Chitin - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780080203676, 9781483159461

Chitin

1st Edition

Authors: Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli
eBook ISBN: 9781483159461
Imprint: Pergamon
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 326
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Description

Chitin presents fundamental information on chitin. The enzymatic processes controlling the synthesis and the breakdown of chitin are discussed, along with its role in the fundamental mechanism of growth, differentiation, nutrition, and movement of a large number of species. This text consists of seven chapters and begins with an overview of chitin research and the rapidly increasing interest in chitin chemistry and applications. The discussion then moves to the enzymatic synthesis of chitin and chitosan and inhibition of chitin biosynthesis, along with the physicochemical characteristics of chitin and chitosan. The chapters that follow focus on chitin chemistry, chitinases and related enzymes, applications of chitin in chromatography, and industrial production and applications of chitin. The final chapter is devoted to medical applications of chitin and its oligomers, from being artificial kidney membranes and antigens against parasites to blood anticoagulants, biodegradable pharmaceutical carriers, wound healing accelerators, and microbiological media. This book will be of interest to biochemists, physicists, industrialists, botanists, entomologists, physiologists, and other scientists in a variety of disciplines, as well as graduate students wishing to undertake research about chitin.

Table of Contents


Foreword

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Chapter 1 Enzymic Synthesis of Chitin and Chitosan

Occurrence of Chitin

Arthropods

Fungi

Yeasts

Enzymic Model of Chitin Synthesis

Properties of Chitin Synthetase

Zymogen + Activating Factor + Inhibitor System

Chitin Synthetase Zymogen

Activating Factor

Inhibitor

Production of Chitin Synthetase

Cell-Free Extract Preparation

Isolation of Unbound Chitin Synthetase

Chitin Associations

Chitin Bound Carotenoids

Chitin and Glucans

Chitin Associations with Proteins

Chitosan Production by Chitin Deacetylase

Preparation of Chitin Deacetylase

Properties of Chitin Deacetylase

Chitin Biosynthesis Inhibition

Polyoxins

Insecticides

Chapter 2 Stereochemistry and Physical Characterization

Chitin Polymorphism

Conformation of α-Chitin

Conformation of ß-Chitin

Chitin Microfibrils

Helicoidal Architecture

Liquid Crystals

Colloidal Chitin

Solubility and Viscosity

Chitin

Chitosan

Shearing

Hydrophilicity and Swelling

Membrane Formation

General Characteristics

Reverse Osmosis Membranes

Chitin Xanthate Membranes

Molecular Weight

Thermal Degradation

Electrical Properties

Optical Properties

Chapter 3 Chitin Chemistry

Preparation of Chitin

Method of Hackman

Method of Whistler & BeMiller

Method of Horowitz, Roseman & Blumenthal

Method of Foster & Hackman

Method of Takeda & Abe and Takeda & Katsuura

Method of Broussignac

Other Methods

Radioactive Chitin

Deacetylation of Chitin

Method of Horowitz, Roseman & Blumenthal and Horton & Lineback

Method of Rigby & Wolfrom, Mayer & Chaney and Wolfrom & Shen-han

Method of Broussignac

Method of Fujita

Method of Peniston & Johnson

Alkali Chitin

Chitosan Salt Formation

Anions

Dyes

Oxidation

Oxidative Deamination of Chitosan

Carboxyl Group Formation

Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives

Sulfation

Cyanoethylation

Carboxymethylation

Hydroxyethylation (Glycolation)

Alkyl Ethers

N-Alkyl Derivatives

Xanthation

Other Derivatives

Reactions with Carbonyl Compounds

Anhydrides

Aldehydes

Polyelectrolytes

Chelation of Metal Ions

Chelating Ability of Chitin and Chitosan

Enhanced Performances

Analytical Determinations

Spectrophotometric Determinations

Colloid Titrations

Chapter 4 Chitinases and Related Enzymes

Chitinase and Chitobiase

Chitinase Extraction and Purification

Chitosanases

Lysozymes

Hydrolysis

Transglycosylation

Oligomer Production

N-Acetylglucosamine and Acetylated Oligomers

Glucosamine and Deacetylated Oligomers

Chitinase Activity Determination

Fluorescent Chitinases

Chitinase and Chitobiase Occurrence

Chapter 5 Chromatographic Applications

Ion-Exchange Chromatography

Acids

Nucleic Acids

Amino Acids

Phenols

Inorganic Oxyanions

Chelation Chromatography

Determination of Copper in Sea Water

Affinity Chromatography

Lysozymes

Immobilized Enzymes

Wheat Germ Agglutinin

Tobacco Mosaic Virus

Future Developments

Chapter 6 Industrial Production and Applications

Industrial Production of Chitin and Chitosan

Resources and Availability

Economical Aspects

Chitin and Chitosan Production Process

Chelating Polymers for Harmful Metals

Nuclear Fission Products

Mercury and Copper

Paper and Textile Additives

Applications of Chitosan in Paper Making

Sheet Formation Procedures

Modified Chitosan Additives

Textile Finishes

Glass Fabrics

Plastic Fabrics

Polymeric Dyes

Batik Dyeing

Soil Repellents

Shrinkproofing of Wool

Photographic Products and Processes

Diffusion-Transfer Reversal Process

Additive Color Reproduction

Cements

General Materials

Reconstituted Tobacco Sheet

Leather Manufacture

Coagulants for Suspensions

Inorganic Suspended Solids

Vegetable Canning Wastes

Protein Recovery

Dewatering of Municipal Sludges

Chapter 7 Medical Applications

Artificial Kidney Membranes

Preparations against Parasites

Biodegradable Pharmaceutical Carriers

Blood Anticoagulants

Aggregation of Leukemia Cells

Wound Healing Accelerators

Microbiological Media

Bibliography

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
326
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Pergamon 1977
Published:
Imprint:
Pergamon
eBook ISBN:
9781483159461

About the Author

Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli