Chemistry - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125033503, 9780323141758

Chemistry

1st Edition

With Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

Authors: Therald Moeller
eBook ISBN: 9780323141758
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1980
Page Count: 1156
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Description

Chemistry with Inorganic Qualitative Analysis is a textbook that describes the application of the principles of equilibrium represented in qualitative analysis and the properties of ions arising from the reactions of the analysis. This book reviews the chemistry of inorganic substances as the science of matter, the units of measure used, atoms, atomic structure, thermochemistry, nuclear chemistry, molecules, and ions in action. This text also describes the chemical bonds, the representative elements, the changes of state, water and the hydrosphere (which also covers water pollution and water purification). Water purification occurs in nature through the usual water cycle and by the action of microorganisms. The air flushes dissolved gases and volatile pollutants; when water seeps through the soil, it filters solids as they settle in the bottom of placid lakes. Microorganisms break down large organic molecules containing mostly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or phosphorus into harmless molecules and ions. This text notes that natural purification occurs if the level of contaminants is not so excessive. This textbook is suitable for both chemistry teachers and students.

Table of Contents


Preface to Chemistry with Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

Preface to Chemistry

1 Chemistry: The Science of Matter

Science and matter

1.1 Science

1.2 States and Properties of Matter

1.3 Kinds of Matter

Chemistry: The Science of Matter

1.4 Chemistry

1.5 Subdivisions of chemistry

Units of Measure; Problem Solving

1.6 Systems of Measurement

1.7 Length

1.8 Volume

1.9 Mass vs. Weight

1.10 Heat

1.11 Temperature

1.12 The factor-Dimensional Method of Calculation

Chemistry and the future

Thoughts on Chemistry: Spaceship Earth

2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chemistry: Where to Begin?

2.1 What is An Atom?

An Aside: Toward the Atomic Theory through History

2.2 Atoms and Mass in Chemical Combination

2.3 The Symbols for the Elements

2.4 Molecules and Ions

2.5 Formulas for Chemical Compounds

An Aside: The Names of the Elements

3 The Gaseous State

The Nature of Gases

3.1 General Properties of Gases

An Aside: Priestly, Lavoisier, and the Phlogiston Theory

3.2 Units of Pressure

3.3 Measuring Pressure

3.4 Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

3.5 Ideal vs. Real Gases

Volume, Pressure, and Temperature Relationships

3.6 Volume vs. Pressure: Boyle's Law

3.7 Volume vs. Temperature: Charles' Law

3.8 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

3.9 P, V, and T Changes in a Fixed Amount of Gas

Mass, Molecular, and Molar Relationships

3.10 Combining Volumes of Gases: Gay-Lussac's Law

3.11 Equal Volumes of Gases: Avogadro's Law

3.12 Molar Volume

3.13 Ideal Gas Law

3.14 Weight, Density, and Molecular Weight Relationships

3.15 Pressure in Gas Mixtures: Dalton's Law

3.16 Effusion and Diffusion: Graham's Laws

Nonideal gases

3.17 Deviations from the Gas Laws

Thoughts on Chemistry: On the Constitution of Bodies

4 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions in Action: Stoichiometry

Reactions and Equations

4.1 Chemical Equations

4.2 Balancing Chemical Equations

4.3 Reaction Conditions

4.4 Ionic Reactions and Ionic Equations

4.5 Information from Chemical Equations: Stoichiometry

Important Types of Reactions

4.6 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium

4.7 Water, A Slightly Ionized Liquid

4.8 Acids and Bases: H+ and OH-

4.9 Neutralization

4.10 Equivalent Weight and Normality for Acids and Bases

4.11 Oxidation State

4.12 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Thoughts on Chemistry: Stoichiometry

