Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes

Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes

3rd Edition - January 1, 1953

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  • Authors: James B. Sumner, G. Fred Somers
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272795

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Description

Chemistry and Methods of Enzymes, Third Edition focuses on the processes, methodologies, and reactions in enzyme chemistry, as well as kinetics, nucleases, esterases, and carbohydrates. The publication first underscores the general properties of enzymes, including chemical nature, occurrence, numerical characterization of enzyme concentration, kinetics of enzyme reactions, preparation of commercial enzymes, purification and preservation of enzymes, relations of vitamins to enzymes, and zymogens and kinases. The text then takes a look at esterases and carbohydrates. Topics include pectin depolymerase, heparinase, xylanase, chitinase, dextranase, trehalase, nucleotide phosphatases, glucosulfatase, and gastric lipase. The manuscript examines nucleases, nuclein deaminases, amidases, proteolytic enzymes, and hydrases. Discussions focus on enolase, aconitase, peptidases as metalloproteins, glutaminases, aspartase, urease, adenosine deaminase, and nucleoside phosphorylase. The book also elaborates on iron and copper enzymes, dehydrogenases containing coenzymes I and II, and yellow enzymes. The text is a dependable source of data for chemists and researchers wanting to dig deeper into the chemistry and methods of enzymes.

Table of Contents


  • Earlier History

    History Since 1931

    Literature of Enzymes

    Part One

    Chapter I. General Properties of Enzymes

    The Role Played by Enzymes

    Catalysis

    Chemical Nature of Enzymes

    Terminology and Classification of Enzymes

    Occurrence of Enzymes

    Synthesis of Enzymes by Living Cells

    Intracellular and Extracellular Enzymes

    Colloidal Nature and Molecular Weight

    Solubility

    Enzymes as Electrolytes

    Isoelectric Points of Enzymes

    Essential Radicals

    Tests for Enzymes

    Kinetics of Enzyme Reactions

    Mechanism of Enzyme Action

    Numerical Characterization of Enzyme Concentration

    Estimation of Enzyme Activity

    Estimation of Enzyme Purity

    Specific Action of Enzymes

    Enzyme Reversibility and Synthesis by Enzymes

    Zymogens and Kinases

    Other Activators

    Protectors

    Inactivation and Inhibition of Enzymes

    Adaptive vs. Constitutive Enzymes

    Coenzymes

    Relation of Vitamins to Enzymes

    Preparation of Enzymes

    Commercial Enzyme Preparations

    Preservation of Enzymes

    Purification of Enzymes

    Electrophoresis of Enzymes

    Employment of the Ultracentrifuge

    Tests of Purity of an Enzyme

    Crystalline Enzymes

    References

    Part Two

    Chapter II. Esterases

    Simple Esterases (Liver and Muscle Esterases)

    Cholinesterases

    Acetyl Esterase

    Cholesterol Esterase

    Chlorophyllase

    Phospholipases, Lecithinases

    Phospholipase A, Lecithinase A

    Phospholipase B, Lecithinase B

    Phospholipase C, Glycerophosphatase

    Phospholipase D, Choline Phosphatase

    Gastric Lipase

    Pancreatic Lipase

    Plant Lipases, Castor Bean Lipase

    Pectin Esterase, Pectase

    Sulfatases

    Phenol Sulfatase

    Glucosulfatase

    Chondrosulfatase

    Myrosulfatase

    Tannase

    Phosphatases

    Phosphomonoesterase I, Alkaline Phosphatase

    Phosphomonoesterase II

    Phosphomonoesterase III

    Pyrophomonoesterase IV; Phosphodiesterases

    Pyrophosphatases

    Phosphosphatase I

    Pyrophosphatase II

    Pyrophosphatase III

    Metaphosphatase

    Phosphoacylase

    Phosphoamidases

    Phytase

    Nucleotide Phosphatases

    Adenosinetriphosphatase, ATPase

    Ophio-Adenosinetriphosphatase

    Apyrase

    References

    Chapter III. Carbohydrases

    α-Glucosidase, Maltase

    β-Glucosidase

    β-Galactosidase, Lactase

    α-Galactosidase

    Trehalase

    β-Glucuronidase (β-Glycuronidase)

