Chemistry of The Environment - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780120730506, 9780323145190

Chemistry of The Environment

1st Edition

Authors: R.A. Bailey
eBook ISBN: 9780323145190
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1979
Page Count: 584
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Chemistry of the Environment provides a basic level of chemical knowledge on the principles of environmental chemistry and a general understanding of environmental problems. Organized into 17 chapters, this book is developed from the notes for a course in “Chemistry of the Environment” for juniors, seniors, and graduate students in Science and Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The opening chapters of this book discuss the problems related to waste disposal and energy production and the principles of atmospheric circulation and photochemical reactions, with an emphasis on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and climate. Considerable chapters are devoted to various industries, including petroleum chlorinated hydrocarbons, pesticides, heavy metals, and nuclear chemistry, and the contributions of these industries to environmental problems. General topics on both natural and technological processes that impinge on the environment are explored. Other chapters discuss the principles of atmospheric photochemistry and the natural and artificial photochemical processes occurring in the biosphere. This book also examines the chemistry of some of the most important elements and how they relate to the properties of the environment and to biological effects. The concluding chapter provides insights into the nature, as well as the sources and the hazards of ionizing radiation in the environment, with particular emphasis on naturally occurring and artificial nuclear sources of ionizing radiation. This book is of great benefit to environmental chemists and researchers, biochemists, and elementary organic chemists.

Table of Contents


1. Introduction

1.1 General

1.2 Waste Disposal

1.3 Problems Associated with Energy Production

1.4 The Scope of Chemistry of the Environment

2. Energy

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Thermodynamic Considerations

2.3 Fossil Fuels

2.4 Nuclear Energy

2.5 Solar Energy

2.6 Geothermal Energy

2.7 Wind and Water Energy Sources

2.8 Energy Storage

2.9 Generation of Electricity from Fuels

2.10 The Energy Future


3. Atmospheric Composition and Behavior

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Gaseous Constituents of the Atmosphere

3.3 History of the Atmosphere

3.4 Particulate Constituents of the Atmosphere

3.5 Extent of the Atmosphere and Its Temperature and Pressure Profile

3.6 General Circulation of the Atmosphere


4. Energy and Climate

4.1 Energy Balance of the Earth

4.2 Climate History of the Earth

4.3 Causes of Global Climate Changes

4.4 Small-Scale Climate

4.5 Temperature Inversions


5. Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Coal

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The Nature of Petroleum

5.3 Use of Petroleum in the Internal Combustion Engine

5.4 Chemical Modification of Petroleum Distillates

5.5 Environmental Reactions of Petroleum and Some Petroleum Derivatives

5.6 Sources of Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons in the Sea

5.7 Marine Effects of Crude Oil

5.8 Sources of Hydrocarbons and Other Compounds in the Atmosphere

5.9 Coal


6. Soaps and Detergents

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Properties of Soaps and Detergents

6.3 Synthesis of Soaps

6.4 Synthesis of Detergents

6.5 The Metabolism of Hydrocarbons, Soaps, and Detergents

6.6 Environmental Effects of Biodegradable Organic Compounds


7. Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Other Chloroorganic Compounds

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Chemistry of Chlorinated Organic Compounds

7.3 Polychlorinated Biphenyls

7.4 DDT

7.5 Lindane

7.6 Polychlorinated Cyclopentadiene Derivatives

7.7 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4,5-T)

7.8 Long-Term Effects of Organochlorine Compounds

7.9 Global Distribution of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

7.10 Organophosphorus Insecticides

7.11 Other Pesticides in Common Use


8. Third Generation Insect Control

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Pheromones and Attractants

8.3 Juvenile and Molting Hormones

8.4 Antijuvenile Hormones from Plants

8.5 Insect Predators—Viruses and Bacteria

8.6 Insect Sterilization

8.7 Integrated Pest Control


9. Principles of Photochemistry

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Principles of Photochemistry and the Absorption of Light

9.3 Kinetics of Thermal Processes

9.4 Kinetics of Photochemical Processes

9.5 Designation of Spectroscopic States

9.6 Photophysical Effects of Light Absorption


10. Atmospheric Photochemistry

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Reactions in the Upper Atmosphere

10.3 Photochemistry in the Lower Atmosphere—Photochemical Smog


11. Photochemistry in the Biosphere

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Artificial Photochemical Storage of Solar Energy

11.3 Photosynthesis, Biological Utilization of Solar Energy


12. Polymers and Plastics

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Formulation of Synthetic Polymers

12.3 Polymer Synthesis

12.4 Environmental Degradation of Synthetic Polymers

12.5 Design of Environmentally Degradable Polymers


13. Chemistry in Aqueous Media

13.1 Water in the Environment

13.2 Interactions in Water

13.3 Acid-Base Properties

13.4 Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Equilibrium

13.5 Oxidation-Reduction Processes

13.6 Coordination Chemistry


14. The Environmental Chemistry on Some Important Elements

14.1 Introduction

14.2 The Carbon Cycle, CO2, and Carbonates

14.3 Sulfur and the Sulfur Cycle

14.4 Nitrogen

14.5 Phosphorus, Fertilizers, and Eutrophication

14.6 Biologically Important Metals and Trace Elements


15. Natural Water Systems

15.1 Composition of Water Bodies

15.2 Model Ocean Systems

15.3 Residence Times

15.4 Water Treatment


16. The Earth's Crust

16.1 Rocks and Minerals

16.2 Recovery of Metals from Their Ores

16.3 Soils

16.4 Nonmetallic Mineral Products


17. Nuclear Chemistry of the Environment

17.1 Introduction

17.2 The Kinetics of Radioactivity

17.3 Modes of Radioactive Decay

17.4 Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter

17.5 Dosimetry of Ionizing Radiation

17.6 Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Human Body

17.7 The Natural Background of Ionizing Radiation

17.8 Man-Made Sources of Ionizing Radiation in the Environment

17.9 Population Exposure to Ionizing Radiation




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© Academic Press 1978
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Author

R.A. Bailey