5 Thermochemistry

Heat

5.1 Heat and Heat Capacity and Changes of State

5.2 Heat in Chemical Reactions Enthalpy

5.3 Enthalpy Defined

5.4 Standard Enthalpies

Tools of Chemistry: The Calorimeter

5.5 Using Enthalpies

5.6 Hess' Law

5.7 ΔH°r from ΔH°f

5.8 Other Useful Enthalpies

Thoughts on Chemistry: Early Observations on Changes of State

6 The Atmosphere

The Atmosphere and the Air

6.1 Functions of the Atmosphere

6.2 Pressure of the Atmosphere

6.3 Composition of the Air

6.4 Liquefaction and Distillation of Air

6.5 Regions of the Atmosphere

Air Pollution

6.6 Pollutants and their Sources

6.7 Carbon Monoxide

6.8 Hydrocarbons

6.9 Nitrogen Oxides

6.10 Sulfur Oxides

6.11 Particulates

The Noble Gases

6.12 Discovery of the Noble Gases

6.13 Properties of the Noble Gases

6.14 Preparation and Uses of the Noble Gases

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Laws of Ecology

7 Atomic Structure

Particles

7.2 Electricity and Matter

7.3 Electrons

7.4 Protons

7.5 α-Particles

7.6 Neutrons

The Nucleus and Nuclear Arithmetic

7.7 Rutherford's Atomic Model: The Nuclear Atom

7.8 Atomic Numbers and X-ray Spectra

Tools of Chemistry: Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectra

7.9 The Nucleus: Mass Number and Atomic Number

7.10 Isotopes and Atomic Weight

Tools of Chemistry: Mass Spectrometer

Quantum Theory and the Atom

7.11 The Role of the Electron

7.12 Waves as Particles—Particles as Waves: Quantum Theory

7.13 Atomic Spectra

7.14 Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

7.15 Wave-Mechanical Model of the Atom

7.16 Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

7.17 Picturing Orbitals

Electrons and the Periodic Table

7.18 Electronic Configurations

7.19 The Modern Periodic Table

Thoughts on Chemistry: Quantum Behavior

8 Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Stability and Instability

8.1 The Nucleus

8.2 Nuclear Binding Energy

8.3 Radioactivity

8.4 Isotopes

8.5 Neutron-proton Ratio

8.6 Half-life

8.7 Cosmic Abundance and Nuclear Stability

Nuclear Reactions

8.8 Writing Equations for Nuclear Reactions

8.9 γ Decay

8.10 α Decay

8.11 ß Decay

8.12 Radiation and Matter

8.13 Natural Radioactive Series

An Aside: Uses of Radioisotopes

8.14 Bombardment

8.15 Nuclear Fission

An Aside: The Atomic Bomb

8.16 Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear Energy

8.17 Light Water Reactors

An Aside: Nature's Nuclear Reactor

8.18 Breeder Reactors

8.19 Fusion Reactors

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Atomic Age Begins

9 The Chemical Bond

Some Definitions

9.1 Definition of the Chemical Bond

9.2 Valence Electrons and Lewis Symbols

9.3 Noble Gases and the Stable Octet

9.4 Types of Chemical Bonds

An Aside: Noble Gas Compounds

The Metallic Bond

9.5 Configuration and Bonding in Metals Imparted by the Metallic Bond

9.6 Properties

The Ionic Bond

9.7 Configurations of Ions

9.8 Properties Imparted by the Ionic Bond

The Covalent Bond

9.9 Configuration in Covalent Bonding

9.10 Multiple Covalent Bonds

9.11 Coordinate Covalent Bonds

9.12 Unpaired Electrons

9.13 Resonance

9.14 Polyatomic Ions

9.15 Writing Lewis Formulas for Covalent Species

9.16 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity

9.17 Dipole Moment

9.18 Properties Imparted by the Covalent Bond

9.19 Network Covalent Substances

Intermolecular Forces

9.20 Dipole-dipole Forces

9.22 London Force

9.21 Hydrogen Bond

Properties of Bonds

