Chemistry

Chemistry

With Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

1st Edition - January 1, 1980

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  • Author: Therald Moeller
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141758

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Description

Chemistry with Inorganic Qualitative Analysis is a textbook that describes the application of the principles of equilibrium represented in qualitative analysis and the properties of ions arising from the reactions of the analysis. This book reviews the chemistry of inorganic substances as the science of matter, the units of measure used, atoms, atomic structure, thermochemistry, nuclear chemistry, molecules, and ions in action. This text also describes the chemical bonds, the representative elements, the changes of state, water and the hydrosphere (which also covers water pollution and water purification). Water purification occurs in nature through the usual water cycle and by the action of microorganisms. The air flushes dissolved gases and volatile pollutants; when water seeps through the soil, it filters solids as they settle in the bottom of placid lakes. Microorganisms break down large organic molecules containing mostly carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or phosphorus into harmless molecules and ions. This text notes that natural purification occurs if the level of contaminants is not so excessive. This textbook is suitable for both chemistry teachers and students.

Table of Contents


  • Preface to Chemistry with Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    Preface to Chemistry

    1 Chemistry: The Science of Matter

    Science and matter

    1.1 Science

    1.2 States and Properties of Matter

    1.3 Kinds of Matter

    Chemistry: The Science of Matter

    1.4 Chemistry

    1.5 Subdivisions of chemistry

    Units of Measure; Problem Solving

    1.6 Systems of Measurement

    1.7 Length

    1.8 Volume

    1.9 Mass vs. Weight

    1.10 Heat

    1.11 Temperature

    1.12 The factor-Dimensional Method of Calculation

    Chemistry and the future

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Spaceship Earth

    2 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

    Chemistry: Where to Begin?

    2.1 What is An Atom?

    An Aside: Toward the Atomic Theory through History

    2.2 Atoms and Mass in Chemical Combination

    2.3 The Symbols for the Elements

    2.4 Molecules and Ions

    2.5 Formulas for Chemical Compounds

    An Aside: The Names of the Elements

    3 The Gaseous State

    The Nature of Gases

    3.1 General Properties of Gases

    An Aside: Priestly, Lavoisier, and the Phlogiston Theory

    3.2 Units of Pressure

    3.3 Measuring Pressure

    3.4 Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases

    3.5 Ideal vs. Real Gases

    Volume, Pressure, and Temperature Relationships

    3.6 Volume vs. Pressure: Boyle's Law

    3.7 Volume vs. Temperature: Charles' Law

    3.8 Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

    3.9 P, V, and T Changes in a Fixed Amount of Gas

    Mass, Molecular, and Molar Relationships

    3.10 Combining Volumes of Gases: Gay-Lussac's Law

    3.11 Equal Volumes of Gases: Avogadro's Law

    3.12 Molar Volume

    3.13 Ideal Gas Law

    3.14 Weight, Density, and Molecular Weight Relationships

    3.15 Pressure in Gas Mixtures: Dalton's Law

    3.16 Effusion and Diffusion: Graham's Laws

    Nonideal gases

    3.17 Deviations from the Gas Laws

    Thoughts on Chemistry: On the Constitution of Bodies

    4 Atoms, Molecules, and Ions in Action: Stoichiometry

    Reactions and Equations

    4.1 Chemical Equations

    4.2 Balancing Chemical Equations

    4.3 Reaction Conditions

    4.4 Ionic Reactions and Ionic Equations

    4.5 Information from Chemical Equations: Stoichiometry

    Important Types of Reactions

    4.6 Reversible Reactions and Chemical Equilibrium

    4.7 Water, A Slightly Ionized Liquid

    4.8 Acids and Bases: H+ and OH-

    4.9 Neutralization

    4.10 Equivalent Weight and Normality for Acids and Bases

    4.11 Oxidation State

    4.12 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Stoichiometry

    5 Thermochemistry

    Heat

    5.1 Heat and Heat Capacity and Changes of State

    5.2 Heat in Chemical Reactions Enthalpy

    5.3 Enthalpy Defined

    5.4 Standard Enthalpies

    Tools of Chemistry: The Calorimeter

    5.5 Using Enthalpies

    5.6 Hess' Law

    5.7 ΔH°r from ΔH°f

    5.8 Other Useful Enthalpies

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Early Observations on Changes of State