    β-h-Fructosidase, Saccharase

    Saccharase (Animal)

    Dextranase

    Amylases, Diastases

    Arabanase

    Amylo-1,6-Glucosidase

    Cellulase

    Lichenase

    Chitinase

    Glycogenase

    Hyaluronidase (Spreading Factor), Mucinase

    Inulase

    Lysozyme

    Heparinase

    Thioglucosidase

    Xylanase

    Pectic Enzymes

    Protopectinase

    Polygalacturonase, Pectinase

    Pectin Depolymerase

    References

    Chapter IV. Nucleases

    Depolymerizing Enzymes

    Ribonuclease

    Desoxyribonuclease

    Nucleotidases

    Nucleoside Phosphorylases, Nucleosidases

    References

    Chapter V. Nuclein Deaminases

    Adenase and Guanase

    Adenosine Deaminase

    Adenylic Acid Deaminase

    Guanosine Deaminase

    Guanylic Acid Deaminase

    Cytidine Deaminase

    References

    Chapter VI. Amidases

    Allantoinase and Allantoicase

    Arginase

    Canavanase

    Asparaginases

    Glutaminases

    Aspartase

    Hippuricase, Histozyme

    Histidase

    Phosphaminase

    Urease

    Benzamidase

    Creatinase

    References

    Chapter VII. Proteolytic Enzymes

    Classification of Proteolytic Enzymes

    Pepsin

    Pepsinogen

    Rennin, Rennet, Chymosin

    Trypsin and Trypsinogen

    Enterokinase

    Chymotrypsinogens and Chymotrypsins

    Plasma Trypsin

    Collagenase

    Keratinase

    Elastase

    Cathepsin

    Papain

    Chymopapain

    Ficin

    Bromelin and Asclepain

    Solanain

    Peptidases

    Peptidases as Metalloproteins

    Carboxypeptidase

    Conjugase (y-Glutamic Acid Carboxypeptidase)

    Aminopolypeptidase

    Amino Tripeptidase

    Prolinase

    Prolidase

    Glycylglycine Dipeptidase

    Glycyl-L-leucine Dipeptidase

    Carnosinase

    Leucyl peptidase

    D-Peptidases

    Dehydropeptidases

    References

    Chapter VIII. Hydrases

    Glyoxalase, Aldoketomutase

    Fumarase

    Enolase

    Aconitase

    Carbonic Anhydrase

    References

    Part Three

    Chapter IX. General Principles

    Wieland's Theory of Dehydrogenation

    Classification of Oxidizing Enzymes

    References

    Chapter X. The Iron Enzymes

    Catalase

    Peroxidases

    Plant Peroxidase

    Salivary Peroxidase

    Lactoperoxidase

    Tryptophane Peroxidase

    Myeloperoxidase

    The Cytochromes

    Cytochrome c

    Cytochromes a and b

    Cytochrome c Oxidase, Cytochrome a3

    Cytochrome c Peroxidase

    References

    Chapter XI. The Copper Enzymes

    Tyrosinase (Monophenol Oxidase, Polyphenol Oxidase, Catecholase)

    Protyrosinase

    Ascorbase, Ascorbic Acid Oxidase

    Orthophenolase, or Sweet Potato Phenolase

    Dopa Oxidase

    Laccase, Polyphenol Oxidase

    References

    Chapter XII. Dehydrogenases Containing Coenzymes I and II

    Coenzyme I, Diphosphopyridine Nucleotide

    Coenzyme II, Triphosphopyridine Nucleotide

    Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Plant)

    Alcohol Dehydrogenase (Animal)

    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    β-Hydroxybutyric Dehydrogenase

    Glucose Dehydrogenase (Animal)

    Malic Dehydrogenase

    Lactic Dehydrogenase (Animal)

    Robinson Ester Dehydrogenase

    Citric Dehydrogenase

    Isocitric Dehydrogenases

    α-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase No. 1

    Glutamic Dehydrogenase (Yeast)

    Glutamic Dehydrogenase (Animal)

    Phosphogluconic Dehydrogenase

    D-Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (Triosephosphate Dehydrogenase)

    Retinene Reductase

    Formic Dehydrogenases

    References

    Chapter XIII. The Yellow Enzymes

    Riboflavin

    Riboflavin Mononucleotide (Riboflavin Phosphate)

    Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide

    The Old Yellow Enzyme

    Diaphorase, Coenzyme Factor

    Synthetic Yellow Enzyme

    Haas Enzyme

    Xanthine Oxidase, Schardinger Enzyme, Aldehydrase

    D-Amino Acid Oxidase

    L-Amino Acid Oxidase

    Ophio-L-Amino Acid Oxidase

    Glucose Oxidase of Molds, Notatin

    Fumaric Hydrogenase

    TPN-Cytochrome c Reductase

    DPN-Cytochrome c Reductase

    Glycine Oxidase

    Glutathione Reductase

    References

    Chapter XIV. Miscellaneous Oxidizing Enzymes

    Enzymes Which Reduce Cytochrome c

    Succinic Dehydrogenase

    Lactic Dehydrogenase (Yeast) α-Glycerophosphate Dehydrogenase No. 2

    Enzymes Not Closely Linked to the Cytochromes

    Monamine Oxidase, Tyramine Oxidase

    Diamine Oxidase, Histaminase

    Uricase

    Luciferase

    Lipoxidase

    Fatty Acid Dehydrogenase

    Butyric Oxidase

    α-Hydroxyacid Oxidases

    Saturase

    Indoleacetic Acid Oxidase

    Choline Oxidase

    Cysteine Oxidases

    Miscellaneous Dehydrogenases

    References

    Part Four

    Chapter XV. Transferases

    Transglycosidases, Transglycosylases

    Amylophosphorylases

    Q- Enzyme, Amylo-Isomerase

    Levansucrase

    Dextransucrase

    Amylosucrase

    Amylomaltase

    Dextran Dextrinase

    Sucrose Phosphorylase

    Inosine Phosphorylase

    Transphosphorylases

    Phosphate Bonds

    Adenine Mononucleotides

    Phosphocarboxyl Transphosphorylases

    Phospho-Enol Transphosphorylase

    Phosphoguanidine Transphorylases

    Myokinase

    Hexokinases

    Other Transphosphorylases

    Phosphomutases

    Phosphoglucomutase

    Phosphoglyceric Mutase

    Transaminases

    Transmethylases

    Choline- Homocysteine Transmethylase

    Methionine-Guanidoacetic Transmethylase

    Methionine-Nicotinamide Transmethylase

    Methionine-Ethanolamine Transmethylase

    Transacetylases

    Coenzyme A

    Choline Acetylase

    Citrogenase

    Phosphotransacetylase

    References

    Part Five

    Chapter XVI. Desmolases

    Aldolase, Zymohexase

    Carboligases

    Tryptophanase

    Tryptophane-Synthesizing Enzyme

    Amino Acid Decarboxylases

    α-Ketocarboxylases

    Pyruvic Carboxylase

    Cocarboxylase

    α-Ketoglutaric Carboxylase

    β-Ketocarboxylases

    Oxalacetic Carboxylase

    Oxidative Decarboxylases

    Pyruvic Oxidases and Dehydrogenases

    α-Ketoglutaric Dehydrogenase

    Pyruvic-Malic Carboxylase (Malic Enzyme)

    α-Ketoglutaric-Isocitric Carboxylase

    6-Phosphogluconic Carboxylase

    References

    Part Six

    Chapter XVII. Miscellaneous Unclassified Enzymes

    Rhodanese

    Thiaminase

    Penicillinase

    Phospho-Isomerases

    Phosphohexose Isomerase

    Phosphotriose Isomerase

    Phosphopentose Isomerase

    Other Isomerases

    Cysteine Desulfhydrase

    Homocysteine Desulfhydrase

    Exocystine Desulfhydrase

    Desulfinicase

    Lactic Acid Racemase

    References

    Chapter XVIII. The Role of Enzymes in Carbohydrates Metabolism and Related Biological Processes

    Glycolysis and Alcoholic Fermentation

    Aerobic Oxidation of Carbohydrates

    Hydrogen Transport

    Aerobic Carbon Dioxide Production

    Oxidation and Phosphorylation

    General References

    References

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 478
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1953
  • Published: January 1, 1953
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483272795

About the Authors

James B. Sumner

G. Fred Somers

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