1st Edition - January 1, 1977

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  • Author: Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483159461

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Chitin presents fundamental information on chitin. The enzymatic processes controlling the synthesis and the breakdown of chitin are discussed, along with its role in the fundamental mechanism of growth, differentiation, nutrition, and movement of a large number of species. This text consists of seven chapters and begins with an overview of chitin research and the rapidly increasing interest in chitin chemistry and applications. The discussion then moves to the enzymatic synthesis of chitin and chitosan and inhibition of chitin biosynthesis, along with the physicochemical characteristics of chitin and chitosan. The chapters that follow focus on chitin chemistry, chitinases and related enzymes, applications of chitin in chromatography, and industrial production and applications of chitin. The final chapter is devoted to medical applications of chitin and its oligomers, from being artificial kidney membranes and antigens against parasites to blood anticoagulants, biodegradable pharmaceutical carriers, wound healing accelerators, and microbiological media. This book will be of interest to biochemists, physicists, industrialists, botanists, entomologists, physiologists, and other scientists in a variety of disciplines, as well as graduate students wishing to undertake research about chitin.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword



    Chapter 1 Enzymic Synthesis of Chitin and Chitosan

    Occurrence of Chitin




    Enzymic Model of Chitin Synthesis

    Properties of Chitin Synthetase

    Zymogen + Activating Factor + Inhibitor System

    Chitin Synthetase Zymogen

    Activating Factor


    Production of Chitin Synthetase

    Cell-Free Extract Preparation

    Isolation of Unbound Chitin Synthetase

    Chitin Associations

    Chitin Bound Carotenoids

    Chitin and Glucans

    Chitin Associations with Proteins

    Chitosan Production by Chitin Deacetylase

    Preparation of Chitin Deacetylase

    Properties of Chitin Deacetylase

    Chitin Biosynthesis Inhibition



    Chapter 2 Stereochemistry and Physical Characterization

    Chitin Polymorphism

    Conformation of α-Chitin

    Conformation of ß-Chitin

    Chitin Microfibrils

    Helicoidal Architecture

    Liquid Crystals

    Colloidal Chitin

    Solubility and Viscosity




    Hydrophilicity and Swelling

    Membrane Formation

    General Characteristics

    Reverse Osmosis Membranes

    Chitin Xanthate Membranes

    Molecular Weight

    Thermal Degradation

    Electrical Properties

    Optical Properties

    Chapter 3 Chitin Chemistry

    Preparation of Chitin

    Method of Hackman

    Method of Whistler & BeMiller

    Method of Horowitz, Roseman & Blumenthal

    Method of Foster & Hackman

    Method of Takeda & Abe and Takeda & Katsuura

    Method of Broussignac

    Other Methods

    Radioactive Chitin

    Deacetylation of Chitin

    Method of Horowitz, Roseman & Blumenthal and Horton & Lineback

    Method of Rigby & Wolfrom, Mayer & Chaney and Wolfrom & Shen-han

    Method of Broussignac

    Method of Fujita

    Method of Peniston & Johnson

    Alkali Chitin

    Chitosan Salt Formation




    Oxidative Deamination of Chitosan

    Carboxyl Group Formation

    Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives




    Hydroxyethylation (Glycolation)

    Alkyl Ethers

    N-Alkyl Derivatives


    Other Derivatives

    Reactions with Carbonyl Compounds




    Chelation of Metal Ions

    Chelating Ability of Chitin and Chitosan

    Enhanced Performances

    Analytical Determinations

    Spectrophotometric Determinations

    Colloid Titrations

    Chapter 4 Chitinases and Related Enzymes

    Chitinase and Chitobiase

    Chitinase Extraction and Purification





    Oligomer Production

    N-Acetylglucosamine and Acetylated Oligomers

    Glucosamine and Deacetylated Oligomers

    Chitinase Activity Determination

    Fluorescent Chitinases

    Chitinase and Chitobiase Occurrence

    Chapter 5 Chromatographic Applications

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography


    Nucleic Acids

    Amino Acids


    Inorganic Oxyanions

    Chelation Chromatography

    Determination of Copper in Sea Water

    Affinity Chromatography


    Immobilized Enzymes

    Wheat Germ Agglutinin

    Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    Future Developments

    Chapter 6 Industrial Production and Applications

    Industrial Production of Chitin and Chitosan

    Resources and Availability

    Economical Aspects

    Chitin and Chitosan Production Process

    Chelating Polymers for Harmful Metals

    Nuclear Fission Products

    Mercury and Copper

    Paper and Textile Additives

    Applications of Chitosan in Paper Making

    Sheet Formation Procedures

    Modified Chitosan Additives

    Textile Finishes

    Glass Fabrics

    Plastic Fabrics

    Polymeric Dyes

    Batik Dyeing

    Soil Repellents

    Shrinkproofing of Wool

    Photographic Products and Processes

    Diffusion-Transfer Reversal Process

    Additive Color Reproduction


    General Materials

    Reconstituted Tobacco Sheet

    Leather Manufacture

    Coagulants for Suspensions

    Inorganic Suspended Solids

    Vegetable Canning Wastes

    Protein Recovery

    Dewatering of Municipal Sludges

    Chapter 7 Medical Applications

    Artificial Kidney Membranes

    Preparations against Parasites

    Biodegradable Pharmaceutical Carriers

    Blood Anticoagulants

    Aggregation of Leukemia Cells

    Wound Healing Accelerators

    Microbiological Media


    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 326
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1977
  • Published: January 1, 1977
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483159461

About the Author

Riccardo A. A. Muzzarelli

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