9.23 The Continua of Bond Types

9.24 Bond Strength and Bond Length

9.25 Atomic and Ionic Radii

9.26 Molecular Geometry: Valence-shell Electron-pair Repulsion Theory

Thoughts on Chemistry: Chemical Bond Definitions

10 Periodic Perspective: The Representative Elements

Types of Representative Elements

10.1 Nonmetals

10.2 Metals

10.3 Semiconducting Elements

Properties of Atoms and Ions

10.4 Atomic and Ionic Radii

10.5 Ionization Energies

10.6 Electron Affinities

10.7 Electronegativity

10.8 Electronegativity and Oxidation State

Compound Formation

10.9 Energy Relationships

Group Trends

10.10 Hydrogen

10.11 Representative Group I (the alkali metals)

10.12 Representative Group II (the alkaline earth metals)

10.13 Representative Group III

10.14 Representative Group IV

10.15 Representative Group V

10.16 Representative Group VI

10.17 Representative Group VII (the halogens)

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Grim Silence of Facts

11 Hydrogen and Oxygen

11.1 Origin and Abundance of Hydrogen and Oxygen

Hydrogen

11.2 Properties of Hydrogen

11.3 Isotopes of Hydrogen

11.4 Reactions of Hydrogen

11.5 Electromotive Series

11.6 Preparation and Uses of Hydrogen

11.7 Hydrogen as a Fuel

11.8 Binary Compounds of Hydrogen

Oxygen

11.9 Properties of Oxygen

11.10 Reactions of oxygen

11.11 Preparation and uses of Oxygen

11.12 Ozone

11.13 Binary Compounds of Oxygen

11.14 Hydrogen Peroxide

11.15 The Oxygen and Carbon Cycles

Thougths on Chemistry: The World's Biggest Membrane

12 The Liquid and Solid States; Changes of State

Relationships Between Phases

12.1 Phases

12.2 Kinetic-molecular Theory for Liquid and Solids

12.3 Vaporization

12.4 Boiling point and Melting Point

12.5 Changes of State

12.6 Phase Diagrams

The Liquid State

12.7 Structure, Density, and Volume

12.8 Surface Tension

An Aside: Liquid Crystals

12.9 Viscosity

12.10 Index of Refraction

The Solid State

12.11 Types of Solids

12.12 Crystal Structure of Metals

12.13 Crystal Systems

12.14 Ionic Crystal Structure

Tools of Chemistry: Diffraction: X rays, Neutrons, and Electrons

12.15 Alloys

12.16 Defects

12.17 Solid-State Reaction

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Dance of the Solids

13 water and The Hydrosphere

The Chemistry of Water

13.1 The Water Molecule and its Aggregates

13.2 Water as a Solvent

13.3 Properties of Water

13.4 Reactions of Water

13.5 Hydrates

The Hydrosphere

13.6 The Water Cycle

13.7 Natural Water

13.8 Nature's Water Treatment System

Water Pollution

13.9 Types of Pollutants

13.10 Oxygen-Demanding Pollutants

13.11 Toxic or Harmful Pollutants

13.12 The Soap and Detergent Opera

Water Purification

13.13 Hard water

13.15 Desalination

13.14 Sewage Treatment

Thoughts on Chemistry: Second-hand Molecules

14 solutions and Colloids

Types of Solutions

14.1 Some Definitions

14.2 Gas-gas Solutions

14.3 Gas-liquid Solutions

14.4 Gas-solid Solutions

14.5 Solid-solid Solutions

14.6 Liquid-liquid Solutions

14.7 Solid-liquid Solutions

14.8 Is Solubility a Physical or a Chemical Phenomenon?

14.9 Solutions of Electrolytes

14.10 Ideal vs. Nonideal

solutions

Concentration of Solutions

14.11 Standard Solutions: Mole fraction

14.12 Standard Solutions: Molality

14.13 Preparation of Solutions

14.14 Summary of Concentration Units

Vapor Pressures of Liquid Solutions and Related Properties

14.15 Liquid-liquid Solution Vapor Pressures: Raoult's Law

Tools of Chemistry: Distillation