    6 The Atmosphere

    The Atmosphere and the Air

    6.1 Functions of the Atmosphere

    6.2 Pressure of the Atmosphere

    6.3 Composition of the Air

    6.4 Liquefaction and Distillation of Air

    6.5 Regions of the Atmosphere

    Air Pollution

    6.6 Pollutants and their Sources

    6.7 Carbon Monoxide

    6.8 Hydrocarbons

    6.9 Nitrogen Oxides

    6.10 Sulfur Oxides

    6.11 Particulates

    The Noble Gases

    6.12 Discovery of the Noble Gases

    6.13 Properties of the Noble Gases

    6.14 Preparation and Uses of the Noble Gases

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Laws of Ecology

    7 Atomic Structure

    Particles

    7.2 Electricity and Matter

    7.3 Electrons

    7.4 Protons

    7.5 α-Particles

    7.6 Neutrons

    The Nucleus and Nuclear Arithmetic

    7.7 Rutherford's Atomic Model: The Nuclear Atom

    7.8 Atomic Numbers and X-ray Spectra

    Tools of Chemistry: Electromagnetic Radiation and Spectra

    7.9 The Nucleus: Mass Number and Atomic Number

    7.10 Isotopes and Atomic Weight

    Tools of Chemistry: Mass Spectrometer

    Quantum Theory and the Atom

    7.11 The Role of the Electron

    7.12 Waves as Particles—Particles as Waves: Quantum Theory

    7.13 Atomic Spectra

    7.14 Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom

    7.15 Wave-Mechanical Model of the Atom

    7.16 Orbitals and Quantum Numbers

    7.17 Picturing Orbitals

    Electrons and the Periodic Table

    7.18 Electronic Configurations

    7.19 The Modern Periodic Table

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Quantum Behavior

    8 Nuclear Chemistry

    Nuclear Stability and Instability

    8.1 The Nucleus

    8.2 Nuclear Binding Energy

    8.3 Radioactivity

    8.4 Isotopes

    8.5 Neutron-proton Ratio

    8.6 Half-life

    8.7 Cosmic Abundance and Nuclear Stability

    Nuclear Reactions

    8.8 Writing Equations for Nuclear Reactions

    8.9 γ Decay

    8.10 α Decay

    8.11 ß Decay

    8.12 Radiation and Matter

    8.13 Natural Radioactive Series

    An Aside: Uses of Radioisotopes

    8.14 Bombardment

    8.15 Nuclear Fission

    An Aside: The Atomic Bomb

    8.16 Nuclear Fusion

    Nuclear Energy

    8.17 Light Water Reactors

    An Aside: Nature's Nuclear Reactor

    8.18 Breeder Reactors

    8.19 Fusion Reactors

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Atomic Age Begins

    9 The Chemical Bond

    Some Definitions

    9.1 Definition of the Chemical Bond

    9.2 Valence Electrons and Lewis Symbols

    9.3 Noble Gases and the Stable Octet

    9.4 Types of Chemical Bonds

    An Aside: Noble Gas Compounds

    The Metallic Bond

    9.5 Configuration and Bonding in Metals Imparted by the Metallic Bond

    9.6 Properties

    The Ionic Bond

    9.7 Configurations of Ions

    9.8 Properties Imparted by the Ionic Bond

    The Covalent Bond

    9.9 Configuration in Covalent Bonding

    9.10 Multiple Covalent Bonds

    9.11 Coordinate Covalent Bonds

    9.12 Unpaired Electrons

    9.13 Resonance

    9.14 Polyatomic Ions

    9.15 Writing Lewis Formulas for Covalent Species

    9.16 Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity

    9.17 Dipole Moment

    9.18 Properties Imparted by the Covalent Bond

    9.19 Network Covalent Substances

    Intermolecular Forces

    9.20 Dipole-dipole Forces

    9.22 London Force

    9.21 Hydrogen Bond

    Properties of Bonds

    9.23 The Continua of Bond Types

    9.24 Bond Strength and Bond Length

    9.25 Atomic and Ionic Radii

    9.26 Molecular Geometry: Valence-shell Electron-pair Repulsion Theory

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Chemical Bond Definitions

    10 Periodic Perspective: The Representative Elements

