Chromatin

Chromatin

1st Edition - January 28, 1978

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  • Editor: Harris Busch
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273129

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Description

The Cell Nucleus: Chromatin, Part A is a collection of papers that deals with the fundamental research involving cellular responses to environmental stimuli and stress. One paper describes the ultra-structural organization of chromosomes and certain eukaryotic chromatin fractions as seen by a scanning electron microscope. The researcher investigating chromatin three-dimension ultra-structure is presented with two choices to address the technical limitations of SEM at different levels, namely, (1) electron microscope modality and (2) specimen preparation procedures. Another paper explains the extensive postmortem changes in properties occurring in nuclear preparations during purification and handling. The analysis of the digestion products when mammalian nuclei are digested with endogenous and exogenous nucleases can show the organization structure of the cell nucleus. When treated with Ca-Mg or micrococcal endo-nuclease, the different nuclear or chromatic preparations present near identical digestion patterns. Another paper reviews the occurrence of phase-specific nuclear proteins in the Physarum mitotic cycle, as well as their possible role in the control of DNA replication order in Physarum. The collection can prove valuable to bio-chemists, cellular biologists, micro-biologists, developmental biologists, and scientists involved in cellular investigations.

Table of Contents


  • List of Contributors

    Contents of Other Volumes

    Introduction

    Part I Chromosomes and Chromatin Structure

    Chapter 1 Ultrastructure of Chromatin and Chromosomes As Visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods for the Study of Chromatin Structure

    III. Ultrastructure of Metaphase Chromatin

    IV. SEM of Interphase Chromatin

    V. Reconstitution of Extranucleolar Chromatin

    References

    Chapter 2 The Regular Substructure of Mammalian Nuclei and Nuclear Ca-Mg Endonuclease

    I. Introduction

    II. Nuclear Preparations

    III. Calcium Activation of Nuclei due to the Presence of a Ca-Requiring Endonuclease

    IV. Digestion of Nuclear Chromatin by the Ca-Mg Endonuclease—Analysis of the Digestion Products

    V. Higher-Order Packing of Nucleosomes—Evidence Relating to Its Properties

    VI. A Brief Summary of Structural Information Obtained with Other Nucleases

    VII. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 3 Chromatin Structure

    I. Introduction

    II. Properties of Core Particles

    III. Arrangement of Core Particles on the Chromatin Strand

    IV. Models for Chromatin Structure

    References

    Chapter 4 The Substructure of Nucleosomes

    I. The Present Concept of Chromatin Structure

    II. Core Nucleosome and Spacer

    III. Binary Substructure of the Core Nucleosome

    IV. Biological Implications of the Nucleosomal Substructure

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 5 Protein-Protein Interactions of Histones

    I. Introduction

    II. Primary Structure of the Histones

    III. Evolutionary Conservation of the Inner Histones

    IV. The Preparation of Pure Histones and Histone Complexes

    V. Older Reports of Histone Complexing

    VI. Histone Folding

    VII. Histone-Histone Interactions

    VIII. The Plant Inner Histones

    IX. Complexing of Plant Inner Histones

    X. Conservation of the Binding Surfaces

    XI. H1 is Also an Evolutionary Hybrid

    XII. Why are the Interacting Surfaces Conserved?

    XIII. Do Acids Denature Histones Irreversibly?

    XIV. A Cautionary Note: Acids May Alter Histones in Certain Ways

    XV. The Folding of Histone H1

    XVI. Interactions of Histone H1

    References

    Chapter 6 Chromatin Replication

    I. Introduction

    II. Segregation of Nucleosomes

    III. Chromatin Assembly

    IV. Relationship between DNA Synthesis Mechanisms and Chromosomal Structure

    V. Replication of Viral Chromatin

    VI. Epilogue

    References

    Chapter 7 Characterization of Human Chromatin

    I. Introduction

    II. Isolation of Chromatin

    III. Isolation of Nucleosomes

    IV. Properties of Human Nucleosomes

    V. Salt-Induced Structural Changes in Nucleosomes

    VI. Transcription of Nucleosomes

    VII. Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 8 Histone Antibodies—Structural Probes for Chromatin and Chromosomes

    I. Immunological Approach to Chromatin Structure

    II. Methodology

    III. Immunological Specificity of Histones

    IV. Histone Antigenic Determinants

    V. Organization of Histones in Chromatin and Nucleosomes

    VI. Organization of Histones in Chromosomes

    VII. Summary and Future Studies

    References

    Part II Chromosome Components

    Chapter 9 Chromatin Isolation

    I. Introduction

    II. Chromatin of Higher Eukaryotes

    III. Chromatin of Primitive Eukaryotes

    References

    Chapter 10 Mode of Chromatin Reconstitution

    I. Introduction

    II. Chromatin-Bound Protease

    III. Procedures of Chromatin Reconstitution

    IV. Mode of Binding of Chromosomal Proteins during Chromatin Reconstitution

    V. Unique Proteins Which Do Not Dissociate from DNA

    VI. Models of Chromatin Reconstitution

    VII. Obligatory Order of Protein Reassociation for Gene Transcription

    VIII. Conclusion and Prospects

    References

    Chapter 11 Proteins Involved in Positive and Negative Control of Chromatin Function

    I. Introduction

    II. Proteins Stimulating Transcription of DNA—Factors Acting on RNA Polymerase

    III. Proteins Stimulating Transcription of DNA—Factors Acting on DNA

    IV. Proteins Stimulating Transcription of Chromatin

    V. Proteins Inhibiting Transcription of DNA

    VI. Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 12 Nonhistone Proteins and Gene Organization

    I. Background

    II. Nuclear Structure and DNA Binding

    III. Protein-Binding Sites

    IV. Functional Analysis

    V. Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 13 Compartmentalization of Nuclear and Chromatin Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Nuclear Matrix

    III. Nuclear Matrix-DNA Interaction

    IV. Matrix and Chromomeres

    V. Distribution of Proteins in Nuclear Washes

    VI. J2 Protein: A Histone-Binding Protein in the Nuclear Sap

    VII. A Nuclear Sap Protein Which Appears in the Serum and Urine of Mice

    VIII. Some Tightly Bound NHP Show Specific Binding to Homologous DNA

    IX. Deficiency of NHP in Condensed Chromatin

    References

    Chapter 14 Phase-Specific Nuclear Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Phase-Specific Nuclear Proteins

    III. Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 451
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1978
  • Published: January 28, 1978
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483273129

About the Editor

Harris Busch

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