Chromatin - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121476045, 9781483273129


1st Edition

Editors: Harris Busch
eBook ISBN: 9781483273129
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1978
Page Count: 451
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The Cell Nucleus: Chromatin, Part A is a collection of papers that deals with the fundamental research involving cellular responses to environmental stimuli and stress. One paper describes the ultra-structural organization of chromosomes and certain eukaryotic chromatin fractions as seen by a scanning electron microscope. The researcher investigating chromatin three-dimension ultra-structure is presented with two choices to address the technical limitations of SEM at different levels, namely, (1) electron microscope modality and (2) specimen preparation procedures. Another paper explains the extensive postmortem changes in properties occurring in nuclear preparations during purification and handling. The analysis of the digestion products when mammalian nuclei are digested with endogenous and exogenous nucleases can show the organization structure of the cell nucleus. When treated with Ca-Mg or micrococcal endo-nuclease, the different nuclear or chromatic preparations present near identical digestion patterns. Another paper reviews the occurrence of phase-specific nuclear proteins in the Physarum mitotic cycle, as well as their possible role in the control of DNA replication order in Physarum. The collection can prove valuable to bio-chemists, cellular biologists, micro-biologists, developmental biologists, and scientists involved in cellular investigations.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors

Contents of Other Volumes


Part I Chromosomes and Chromatin Structure

Chapter 1 Ultrastructure of Chromatin and Chromosomes As Visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy

I. Introduction

II. Methods for the Study of Chromatin Structure

III. Ultrastructure of Metaphase Chromatin

IV. SEM of Interphase Chromatin

V. Reconstitution of Extranucleolar Chromatin


Chapter 2 The Regular Substructure of Mammalian Nuclei and Nuclear Ca-Mg Endonuclease

I. Introduction

II. Nuclear Preparations

III. Calcium Activation of Nuclei due to the Presence of a Ca-Requiring Endonuclease

IV. Digestion of Nuclear Chromatin by the Ca-Mg Endonuclease—Analysis of the Digestion Products

V. Higher-Order Packing of Nucleosomes—Evidence Relating to Its Properties

VI. A Brief Summary of Structural Information Obtained with Other Nucleases

VII. Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 3 Chromatin Structure

I. Introduction

II. Properties of Core Particles

III. Arrangement of Core Particles on the Chromatin Strand

IV. Models for Chromatin Structure


Chapter 4 The Substructure of Nucleosomes

I. The Present Concept of Chromatin Structure

II. Core Nucleosome and Spacer

III. Binary Substructure of the Core Nucleosome

IV. Biological Implications of the Nucleosomal Substructure

V. Conclusions


Chapter 5 Protein-Protein Interactions of Histones

I. Introduction

II. Primary Structure of the Histones

III. Evolutionary Conservation of the Inner Histones

IV. The Preparation of Pure Histones and Histone Complexes

V. Older Reports of Histone Complexing

VI. Histone Folding

VII. Histone-Histone Interactions

VIII. The Plant Inner Histones

IX. Complexing of Plant Inner Histones

X. Conservation of the Binding Surfaces

XI. H1 is Also an Evolutionary Hybrid

XII. Why are the Interacting Surfaces Conserved?

XIII. Do Acids Denature Histones Irreversibly?

XIV. A Cautionary Note: Acids May Alter Histones in Certain Ways

XV. The Folding of Histone H1

XVI. Interactions of Histone H1


Chapter 6 Chromatin Replication

I. Introduction

II. Segregation of Nucleosomes

III. Chromatin Assembly

IV. Relationship between DNA Synthesis Mechanisms and Chromosomal Structure

V. Replication of Viral Chromatin

VI. Epilogue


Chapter 7 Characterization of Human Chromatin

I. Introduction

II. Isolation of Chromatin

III. Isolation of Nucleosomes

IV. Properties of Human Nucleosomes

V. Salt-Induced Structural Changes in Nucleosomes

VI. Transcription of Nucleosomes

VII. Concluding Remarks


Chapter 8 Histone Antibodies—Structural Probes for Chromatin and Chromosomes

I. Immunological Approach to Chromatin Structure

II. Methodology

III. Immunological Specificity of Histones

IV. Histone Antigenic Determinants

V. Organization of Histones in Chromatin and Nucleosomes

VI. Organization of Histones in Chromosomes

VII. Summary and Future Studies


Part II Chromosome Components

Chapter 9 Chromatin Isolation

I. Introduction

II. Chromatin of Higher Eukaryotes

III. Chromatin of Primitive Eukaryotes


Chapter 10 Mode of Chromatin Reconstitution

I. Introduction

II. Chromatin-Bound Protease

III. Procedures of Chromatin Reconstitution

IV. Mode of Binding of Chromosomal Proteins during Chromatin Reconstitution

V. Unique Proteins Which Do Not Dissociate from DNA

VI. Models of Chromatin Reconstitution

VII. Obligatory Order of Protein Reassociation for Gene Transcription

VIII. Conclusion and Prospects


Chapter 11 Proteins Involved in Positive and Negative Control of Chromatin Function

I. Introduction

II. Proteins Stimulating Transcription of DNA—Factors Acting on RNA Polymerase

III. Proteins Stimulating Transcription of DNA—Factors Acting on DNA

IV. Proteins Stimulating Transcription of Chromatin

V. Proteins Inhibiting Transcription of DNA

VI. Conclusion


Chapter 12 Nonhistone Proteins and Gene Organization

I. Background

II. Nuclear Structure and DNA Binding

III. Protein-Binding Sites

IV. Functional Analysis

V. Conclusions


Chapter 13 Compartmentalization of Nuclear and Chromatin Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Nuclear Matrix

III. Nuclear Matrix-DNA Interaction

IV. Matrix and Chromomeres

V. Distribution of Proteins in Nuclear Washes

VI. J2 Protein: A Histone-Binding Protein in the Nuclear Sap

VII. A Nuclear Sap Protein Which Appears in the Serum and Urine of Mice

VIII. Some Tightly Bound NHP Show Specific Binding to Homologous DNA

IX. Deficiency of NHP in Condensed Chromatin


Chapter 14 Phase-Specific Nuclear Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Phase-Specific Nuclear Proteins

III. Summary and Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1978
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Harris Busch

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