14.16 Vapor pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes

14.17 Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

14.18 Molecular Weight Determination

14.19 Osmotic Pressure

14.20 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Colloids

14.21 Properties of Colloids

14.22 Types of Colloids

Thoughts on Chemistry: To Tell a Chemist

15 Chemical Kinetics

How Reactions Take Place

15.1 Collision Theory

15.2 Activation Energy

15.3 Transition State Theory

Reaction Rates and Factors that Influence them

15.4 Reaction Rates

15.5 Concentration

15.6 Temperature

15.7 Contact between Reacting Substances

15.8 Catalysis

Mechanisms and Rate Equations

15.9 Rate Equations

15.10 Reaction Order, Molecularity, and Elementary Reactions

15.11 First-order Reactions

15.12 Second-order Reactions

15.13 Kinetics and Mechanism

Thpughts on Chemistry: A classical View of Kinetics and Thermodynamics

16 Chemical Equilibrium

The Law of Chemical Equilibrium

16.1 Reversibility and Equilibrium

16.2 Units and Equilibrium Constant Values

16.3 Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Solution Equilibria

16.4 The Reaction Quotient

16.5 Equilibrium Constants and Reaction Equations

16.6 Are Equilibria Established in All Reactions?

Factors that Influence Equilibria

16.7 Le Chatelier's Principle

16.8 Temperature

16.9 Concentration

Tools of Chemistry: Chromatography

16.10 Pressure

An Aside: The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia

Equilibrium Problems

16.11 How to Solve Equilibrium Problems

16.12 Some Equilibrium Problem Solutions

Thoughts on Chemistry: Professor Thomas Cooper's View of Chemistry in 1811

17 Acids and Bases

Ways of Defining Acids and Bases

17.1 The Unique Properties of the Proton

17.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

17.3 Factors Affecting the Strength of Acids and Bases

17.4 Lewis Acids and Bases

Expressing the Strength of Acids, Bases, and their Aqueous Solutions

17.5 Ionization Equilibrium of Water

17.6 pH and pK

17.7 Determination of pH: Indicators

17.8 Strong and Weak Acids

17.9 Strong and Weak Bases

17.10 Relationship of Ka and Kb to Kw

Thoughts on Chemistry: Ira Remsen Investigates Nitric Acid

18 Ions and Ionic Equilibria

Acid-base Equilibria

18.1 Ions in Aqueous Solution

18.2 Reactions of Ions with Water

18.3 The Behavior of Salts toward Water

18.4 Equilibrium Constants for the Reactions of Ions with Water

18.5 pH of Salt Solutions

18.6 Reactions of Acids with Bases

18.7 Polyprotic Acids

18.8 The Common Ion Effect

18.9 Buffer Solutions

18.10 Titrations of Acids and Bases

18.11 Titration CurvesHeterogeneous equilibria

18.12 Solubility Product, Ksp

18.13 Ksp and Solubility

18.14 Ksp and Precipitation

18.15 Ksp and the Dissolution of Ionic Precipitates

Thoughts on Chemistry: Scientific Method

19 Oxidation and Reduction

Defining Oxidation and Reduction

19.1 What Happens in Redox Reactions?

19.2 Relationship between Electrochemistry and Redox Reactions

The Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions

19.3 Half-Reactions

19.4 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations

Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

19.5 An Electrochemical Cell

19.6 Standard Reduction Potentials

19.7 Using Standard Reduction Potentials

19.8 Variation of Potential with Concentration

19.9 Redox Equilibria: Finding K from E°

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Chemical History of a Candle