    Types of Representative Elements

    10.1 Nonmetals

    10.2 Metals

    10.3 Semiconducting Elements

    Properties of Atoms and Ions

    10.4 Atomic and Ionic Radii

    10.5 Ionization Energies

    10.6 Electron Affinities

    10.7 Electronegativity

    10.8 Electronegativity and Oxidation State

    Compound Formation

    10.9 Energy Relationships

    Group Trends

    10.10 Hydrogen

    10.11 Representative Group I (the alkali metals)

    10.12 Representative Group II (the alkaline earth metals)

    10.13 Representative Group III

    10.14 Representative Group IV

    10.15 Representative Group V

    10.16 Representative Group VI

    10.17 Representative Group VII (the halogens)

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Grim Silence of Facts

    11 Hydrogen and Oxygen

    11.1 Origin and Abundance of Hydrogen and Oxygen

    Hydrogen

    11.2 Properties of Hydrogen

    11.3 Isotopes of Hydrogen

    11.4 Reactions of Hydrogen

    11.5 Electromotive Series

    11.6 Preparation and Uses of Hydrogen

    11.7 Hydrogen as a Fuel

    11.8 Binary Compounds of Hydrogen

    Oxygen

    11.9 Properties of Oxygen

    11.10 Reactions of oxygen

    11.11 Preparation and uses of Oxygen

    11.12 Ozone

    11.13 Binary Compounds of Oxygen

    11.14 Hydrogen Peroxide

    11.15 The Oxygen and Carbon Cycles

    Thougths on Chemistry: The World's Biggest Membrane

    12 The Liquid and Solid States; Changes of State

    Relationships Between Phases

    12.1 Phases

    12.2 Kinetic-molecular Theory for Liquid and Solids

    12.3 Vaporization

    12.4 Boiling point and Melting Point

    12.5 Changes of State

    12.6 Phase Diagrams

    The Liquid State

    12.7 Structure, Density, and Volume

    12.8 Surface Tension

    An Aside: Liquid Crystals

    12.9 Viscosity

    12.10 Index of Refraction

    The Solid State

    12.11 Types of Solids

    12.12 Crystal Structure of Metals

    12.13 Crystal Systems

    12.14 Ionic Crystal Structure

    Tools of Chemistry: Diffraction: X rays, Neutrons, and Electrons

    12.15 Alloys

    12.16 Defects

    12.17 Solid-State Reaction

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Dance of the Solids

    13 water and The Hydrosphere

    The Chemistry of Water

    13.1 The Water Molecule and its Aggregates

    13.2 Water as a Solvent

    13.3 Properties of Water

    13.4 Reactions of Water

    13.5 Hydrates

    The Hydrosphere

    13.6 The Water Cycle

    13.7 Natural Water

    13.8 Nature's Water Treatment System

    Water Pollution

    13.9 Types of Pollutants

    13.10 Oxygen-Demanding Pollutants

    13.11 Toxic or Harmful Pollutants

    13.12 The Soap and Detergent Opera

    Water Purification

    13.13 Hard water

    13.15 Desalination

    13.14 Sewage Treatment

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Second-hand Molecules

    14 solutions and Colloids

    Types of Solutions

    14.1 Some Definitions

    14.2 Gas-gas Solutions

    14.3 Gas-liquid Solutions

    14.4 Gas-solid Solutions

    14.5 Solid-solid Solutions

    14.6 Liquid-liquid Solutions

    14.7 Solid-liquid Solutions

    14.8 Is Solubility a Physical or a Chemical Phenomenon?

    14.9 Solutions of Electrolytes

    14.10 Ideal vs. Nonideal

    solutions

    Concentration of Solutions

    14.11 Standard Solutions: Mole fraction

    14.12 Standard Solutions: Molality

    14.13 Preparation of Solutions

    14.14 Summary of Concentration Units

    Vapor Pressures of Liquid Solutions and Related Properties

    14.15 Liquid-liquid Solution Vapor Pressures: Raoult's Law

    Tools of Chemistry: Distillation

    14.16 Vapor pressure Lowering by Nonvolatile Solutes

    14.17 Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression

    14.18 Molecular Weight Determination

    14.19 Osmotic Pressure

    14.20 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

    Colloids

    14.21 Properties of Colloids

    14.22 Types of Colloids

    Thoughts on Chemistry: To Tell a Chemist

    15 Chemical Kinetics

    How Reactions Take Place

    15.1 Collision Theory

    15.2 Activation Energy

    15.3 Transition State Theory

    Reaction Rates and Factors that Influence them

    15.4 Reaction Rates

    15.5 Concentration

    15.6 Temperature

    15.7 Contact between Reacting Substances

    15.8 Catalysis

    Mechanisms and Rate Equations

    15.9 Rate Equations

    15.10 Reaction Order, Molecularity, and Elementary Reactions

    15.11 First-order Reactions

    15.12 Second-order Reactions

    15.13 Kinetics and Mechanism

    Thpughts on Chemistry: A classical View of Kinetics and Thermodynamics

    16 Chemical Equilibrium

    The Law of Chemical Equilibrium

    16.1 Reversibility and Equilibrium

    16.2 Units and Equilibrium Constant Values

    16.3 Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Solution Equilibria

    16.4 The Reaction Quotient

    16.5 Equilibrium Constants and Reaction Equations

    16.6 Are Equilibria Established in All Reactions?

    Factors that Influence Equilibria

    16.7 Le Chatelier's Principle

    16.8 Temperature

    16.9 Concentration

    Tools of Chemistry: Chromatography

    16.10 Pressure

    An Aside: The Haber Process for the Manufacture of Ammonia

    Equilibrium Problems

    16.11 How to Solve Equilibrium Problems

    16.12 Some Equilibrium Problem Solutions

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Professor Thomas Cooper's View of Chemistry in 1811

    17 Acids and Bases

    Ways of Defining Acids and Bases

    17.1 The Unique Properties of the Proton

    17.2 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

    17.3 Factors Affecting the Strength of Acids and Bases

    17.4 Lewis Acids and Bases

    Expressing the Strength of Acids, Bases, and their Aqueous Solutions

    17.5 Ionization Equilibrium of Water

    17.6 pH and pK

    17.7 Determination of pH: Indicators

    17.8 Strong and Weak Acids

    17.9 Strong and Weak Bases

    17.10 Relationship of Ka and Kb to Kw

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Ira Remsen Investigates Nitric Acid

    18 Ions and Ionic Equilibria

    Acid-base Equilibria

    18.1 Ions in Aqueous Solution

    18.2 Reactions of Ions with Water

    18.3 The Behavior of Salts toward Water

    18.4 Equilibrium Constants for the Reactions of Ions with Water

    18.5 pH of Salt Solutions

    18.6 Reactions of Acids with Bases

    18.7 Polyprotic Acids

    18.8 The Common Ion Effect

    18.9 Buffer Solutions

    18.10 Titrations of Acids and Bases

    18.11 Titration CurvesHeterogeneous equilibria

    18.12 Solubility Product, Ksp

    18.13 Ksp and Solubility

    18.14 Ksp and Precipitation

    18.15 Ksp and the Dissolution of Ionic Precipitates

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Scientific Method

    19 Oxidation and Reduction

    Defining Oxidation and Reduction

    19.1 What Happens in Redox Reactions?

    19.2 Relationship between Electrochemistry and Redox Reactions

    The Stoichiometry of Redox Reactions

    19.3 Half-Reactions

    19.4 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations

    Strengths of Oxidizing and Reducing Agents

    19.5 An Electrochemical Cell

    19.6 Standard Reduction Potentials

    19.7 Using Standard Reduction Potentials

    19.8 Variation of Potential with Concentration

    19.9 Redox Equilibria: Finding K from E°

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Chemical History of a Candle

