Chemosensory Transduction - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128016947, 9780128017869

Chemosensory Transduction

1st Edition

The Detection of Odors, Tastes, and Other Chemostimuli

Editors: Frank Zufall Steven Munger
eBook ISBN: 9780128017869
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128016947
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th February 2016
Page Count: 430
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Description

Written by leaders in the field of chemosensation, Chemosensory Transduction provides a comprehensive resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms that allow animals to detect their chemical world. The text focuses on mammals, but also includes several chapters on chemosensory transduction mechanisms in lower vertebrates and insects. This book examines transduction mechanisms in the olfactory, taste, and somatosensory (chemesthetic) systems as well as in a variety of internal sensors that are responsible for homeostatic regulation of the body. Chapters cover such topics as social odors in mammals, vertebrate and invertebrate olfactory receptors, peptide signaling in taste and gut nutrient sensing. Includes a foreword by preeminent olfactory scientist Stuart Firestein, Chair of Columbia University’s Department of Biological Sciences in New York, NY.

Chemosensory Transduction describes state-of-the-art approaches and key findings related to the study of the chemical senses. Thus, it serves as the go-to reference for this subject for practicing scientists and students with backgrounds in sensory biology and/or neurobiology. The volume will also be valuable for industry researchers engaged in the design or testing of flavors, fragrances, foods and/or pharmaceuticals.

Key Features

  • Provides a comprehensive overview for all chemosensory transduction mechanisms
  • Valuable for academics focused on sensory biology, neurobiology, and chemosensory transduction, as well as industry researchers in new flavor, fragrance, and food testing
  • Edited by leading experts in the field of olfactory transduction
  • Focuses on mammals, but lower vertebrates and invertebrate model systems are also included

Readership

Academic and industry scientists, graduate students focused on sensory biology, neurobiology, olfaction and taste

Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Introduction and Overview
  • Section I. Social Odors and Chemical Ecology
    • Chapter 1. Specialized Chemosignaling that Generates Social and Survival Behavior in Mammals
      • What Are Specialized Odors?
      • Search for the Sensory Neurons Underlying Specialized Olfactory Behavior
      • Are Certain Types of Olfactory Ligands Specialized?
      • The VNO Detects Specialized Odors
      • The MOE Also Detects Specialized Ligands
      • Neural Circuits that Process Specialized Ligands
      • Transforming Specialized Ligands into Social Behavior
    • Chapter 2. Chemical Ecology in Insects
      • Introduction
      • Chemostimuli and Receptors
      • Insect Homeostasis
      • Insect Reproduction
      • Insect–Plant Interactions: Exploiting the System
      • Evolutionary Aspects
  • Section II. Olfactory Transduction
    • Chapter 3. Vertebrate Odorant Receptors
      • Toward the Discovery of the OR Genes
      • The OR Gene Family
      • Functional Aspect of ORs
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Odor Sensing by Trace Amine-Associated Receptors
      • Introduction
      • The TAAR Family
      • TAAR Expression Patterns
      • TAAR Ligands and Behaviors
      • TAAR Neuron Projections to the Main Olfactory Bulb in Mouse
      • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 5. Aquatic Olfaction
      • Introduction
      • The Evolutionary Origin of Vertebrate Olfactory Receptor Genes
      • Aquatic versus Terrestrial Olfaction
      • Evolutionary Dynamics of Teleost Fish Olfactory Receptor Gene Repertoires Are Distinctly Different from Those of Tetrapods
      • Olfactory Receptor Gene Repertoires of a Lobe-Finned Fish Combine Tetrapod and Teleost Characteristics
      • Amphibian Olfaction in Transition from Aqueous to Terrestrial Environment
      • The Land-to-Water Transition in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates Leads to Large-Scale Pseudogenization of Olfactory Receptor Repertoires
      • Aquatic Odors
      • Not Much Is Known About the Ligand Spectra of Aquatic Olfactory Receptors
      • Four Olfactory Sensory Neuron Types Expressing Aquatic Olfactory Receptors
    • Chapter 6. Insect Olfactory Receptors: An Interface between Chemistry and Biology
      • Introduction
      • Odorant Receptors
      • Ionotropic Receptors
      • CO2-Sensitive Gustatory Receptors
      • Other Olfactory Proteins at the Periphery
      • Methods for Functional Characterization of Insect Olfactory Receptors
    • Chapter 7. Cyclic AMP Signaling in the Main Olfactory Epithelium
      • Introduction
      • The Early History of cAMP in Olfactory Transduction
      • Molecular Identification of Olfactory Transduction Components
      • Regulation of the cAMP Signaling Cascade
      • Future Directions
      • Summary
    • Chapter 8. Cyclic GMP Signaling in Olfactory Sensory Neurons
      • Introduction
      • Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase
      • Membrane-Bound Guanylyl Cyclase
      • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases
      • Techniques for Monitoring Changes in cGMP
      • Future Perspectives
    • Chapter 9. Ciliary Trafficking of Transduction Molecules
      • Introduction
      • Cilia Structure
      • Lipid Composition
      • Movement of Proteins within the Cilium
      • Mechanisms Regulating the Selective Ciliary Enrichment of Olfactory Signaling Proteins
      • Ciliary Localization of Odorant Receptors
      • Ciliopathies and Olfactory Function
      • Potential Treatments for Ciliopathy-Induced Anosmia
      • Summary
    • Chapter 10. Vomeronasal Receptors: V1Rs, V2Rs, and FPRs
      • Introduction
      • Type 1 Vomeronasal Receptors
      • Type 2 Vomeronasal Receptors
      • Formyl Peptide Receptors
      • Odorant Receptors
      • Coding Lines
    • Chapter 11. Vomeronasal Transduction and Cell Signaling
      • Introduction
      • The Anatomy and Cellular Composition of the VNO
      • Vomeronasal Chemoreceptor Function
      • Receptor-Dependent Transduction Pathways and Secondary Signaling Processes in VSNs
    • Chapter 12. Comparative Olfactory Transduction
      • Introduction
      • Olfactory Systems: Similarity and Diversity
      • Functional Organization of Olfactory Systems
      • Functional Subsets of OSNs
      • Olfactory Receptors
      • Noncanonical Odorant-Evoked Signaling Pathways
      • Opponent Signaling: Excitation and Inhibition
      • Noncompetitive Mechanisms of Inhibition
      • Gaining Insight from the Comparative Study of Olfactory Transduction
  • Section III. Gustatory Transduction
    • Chapter 13. G Protein–Coupled Taste Receptors
      • Introduction
      • Type 1 Taste Receptors
      • Sweet Taste Receptor
      • Umami Taste Receptor(s)
      • Bitter Taste Receptors
      • Fatty Acid Receptors
      • Outlook
    • Chapter 14. Mechanism of Taste Perception in Drosophila
      • Introduction
      • Adult Insect Gustatory System
      • Cellular Analysis of Gustatory Function
      • Behavioral Analysis of Gustatory Function
      • Molecular Basis of Different Taste Modalities
      • Taste Signal Transduction
      • Gustatory Perception in Larvae
      • Gustatory Receptors Beyond Taste
    • Chapter 15. G Protein–Coupled Taste Transduction
      • Introduction
      • Taste Cell Types and Innervation
      • G Protein–Coupled Receptors
      • Downstream Signaling Effectors
      • ATP Release and Activation of Gustatory Afferents
      • Summary and Future Directions
    • Chapter 16. The Mechanisms of Salty and Sour Taste
      • Introduction
      • Salt Taste
      • Sour Taste
      • Conclusions
    • Chapter 17. Peptide Signaling in Taste Transduction
      • Introduction
      • Taste Bud Cells
      • Leptin
      • Glucagon
      • Glucagon-Like Peptide-1
      • Insulin
      • Angiotensin II
      • Cholecystokinin
      • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
      • Neuropeptide Y
      • Peptide Tyrosine–Tyrosine
      • Oxytocin
      • Ghrelin
      • Galanin
      • Conclusion
  • Section IV. Stimulus Transduction in Other Chemodetection Systems
    • Chapter 18. O2 and CO2 Detection by the Carotid and Aortic Bodies
      • Introduction
      • Carotid Body
      • Sensing Hypoxia
      • Sensing CO2
      • Aortic Bodies
    • Chapter 19. Chemosensation in the Ventricles of the Central Nervous System
      • Introduction
      • Choroid Plexus-Cerebrospinal Fluid System
      • Tanycytes
      • Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 20. Gut Nutrient Sensing
      • Introduction
      • Taste Receptors
      • Taste Signaling Molecules in the Gut
      • Why Does the Gut Sense Nutrients?
      • Where Are the Sensors Located?
      • Sensing Carbohydrates
      • Sensing Fat
      • Sensing Proteins and Amino Acids
      • Role of the Microbiota
      • Closing Remarks
    • Chapter 21. Molecular Pharmacology of Chemesthesis
      • Introduction
      • Chemesthesis
      • Transient Receptor Potential Channel Subfamily V Member 1
      • TRP Channel Subfamily M Member 8
      • TRP Channel Subfamily A Member 1
      • TRP Channel Subfamily V Member 3
      • Potassium Channel Subfamily K Channels
      • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
430
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128017869
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128016947