20 Nonmetals: The Halogens

The Halogens

20.1 Properties of the Halogens

20.2 Reactions of the Halogens

20.3 Sources of the Halogens

20.4 Preparation and Uses of the Halogens

An Aside: Industrial vs. Laboratory Preparations

20.5 Halogens and the Water Supply

Compounds of the Halogens

20.6 Metal Halides

20.7 Interhalogens

20.8 Hydrogen Halides and their Aqueous Solutions

20.9 Oxoacids and the Halogens and their Salts

Thoughts on Chemistry: Salt and Civilization

21 The Covalent Bond Reexamined

21.1 Bond Formation

Atomic Orbital Overlap: Valence Bond Theory

21.2 Single Bonds in Diatomic Molecules

21.3 π Bonds

21.4 Single Bonds in Polyatomic Molecules; Hybridization

21.5 Multiple Covalent Bonds

21.6 Valence Bonds vs. Molecular Orbital Theory

Molecular Orbital Theory

21.7 Molecular Orbitals in H2 and "He2"

21.8 Rules for filling Molecular Orbitals

21.9 Bond Order

An Aside: Electron Density Diagrams

21.1077 Molecular Orbitals

21.11 Molecular Orbitals for Diatomic Molecules of Second-Period Elements, Li-Ne

21.12 Multiple Bonds; Delocalized Bonds

21.13 Molecular Orbitals in Metals

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Centrality of Chemistry

22 Nonmetals: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur & Inorganic Qualitative Analysis: Anions

Nonmetals: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

22.1 Some Properties of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

Nitrogen

22.2 Additional Properties of Nitrogen

22.3 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Nitrogen

22.4 Oxidation State -3: Nitrides and Ammonia

22.5 Oxidation State -2: Hydrazine

22.6 Oxidation States +1 to +5: Oxides of Nitrogen

22.7 Oxidation State +3: Nitrous Acid and Nitrites

22.8 Oxidation State +5: Nitric Acid and Nitrates

Phosphorus

22.9 Additional Properties of Phosphorus

22.10 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Phosphorus

22.11 Oxidation State -3: Phosphides, Phosphine, and Phosphonium Salts

22.12 Oxidation State +3: Trihalides, Oxide, and Phosphorous Acid

22.13 Oxidation State +5: Halides, Oxide, and Phosphoric Acids

An Aside: Chemical Fertilizers

Sulfur

22.14 Additional Properties of Sulfur

22.15 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Sulfur

22.16 Oxidation State -2: Sulfides

22.17 Oxidation State +4: Sulfur Dioxide and Related Compounds

22.18 Oxidation State +6: Sulfuric Acid and Related Compounds

The Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur Cycles

Inorganic Qualitative Analysis Anions

22.19 An Overview of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

22.20 Anion Analysis

22.21 Properties of the Anions

22.22 The Preliminary Tests

22.23 The Specific Tests

Thoughts on Chemistry: Frasch Describes his First Success

23 Nonmetals Carbon and Hydrocarbons

Carbon and its Inorganic Compounds

23.1 Properties of Carbon

23.2 Diamond, Graphite, and Other Forms of Carbon; their Uses

23.3 Inorganic Compounds of Carbon

Hydrocarbons

23.4 Saturated Hydrocarbons

23.5 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Tools of Chemistry: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

23.6 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

23.7 Isomerism

23.8 Properties and Reactions of Hydrocarbons

23.9 Sources and Uses of Carbon and Hydrocarbons

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Chemical History of a Candle

24 Electrochemistry

Fundamentals of Electrochemistry

24.1 Anodes, Cathodes, and Cells

24.2 Electrode Reactions

24.3 Simple Voltaic Cells; Standard Cell Voltage

24.4 Chemical and Electrical Equivalence

Tools of Chemistry: pH Meter

Practical Electrochemistry

24.5 Voltaic Dry Cells

24.6 Storage Cells

24.7 Fuel Cells

24.8 Electrolysis

Thoughts on Chemistry: Volta Describes his Discoveries

25 Chemical Thermodynamics

Entropy, S

25.1 Entropy: A Quantitative Measurement of Randomness

25.2 Absolute Entropy of a Substance

25.3 Entropy as a Driving Force

Free Energy, G

25.4 Free Energy as the Criterion for Spontaneity

25.5 Conditions Other than Standard State

25.6 Relationship of K to ΔG°

25.7 ΔG° and E° 777

Temperature Dependence of Thermodynamic Properties

25.8 ΔH° ΔG°, and K

25.9 Phase Equilibria

25.10 Reaction Rates

Application of Chemical Thermodynamics

25.11 A Biochemical Example

Thoughts on Chemistry: From the Preface to a Classic Book on Thermodynamics

26 The Representative Metals

Representative Groups I and II: The Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals

26.1 Properties of Group I and II Metals

26.2 Sources of Group I and II Elements

26.3 Preparation and uses of Group I and Group II Metals

26.4 Reactions of Group I and Group II Metals

26.5 Cations of Group I and Group II Metals

26.6 Compounds of Group I and Group II Metals

The production of Metals

26.7 Metallurgy

The Zinc Family: Zn, Cd, Hg

26.8 Properties of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

26.9 Sources, Metallurgy, and Uses of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

26.10 Reactions of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

26.11 Compounds of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

Representative Group III Metals: Al, Ga, In, Tl

26.12 Properties of Group III Metals

26.13 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Group III Metals

26.14 Reactions of Aluminum

26.15 Compounds of Aluminum

Representative Group IV and V metals: Sn, Pb, Bi

26.16 Properties of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

26.17 Sources of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

26.18 Metallurgy and Uses of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

26.19 Reactions of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

An Aside: Metals as Poisons

26.20 Compounds of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

Thoughts on Chemistry: Of Things Metallic—1556 A.D.

27 Semiconducting Elements

The Seven Semiconducting Elements

27.1 General Properties

27.2 Boron

27.3 Silicon and Germanium

27.4 Arsenic and Antimony

27.5 Selenium and Tellurium

Semiconductivity

27.6 Bonding and Semiconductivity

27.7 Purification of Silicon and Germanium

27.8 Semiconductor Devices

Compounds of the Semiconducting Elements

27.9 Compounds of Boron

27.10 Compounds of Silicon and Germanium

27.11 Compounds of Arsenic and Antimony

27.12 Compounds of Selenium and Tellurium

Silicon-Oxygen Compounds

27.13 Natural Silica

27.14 Natural Silicates

27.15 Man-made Silicate Materials

27.16 Silicones

Thoughts on Chemistry: Buck Rogers: An Autobiography

28 The Chemistry of Complexes

Structure, Nomenclature, and Properties of Complexes

28.1 Some Definitions

28.2 Nomenclature

28.3 Chelation

28.4 Molecular Geometry and Isomerism

28.5 Formation and Properties of ComplexesBonding in complexes

28.6 Valence Bond Theory

28.7 Crystal Field Theory

28.8 Molecular Orbital Theory

28.9 Dissociation Constants, Kd

28.10 Using Κd

Complexes in Nature and in Practical Applications

Thoughts on Chemistry: Some Coordination Compounds in Biochemistry

29 Transition Elements

Periodic Perspective: d Transition Elements

29.1 Members and Configurations

29.2 Characteristic Transition Metal Properties

29.3 Atomic and Ionic Radii

29.4 Ionization Energies and Standard Reduction Potentials

29.5 Oxidation States and Compound Formation

29.6 3d Series Elements

29.7 4d and 5d Transition Series Elements

Chromium

29.8 Sources, Metallurgy, and Uses of Chromium

29.9 Compounds of Chromium

29.10 Oxidation and Reduction of Chromium

Manganese

29.11 Sources, Metallurgy, and Uses of Manganese

29.12 Compounds of Manganese

29.13 Oxidation and Reduction of Manganese

Iron

29.14 Sources and Use of Iron

29.15 Corrosion of Iron

29.16 Iron Making: The Blast Furnace

29.17 Steel Making

29.18 Heat Treatment of Steel

29.19 Compounds of Iron

Cobalt

29.20 Sources and Uses of Cobalt

29.21 Compounds of Cobalt

Nickel

29.22 Sources and Uses of Nickel

29.23 Compounds of Nickel

Copper, Silver, and Gold

29.24 Properties and Uses of Copper, Silver, and Gold

29.25 Sources and Metallurgy of Copper, Silver, and Gold

29.26 Compounds of Copper