    20 Nonmetals: The Halogens

    The Halogens

    20.1 Properties of the Halogens

    20.2 Reactions of the Halogens

    20.3 Sources of the Halogens

    20.4 Preparation and Uses of the Halogens

    An Aside: Industrial vs. Laboratory Preparations

    20.5 Halogens and the Water Supply

    Compounds of the Halogens

    20.6 Metal Halides

    20.7 Interhalogens

    20.8 Hydrogen Halides and their Aqueous Solutions

    20.9 Oxoacids and the Halogens and their Salts

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Salt and Civilization

    21 The Covalent Bond Reexamined

    21.1 Bond Formation

    Atomic Orbital Overlap: Valence Bond Theory

    21.2 Single Bonds in Diatomic Molecules

    21.3 π Bonds

    21.4 Single Bonds in Polyatomic Molecules; Hybridization

    21.5 Multiple Covalent Bonds

    21.6 Valence Bonds vs. Molecular Orbital Theory

    Molecular Orbital Theory

    21.7 Molecular Orbitals in H2 and "He2"

    21.8 Rules for filling Molecular Orbitals

    21.9 Bond Order

    An Aside: Electron Density Diagrams

    21.1077 Molecular Orbitals

    21.11 Molecular Orbitals for Diatomic Molecules of Second-Period Elements, Li-Ne

    21.12 Multiple Bonds; Delocalized Bonds

    21.13 Molecular Orbitals in Metals

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Centrality of Chemistry

    22 Nonmetals: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur & Inorganic Qualitative Analysis: Anions

    Nonmetals: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

    22.1 Some Properties of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur

    Nitrogen

    22.2 Additional Properties of Nitrogen

    22.3 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Nitrogen

    22.4 Oxidation State -3: Nitrides and Ammonia

    22.5 Oxidation State -2: Hydrazine

    22.6 Oxidation States +1 to +5: Oxides of Nitrogen

    22.7 Oxidation State +3: Nitrous Acid and Nitrites

    22.8 Oxidation State +5: Nitric Acid and Nitrates

    Phosphorus

    22.9 Additional Properties of Phosphorus

    22.10 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Phosphorus

    22.11 Oxidation State -3: Phosphides, Phosphine, and Phosphonium Salts

    22.12 Oxidation State +3: Trihalides, Oxide, and Phosphorous Acid

    22.13 Oxidation State +5: Halides, Oxide, and Phosphoric Acids

    An Aside: Chemical Fertilizers

    Sulfur

    22.14 Additional Properties of Sulfur

    22.15 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Sulfur

    22.16 Oxidation State -2: Sulfides

    22.17 Oxidation State +4: Sulfur Dioxide and Related Compounds

    22.18 Oxidation State +6: Sulfuric Acid and Related Compounds

    The Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur Cycles

    Inorganic Qualitative Analysis Anions

    22.19 An Overview of Inorganic Qualitative Analysis

    22.20 Anion Analysis

    22.21 Properties of the Anions

    22.22 The Preliminary Tests

    22.23 The Specific Tests

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Frasch Describes his First Success

    23 Nonmetals Carbon and Hydrocarbons

    Carbon and its Inorganic Compounds

    23.1 Properties of Carbon

    23.2 Diamond, Graphite, and Other Forms of Carbon; their Uses

    23.3 Inorganic Compounds of Carbon

    Hydrocarbons

    23.4 Saturated Hydrocarbons

    23.5 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Tools of Chemistry: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    23.6 Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    23.7 Isomerism

    23.8 Properties and Reactions of Hydrocarbons

    23.9 Sources and Uses of Carbon and Hydrocarbons

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Chemical History of a Candle

    24 Electrochemistry

    Fundamentals of Electrochemistry

    24.1 Anodes, Cathodes, and Cells

    24.2 Electrode Reactions

    24.3 Simple Voltaic Cells; Standard Cell Voltage

    24.4 Chemical and Electrical Equivalence

    Tools of Chemistry: pH Meter

    Practical Electrochemistry

    24.5 Voltaic Dry Cells

    24.6 Storage Cells

    24.7 Fuel Cells

    24.8 Electrolysis

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Volta Describes his Discoveries

    25 Chemical Thermodynamics

    Entropy, S

    25.1 Entropy: A Quantitative Measurement of Randomness

    25.2 Absolute Entropy of a Substance

    25.3 Entropy as a Driving Force

    Free Energy, G

    25.4 Free Energy as the Criterion for Spontaneity

    25.5 Conditions Other than Standard State

    25.6 Relationship of K to ΔG°

    25.7 ΔG° and E° 777

    Temperature Dependence of Thermodynamic Properties

    25.8 ΔH° ΔG°, and K

    25.9 Phase Equilibria

    25.10 Reaction Rates

    Application of Chemical Thermodynamics

    25.11 A Biochemical Example

    Thoughts on Chemistry: From the Preface to a Classic Book on Thermodynamics

    26 The Representative Metals

    Representative Groups I and II: The Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals

    26.1 Properties of Group I and II Metals

    26.2 Sources of Group I and II Elements

    26.3 Preparation and uses of Group I and Group II Metals

    26.4 Reactions of Group I and Group II Metals

    26.5 Cations of Group I and Group II Metals

    26.6 Compounds of Group I and Group II Metals

    The production of Metals

    26.7 Metallurgy

    The Zinc Family: Zn, Cd, Hg

    26.8 Properties of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

    26.9 Sources, Metallurgy, and Uses of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

    26.10 Reactions of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

    26.11 Compounds of Zinc, Cadmium, and Mercury

    Representative Group III Metals: Al, Ga, In, Tl

    26.12 Properties of Group III Metals

    26.13 Sources, Preparation, and Uses of Group III Metals

    26.14 Reactions of Aluminum

    26.15 Compounds of Aluminum

    Representative Group IV and V metals: Sn, Pb, Bi

    26.16 Properties of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

    26.17 Sources of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

    26.18 Metallurgy and Uses of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

    26.19 Reactions of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

    An Aside: Metals as Poisons

    26.20 Compounds of Tin, Lead, and Bismuth

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Of Things Metallic—1556 A.D.

    27 Semiconducting Elements

    The Seven Semiconducting Elements

    27.1 General Properties

    27.2 Boron

    27.3 Silicon and Germanium

    27.4 Arsenic and Antimony

    27.5 Selenium and Tellurium

    Semiconductivity

    27.6 Bonding and Semiconductivity

    27.7 Purification of Silicon and Germanium

    27.8 Semiconductor Devices

    Compounds of the Semiconducting Elements

    27.9 Compounds of Boron

    27.10 Compounds of Silicon and Germanium

    27.11 Compounds of Arsenic and Antimony

    27.12 Compounds of Selenium and Tellurium

    Silicon-Oxygen Compounds

    27.13 Natural Silica

    27.14 Natural Silicates

    27.15 Man-made Silicate Materials

    27.16 Silicones

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Buck Rogers: An Autobiography

    28 The Chemistry of Complexes

    Structure, Nomenclature, and Properties of Complexes

    28.1 Some Definitions

    28.2 Nomenclature

    28.3 Chelation

    28.4 Molecular Geometry and Isomerism

    28.5 Formation and Properties of ComplexesBonding in complexes

    28.6 Valence Bond Theory

    28.7 Crystal Field Theory

    28.8 Molecular Orbital Theory

    28.9 Dissociation Constants, Kd

    28.10 Using Κd

    Complexes in Nature and in Practical Applications

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Some Coordination Compounds in Biochemistry

    29 Transition Elements

    Periodic Perspective: d Transition Elements

    29.1 Members and Configurations

    29.2 Characteristic Transition Metal Properties

    29.3 Atomic and Ionic Radii

    29.4 Ionization Energies and Standard Reduction Potentials

    29.5 Oxidation States and Compound Formation

    29.6 3d Series Elements

    29.7 4d and 5d Transition Series Elements

    Chromium

    29.8 Sources, Metallurgy, and Uses of Chromium

    29.9 Compounds of Chromium

    29.10 Oxidation and Reduction of Chromium

    Manganese

    29.11 Sources, Metallurgy, and Uses of Manganese

    29.12 Compounds of Manganese

    29.13 Oxidation and Reduction of Manganese

    Iron

    29.14 Sources and Use of Iron

    29.15 Corrosion of Iron

    29.16 Iron Making: The Blast Furnace

    29.17 Steel Making

    29.18 Heat Treatment of Steel

    29.19 Compounds of Iron

    Cobalt

    29.20 Sources and Uses of Cobalt

    29.21 Compounds of Cobalt

    Nickel

    29.22 Sources and Uses of Nickel

    29.23 Compounds of Nickel

    Copper, Silver, and Gold

    29.24 Properties and Uses of Copper, Silver, and Gold

    29.25 Sources and Metallurgy of Copper, Silver, and Gold

    29.26 Compounds of Copper

    29.27 Compounds of Silver

    29.28 Compounds of Gold

    An Aside: The Photographic Process

    Periodic Perspective: f Transition Elements

    29.29 Members and Electronic Configurations

    29.30 Properties of f Transition Elements

    An Aside: Superheavy Elements

    29.31 The Lanthanides and Their Compounds

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Energy: The Key to Natural Resource Abundance