About the Editor

Frank Zufall

Dr. Frank Zufall is Professor of Physiology and Founding Director of the Center for Integrative Physiology and Molecular Medicine (CIPMM) at the University of Saarland School of Medicine in Homburg, Germany. He previously held an Assistant Professorship at Yale University, New Haven, and tenured faculty positions at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. He received a Diploma in Biology from the Freie Universität Berlin, a Ph.D. in Zoology from the Technische Universität München, and completed postdoctoral training in the Department of Neurobiology at Yale University School of Medicine. His research program focuses on understanding the organization and molecular basis of the sense of smell. Specifically, he investigates how social chemostimuli, such as pheromones and kairomones, are detected and transduced by sensory neurons and what the underlying neural circuits for odor-driven, innate behaviors are. He also investigates interactions between the immune and olfactory systems. Dr. Zufall has been recognized with a Takasago Research Award for the extensive contribution to the growth and knowledge in the field of olfactory science. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for the journal Chemical Senses.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Physiology, University of Saarland School of Medicine, Homburg, Germany

Steven Munger

Dr. Steven D. Munger is Professor and Vice-Chair of Pharmacology and Therapeutics and Director of the Center for Smell and Taste at the University Florida. He previously held tenured faculty positions at the University of Maryland, Baltimore. He received a Bachelor of Arts in Biology from the University of Virginia and a Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of Florida, and completed postdoctoral training with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Johns Hopkins University. His research program focuses on the molecular basis of chemosensation in olfactory, taste, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems. Specifically, he investigates how diverse chemosensory receptors and transduction mechanisms contribute to chemosensory function, impact ingestive and social behaviors, and interact with hormonal systems that regulate metabolism and nutrient response. Dr. Munger has been recognized with the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers and the Ajinomoto Award for Young Investigators in Gustation. He is currently President-elect for the Association for Chemoreception Sciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Center for Smell and Taste, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA