Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9781483231501, 9781483272795

Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes

3rd Edition

Authors: James B. Sumner G. Fred Somers
eBook ISBN: 9781483272795
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1953
Page Count: 478
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Description

Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes, Third Edition focuses on the processes, methodologies, and reactions in enzyme chemistry, as well as kinetics, nucleases, esterases, and carbohydrates.

The publication first underscores the general properties of enzymes, including chemical nature, occurrence, numerical characterization of enzyme concentration, kinetics of enzyme reactions, preparation of commercial enzymes, purification and preservation of enzymes, relations of vitamins to enzymes, and zymogens and kinases. The text then takes a look at esterases and carbohydrates. Topics include pectin depolymerase, heparinase, xylanase, chitinase, dextranase, trehalase, nucleotide phosphatases, glucosulfatase, and gastric lipase.

The manuscript examines nucleases, nuclein deaminases, amidases, proteolytic enzymes, and hydrases. Discussions focus on enolase, aconitase, peptidases as metalloproteins, glutaminases, aspartase, urease, adenosine deaminase, and nucleoside phosphorylase. The book also elaborates on iron and copper enzymes, dehydrogenases containing coenzymes I and II, and yellow enzymes.

The text is a dependable source of data for chemists and researchers wanting to dig deeper into the chemistry and methods of enzymes.

Table of Contents


Earlier History

History Since 1931

Literature of Enzymes

Part One

Chapter I. General Properties of Enzymes

The Role Played by Enzymes

Catalysis

Chemical Nature of Enzymes

Terminology and Classification of Enzymes

Occurrence of Enzymes

Synthesis of Enzymes by Living Cells

Intracellular and Extracellular Enzymes

Colloidal Nature and Molecular Weight

Solubility

Enzymes as Electrolytes

Isoelectric Points of Enzymes

Essential Radicals

Tests for Enzymes

Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions

Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Numerical Characterization of Enzyme Concentration

Estimation of Enzyme Activity

Estimation of Enzyme Purity

Specific Action of Enzymes

Enzyme Reversibility and Synthesis by Enzymes

Zymogens and Kinases

Other Activators

Protectors

Inactivation and Inhibition of Enzymes

Adaptive vs. Constitutive Enzymes

Coenzymes

Relation of Vitamins to Enzymes

Preparation of Enzymes

Commercial Enzyme Preparations

Preservation of Enzymes

Purification of Enzymes

Electrophoresis of Enzymes

Employment of the Ultracentrifuge

Tests of Purity of an Enzyme

Crystalline Enzymes

References

Part Two

Chapter II. Esterases

Simple Esterases (Liver and Muscle Esterases)

Cholinesterases

Acetyl Esterase

Cholesterol Esterase

Chlorophyllase

Phospholipases, Lecithinases

Phospholipase A, Lecithinase A

Phospholipase B, Lecithinase B

Phospholipase C, Glycerophosphatase

Phospholipase D, Choline Phosphatase

Gastric Lipase

Pancreatic Lipase

Plant Lipases, Castor Bean Lipase

Pectin Esterase, Pectase

Sulfatases

Phenol Sulfatase

Glucosulfatase

Chondrosulfatase

Myrosulfatase

Tannase

Phosphatases

Phosphomonoesterase I, Alkaline Phosphatase

Phosphomonoesterase II

Phosphomonoesterase III

Pyrophomonoesterase IV; Phosphodiesterases

Pyrophosphatases

Phosphosphatase I

Pyrophosphatase II

Pyrophosphatase III

Metaphosphatase

Phosphoacylase

Phosphoamidases

Phytase

Nucleotide Phosphatases

Adenosinetriphosphatase, ATPase

Ophio-Adenosinetriphosphatase

Apyrase

References

Chapter III. Carbohydrases

α-Glucosidase, Maltase

β-Glucosidase

β-Galactosidase, Lactase

α-Galactosidase

Trehalase

β-Glucuronidase (β-Glycuronidase)