    30 Qualitative Analysis for Cations I. Chemical Principles Reviewed

    Cations in Aqueous Solution

    30.1 Cations for Analysis

    30.2 Net Ionic Equations

    30.3 Chemical Equilibrium—The Basis for Qualitative Analysis

    Acid-Base Equilibria

    30.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases

    30.5 Effect of an Added Common Ion

    30.6 Buffer Solutions

    30.7 Amphoterism

    Redox Equilibria

    Complexation Equilibria

    Heterogeneous Equilibria

    30.8 The Solubility Product Constant

    30.9 Concentrations of Ions Necessary for Precipitation

    30.10 Controlled Precipitation

    30.11 Dissolution of Solids

    Thoughts of Chemistry: Le Chatelier's Principle

    31 Qualitative Analysis for Cations II. The Cations and The Scheme

    Flow Charts and the Group Separations

    Cation Group I (Hg22+, Pb2+, Ag+)

    31.1 Mercury(I) Ion

    31.2 Lead(II) Ion

    31.3 Silver(I) Ion

    31.4 Cation Group I Analysis

    Cation Group II (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Sn2+ or Sn4+, Sb3+ or SbO+)

    31.5 Mercury(II) Ion

    31.6 Lead(II) Ion

    31.7 Copper(II) Ion

    31.8 Tin(II) Ion and Tin(IV) Ions

    31.9 Antimony(III) Ion

    31.10 Cation Group II Analysis

    Cation Group III (Zn2+, Mn2+, Fe2+ or Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Al3+, Cr3+)

    31.11 Zinc(II) Ion

    31.12 Aluminum(III) Ion

    31.13 Chromium(III) Ion

    31.14 Manganese(II) Ion

    31.15 Iron(II) Ion and Iron(III) Ions

    31.16 Cobalt(II) Ion

    31.17 Nickel(II) Ion

    31.18 Cation Group III Analysis

    Cation Group IV (Ca2+, Ba2+)

    31.19 Calcium(II) and Barium(II) Ions

    31.20 Cation Group IV Analysis

    Cation Group V (Mg2+, Na+, K+ NH4+)

    31.21 Magnesium(II) Ion

    31.22 Sodium and Potassium Ions

    31.23 Ammonium Ion

    31.24 Cation Group V Analysis

    Thoughts on Chemistry: The Epigrams of Remigius Fresenius

    32 Organic Chemistry: Functional Groups and the Molecules of Biochemistry

    Functional Groups with Covalent Single Bonds

    32.1 Functional Groups

    32.2 Halogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons

    32.3 Alcohols

    32.4 Phenols

    32.5 Ethers

    32.6 Amines

    Functional Groups with Covalent Double Bonds

    32.7 Aldehydes and Ketones

    Tools of Chemistry: Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    32.8 Carboxylic Acids

    32.9 Esters

    32.10 Acyl Halides and Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides

    32.11 Amides

    The Molecules of Biochemistry

    32.12 Proteins

    32.13 Carbohydrates

    32.14 Lipids

    32.15 Nucleotides and nucleic Acids

    Thoughts on Chemistry: Kekule Describes the Origins of his Theories

    Appendix A Chemical Arithmetic

    A.1 Significant Figures

    A.2 Scientific, or Exponential, Notation

    A.3 Logarithms

    Appendix B Units and Constants

    Appendix C Tables of Data

    Appendix D Inorganic Nomenclature

    D.1 Symbols for the Elements

    D.2 Isotopes

    D.3 Binary Acids

    D.4 Simple Cations

    D.5 Simple Anions

    D.6 Binary Ionic Compounds

    D.7 Binary Covalent Compounds

    D.8 Oxoacids

    D.9 Oxoanions and Salts of Oxoacids

    D.10 Special Cases

    D.ll Complexes and Coordination Compounds

    Answers to Selected Exercises

    Glossary

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1156
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1980
  • Published: January 1, 1980
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323141758

About the Author

Therald Moeller

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