29.27 Compounds of Silver

29.28 Compounds of Gold

An Aside: The Photographic Process

Periodic Perspective: f Transition Elements

29.29 Members and Electronic Configurations

29.30 Properties of f Transition Elements

An Aside: Superheavy Elements

29.31 The Lanthanides and Their Compounds

Thoughts on Chemistry: Energy: The Key to Natural Resource Abundance

30 Qualitative Analysis for Cations I. Chemical Principles Reviewed

Cations in Aqueous Solution

30.1 Cations for Analysis

30.2 Net Ionic Equations

30.3 Chemical Equilibrium—The Basis for Qualitative Analysis

Acid-Base Equilibria

30.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases

30.5 Effect of an Added Common Ion

30.6 Buffer Solutions

30.7 Amphoterism

Redox Equilibria

Complexation Equilibria

Heterogeneous Equilibria

30.8 The Solubility Product Constant

30.9 Concentrations of Ions Necessary for Precipitation

30.10 Controlled Precipitation

30.11 Dissolution of Solids

Thoughts of Chemistry: Le Chatelier's Principle

31 Qualitative Analysis for Cations II. The Cations and The Scheme

Flow Charts and the Group Separations

Cation Group I (Hg22+, Pb2+, Ag+)

31.1 Mercury(I) Ion

31.2 Lead(II) Ion

31.3 Silver(I) Ion

31.4 Cation Group I Analysis

Cation Group II (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Sn2+ or Sn4+, Sb3+ or SbO+)

31.5 Mercury(II) Ion

31.6 Lead(II) Ion

31.7 Copper(II) Ion

31.8 Tin(II) Ion and Tin(IV) Ions

31.9 Antimony(III) Ion

31.10 Cation Group II Analysis

Cation Group III (Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ or Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Al3+, Cr3+)

31.11 Zinc(II) Ion

31.12 Aluminum(III) Ion

31.13 Chromium(III) Ion

31.14 Manganese(II) Ion

31.15 Iron(II) Ion and Iron(III) Ions

31.16 Cobalt(II) Ion

31.17 Nickel(II) Ion

31.18 Cation Group III Analysis

Cation Group IV (Ca2+, Ba2+)

31.19 Calcium(II) and Barium(II) Ions

31.20 Cation Group IV Analysis

Cation Group V (Mg2+, Na+, K+ NH4+)

31.21 Magnesium(II) Ion

31.22 Sodium and Potassium Ions

31.23 Ammonium Ion

31.24 Cation Group V Analysis

Thoughts on Chemistry: The Epigrams of Remigius Fresenius

32 Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups and the Molecules of Biochemistry

Functional Groups with Covalent Single Bonds

32.1 Functional Groups

32.2 Halogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

32.3 Alcohols

32.4 Phenols

32.5 Ethers

32.6 Amines

Functional Groups with Covalent Double Bonds

32.7 Aldehydes and Ketones

Tools of Chemistry: Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

32.8 Carboxylic Acids

32.9 Esters

32.10 Acyl Halides and Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides

32.11 Amides

The Molecules of Biochemistry

32.12 Proteins

32.13 Carbohydrates

32.14 Lipids

32.15 Nucleotides and nucleic Acids

Thoughts on Chemistry: Kekule Describes the Origins of his Theories

Appendix A Chemical Arithmetic

A.1 Significant Figures

A.2 Scientific, or Exponential, Notation

A.3 Logarithms

Appendix B Units and Constants

Appendix C Tables of Data

Appendix D Inorganic Nomenclature

D.1 Symbols for the Elements

D.2 Isotopes

D.3 Binary Acids

D.4 Simple Cations

D.5 Simple Anions

D.6 Binary Ionic Compounds

D.7 Binary Covalent Compounds

D.8 Oxoacids

D.9 Oxoanions and Salts of Oxoacids

D.10 Special Cases

D.ll Complexes and Coordination Compounds

Answers to Selected Exercises

Glossary

Index

Details

No. of pages:
1156
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1980
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323141758

About the Author

Therald Moeller

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