β-h-Fructosidase, Saccharase

Saccharase (Animal)

Dextranase

Amylases, Diastases

Arabanase

Amylo-1,6-Glucosidase

Cellulase

Lichenase

Chitinase

Glycogenase

Hyaluronidase (Spreading Factor), Mucinase

Inulase

Lysozyme

Heparinase

Thioglucosidase

Xylanase

Pectic Enzymes

Protopectinase

Polygalacturonase, Pectinase

Pectin Depolymerase

References

Chapter IV. Nucleases

Depolymerizing Enzymes

Ribonuclease

Desoxyribonuclease

Nucleotidases

Nucleoside Phosphorylases, Nucleosidases

References

Chapter V. Nuclein Deaminases

Adenase and Guanase

Adenosine Deaminase

Adenylic Acid Deaminase

Guanosine Deaminase

Guanylic Acid Deaminase

Cytidine Deaminase

References

Chapter VI. Amidases

Allantoinase and Allantoicase

Arginase

Canavanase

Asparaginases

Glutaminases

Aspartase

Hippuricase, Histozyme

Histidase

Phosphaminase

Urease

Benzamidase

Creatinase

References

Chapter VII. Proteolytic Enzymes

Classification of Proteolytic Enzymes

Pepsin

Pepsinogen

Rennin, Rennet, Chymosin

Trypsin and Trypsinogen

Enterokinase

Chymotrypsinogens and Chymotrypsins

Plasma Trypsin

Collagenase

Keratinase

Elastase

Cathepsin

Papain

Chymopapain

Ficin

Bromelin and Asclepain

Solanain

Peptidases

Peptidases as Metalloproteins

Carboxypeptidase

Conjugase (y-Glutamic Acid Carboxypeptidase)

Aminopolypeptidase

Amino Tripeptidase

Prolinase

Prolidase

Glycylglycine Dipeptidase

Glycyl-L-leucine Dipeptidase

Carnosinase

Leucyl peptidase

D-Peptidases

Dehydropeptidases

References

Chapter VIII. Hydrases

Glyoxalase, Aldoketomutase

Fumarase

Enolase

Aconitase

Carbonic Anhydrase

References

Part Three

Chapter IX. General Principles

Wieland's Theory of Dehydrogenation

Classification of Oxidizing Enzymes

References

Chapter X. The Iron Enzymes

Catalase

Peroxidases

Plant Peroxidase

Salivary Peroxidase

Lactoperoxidase

Tryptophane Peroxidase

Myeloperoxidase

The Cytochromes

Cytochrome c

Cytochromes a and b

Cytochrome c Oxidase, Cytochrome a3

Cytochrome c Peroxidase

References

Chapter XI. The Copper Enzymes

Tyrosinase (Monophenol Oxidase, Polyphenol Oxidase, Catecholase)

Protyrosinase

Ascorbase, Ascorbic Acid Oxidase

Orthophenolase, or Sweet Potato Phenolase

Dopa Oxidase

Laccase, Polyphenol Oxidase

References

Chapter XII. Dehydrogenases Containing Coenzymes I and II

Coenzyme I, Diphosphopyridine Nucleotide

Coenzyme II, Triphosphopyridine Nucleotide

Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Plant)

Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Animal)

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

β-Hydroxybutyric Dehydrogenase

Glucose Dehydrogenase (Animal)

Malic Dehydrogenase

Lactic Dehydrogenase (Animal)

Robinson Ester Dehydrogenase

Citric Dehydrogenase

Isocitric Dehydrogenases

α-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase No. 1

Glutamic Dehydrogenase (Yeast)

Glutamic Dehydrogenase (Animal)

Phosphogluconic Dehydrogenase

D-Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (Triosephosphate Dehydrogenase)

Retinene Reductase

Formic Dehydrogenases

References

Chapter XIII. The Yellow Enzymes

Riboflavin

Riboflavin Mononucleotide (Riboflavin Phosphate)

Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

The Old Yellow Enzyme

Diaphorase, Coenzyme Factor

Synthetic Yellow Enzyme

Haas Enzyme

Xanthine Oxidase, Schardinger Enzyme, Aldehydrase

D-Amino Acid Oxidase

L-Amino Acid Oxidase

Ophio-L-Amino Acid Oxidase

Glucose Oxidase of Molds, Notatin

Fumaric Hydrogenase

TPN-Cytochrome c Reductase

DPN-Cytochrome c Reductase

Glycine Oxidase

Glutathione Reductase

References

Chapter XIV. Miscellaneous Oxidizing Enzymes

Enzymes Which Reduce Cytochrome c

Succinic Dehydrogenase

Lactic Dehydrogenase (Yeast) α-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase No. 2

Enzymes Not Closely Linked to the Cytochromes

Monamine Oxidase, Tyramine Oxidase

Diamine Oxidase, Histaminase

Uricase

Luciferase

Lipoxidase

Fatty Acid Dehydrogenase

Butyric Oxidase

α-Hydroxyacid Oxidases

Saturase

Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase

Choline Oxidase

Cysteine Oxidases

Miscellaneous Dehydrogenases

References

Part Four

Chapter XV. Transferases

Transglycosidases, Transglycosylases

Amylophosphorylases

Q- Enzyme, Amylo-Isomerase

Levansucrase

Dextransucrase

Amylosucrase

Amylomaltase

Dextran Dextrinase

Sucrose Phosphorylase

Inosine Phosphorylase

Transphosphorylases

Phosphate Bonds

Adenine Mononucleotides

Phosphocarboxyl Transphosphorylases

Phospho-Enol Transphosphorylase

Phosphoguanidine Transphorylases

Myokinase

Hexokinases

Other Transphosphorylases

Phosphomutases

Phosphoglucomutase

Phosphoglyceric Mutase

Transaminases

Transmethylases

Choline- Homocysteine Transmethylase

Methionine-Guanidoacetic Transmethylase

Methionine-Nicotinamide Transmethylase

Methionine-Ethanolamine Transmethylase

Transacetylases

Coenzyme A

Choline Acetylase

Citrogenase

Phosphotransacetylase

References

Part Five

Chapter XVI. Desmolases

Aldolase, Zymohexase

Carboligases

Tryptophanase

Tryptophane-Synthesizing Enzyme

Amino Acid Decarboxylases

α-Ketocarboxylases

Pyruvic Carboxylase

Cocarboxylase

α-Ketoglutaric Carboxylase

β-Ketocarboxylases

Oxalacetic Carboxylase

Oxidative Decarboxylases

Pyruvic Oxidases and Dehydrogenases

α-Ketoglutaric Dehydrogenase

Pyruvic-Malic Carboxylase (Malic Enzyme)

α-Ketoglutaric-Isocitric Carboxylase

6-Phosphogluconic Carboxylase

References

Part Six

Chapter XVII. Miscellaneous Unclassified Enzymes

Rhodanese

Thiaminase

Penicillinase

Phospho-Isomerases

Phosphohexose Isomerase

Phosphotriose Isomerase

Phosphopentose Isomerase

Other Isomerases

Cysteine Desulfhydrase

Homocysteine Desulfhydrase

Exocystine Desulfhydrase

Desulfinicase

Lactic Acid Racemase

References

Chapter XVIII. The Role of Enzymes in Carbohydrates Metabolism and Related Biological Processes

Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation

Aerobic Oxidation of Carbohydrates

Hydrogen Transport

Aerobic Carbon Dioxide Production

Oxidation and Phosphorylation

General References

References

Author Index

Subject Index

Details

No. of pages:
478
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1953
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483272795

About the Author

James B. Sumner

G. Fred Somers