value of MTBF figures 44.5 Design faults Chapter 45 Thermal Management 45.1 Using thermal resistance 45.2 Heatsinks 45.3 Power semiconductor mounting 45.4 Placement and layout Appendix A Standards A.1 British standards A.2 IEC standards


The Newnes Know It All Series takes the best of what our authors have written to create hard-working desk references that will be an engineer's first port of call for key information, design techniques and rules of thumb. Guaranteed not to gather dust on a shelf!

Electronics Engineers need to master a wide area of topics to excel. The Circuit Design Know It All covers every angle including semiconductors, IC Design and Fabrication, Computer-Aided Design, as well as Programmable Logic Design.

Key Features

• A 360-degree view from our best-selling authors • Topics include fundamentals, Analog, Linear, and Digital circuits • The ultimate hard-working desk reference; all the essential information, techniques and tricks of the trade in one volume


Electronics Engineers; Circuit Designers; Communication Engineers


No. of pages:
© Newnes 2008
25th August 2008
eBook ISBN:

Ratings and Reviews

About the Authors

Darren Ashby

Affiliations and Expertise

Electronics Product Line Manager, ICON Fitness, one of the world's largest consumers of embedded chips, Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Bonnie Baker

Bonnie Baker has been involved with analog design and analog systems for nearly 20 years, having started as a manufacturing product engineer supporting analog products at Burr-Brown. From there, Bonnie moved up to IC design, analog division strategic marketer, and then corporate applications engineering manager. In 1998, she joined Microchip Technology’s Microperipherals Division as the analog/mixed signal applications engineering manager. This has expanded her background to not only include analog applications, but to the microcontroller.

Bonnie holds a Masters of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) and a bachelor’s degree in music education from Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff, AZ). In addition to her fascination with analog design, Bonnie has a drive to share her knowledge and experience and has written more than 200 articles, design notes, and application notes and she is a frequent presenter at technical conferences and shows.

Affiliations and Expertise

Columnist for EDN Magazine's "Baker's Best"

Ian Hickman

Affiliations and Expertise

Electronics author and freelance journalist

Walt Kester

Affiliations and Expertise

Analog Devices technical staff

Robert Pease

Pease attended Mt. Hermon School, and graduated from MIT in 1961 with a BSEE. He worked at Philbrick Researches up to 1975 and designed many OpAmps and Analog Computing Modules.

Pease joined National Semiconductor in 1976. He has designed about 24 analog ICs including power regulators, voltage references, and temp sensors. He has written 65+ magazine articles and holds about 21 US patents. Pease is the self-declared Czar of Bandgaps since 1986. He enjoys hiking and trekking in Nepal, and ferroequinology. His position at NSC is Staff Scientist. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.

Pease wrote the definitive book, TROUBLESHOOTING ANALOG CIRCUITS, now in its 18th printing. It has been translated into French, German, Dutch, Russian, and Polish. Pease is a columnist in Electronic Design magazine, with over 240 columns published. The column, PEASE PORRIDGE, covers a wide range of technical topics.

Pease also has posted many technical and semi-technical items on his main web-site: Many of Pease's recent columns are accessible there.

Pease was inducted into the E.E. Hall Of Fame in 2002. Refer to: See Pease's other web site at

Affiliations and Expertise

National Semiconductor Corporation

Tim Williams

Tim Williams worked for a variety of companies as an electronic design engineer, before startinghis own consultancy specializing in EMC design and test advice and training. He has monitored the progress of the EMC Directive and its associated standards since it was first made public, over the last 25 years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Elmac Services, Wareham, UK

Bob Zeidman

Bob Zeidman is the president of The Chalkboard Network, an e-learning company for high-tech professionals. He is also president of Zeidman Consulting, a hardware and software contract development firm. Since 1983, he has designed CPLDs, FPGAs, ASI