Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780081003800, 9780081003961

Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics

2nd Edition

Twenty-First Century Materials with Diverse Applications

Authors: Arun S. Wagh
eBook ISBN: 9780081003961
Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003800
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 17th May 2016
Page Count: 422
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This book brings together the latest developments in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs), including several novel ceramics, from US Federal Laboratories such as  Argonne, Oak Ridge, and Brookhaven National Laboratories, as well as Russian and Ukrainian nuclear institutes. Coupled with further advances in their use as biomaterials, these materials have found uses in diverse fields in recent years. Applications range from advanced structural materials to corrosion and fire protection coatings, oil-well cements, stabilization and encapsulation of hazardous and radioactive waste, nuclear radiation shielding materials, and products designed for safe storage of nuclear materials. Such developments call for a single source to cover their science and applications. This book is a unique and comprehensive source to fulfil that need. In the second edition, the author covers the latest developments in nuclear waste containment and introduces new products and applications in areas such as biomedical implants, cements and coatings used in oil-well and other petrochemical applications, and flame-retardant anti-corrosion coatings.

Key Features

  • Explores the key applications of CBPCs including nuclear waste storage, oil-well cements, anticorrosion coatings and biomedical implants
  • Demystifies the chemistry, processes and production methods of CBPCs
  • Draws on 40 years of developments and applications in the field, including the latest developments from USA, Europe, Ukraine, Russia, China and India


Researchers, graduate students, and engineers interested in structural ceramics, coatings, cements, hazardous and radioactive waste stabilization and nuclear shielding, oil and natural gas well cements, and bioceramics.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • About the Author
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Abbreviations
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemically Bonded Ceramics
    • Abstract
    • 1.1 Ceramics and Cements
    • 1.2 Chemically Bonded Ceramics as Intermediate Products
    • 1.3 Acid-Base Cement CBCs
    • 1.4 Solidification by Chemical Bonding in Nature
    • 1.5 General Definition of Chemically Bonded Ceramics
    • 1.6 Nature of the Chemical Bonding in CBCs
    • 1.7 Role of Solubility in Chemical Bonding
  • Chapter 2: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics
    • Abstract
    • 2.1 Review of Phosphate-Bonded Ceramics and Cements
    • 2.2 Review on Phosphate-Bonded Dental Cements
    • 2.3 Magnesium Phosphate Ceramics
    • 2.4 Generalization of Formation of CBPCs
    • 2.5 Summary of Literature Survey
    • 2.6 Application of CBPCs
  • Chapter 3: Raw Materials
    • Abstract
    • 3.1 Phosphoric Acid Production From Phosphate Rocks
    • 3.2 Acid Phosphates
    • 3.3 Major Oxides and Oxide Minerals
    • 3.4 Aggregates
  • Chapter 4: Phosphate Chemistry
    • Abstract
    • 4.1 Nomenclature
    • 4.2 The Effect of pH
    • 4.3 Dissolution Characteristics of Phosphoric Acid
    • 4.4 Neutralization of the Acid and Formation of Acid Phosphates
    • 4.5 Condensed Phosphates
    • 4.6 Dissociation (Ionization) Constants of Weak Acids
  • Chapter 5: Dissolution Characteristics of Metal Oxides and Kinetics of Ceramic Formation
    • Abstract
    • 5.1 Dissolution Characteristics as the Basis for Forming CBPCs
    • 5.2 Dissolution of Oxides and Formation of Dissolved Cations
    • 5.3 Kinetics of Formation of CBPCs
    • 5.4 Solubility Product Constant and Its pH Dependence
  • Chapter 6: Thermodynamic Basis of CBPC Formation
    • Abstract
    • 6.1 Review of Basic Thermodynamic Relations
    • 6.2 Thermodynamics of Solubility Relations
    • 6.3 Applications of Thermodynamic Parameters to CBPC Formation
    • 6.4 Temperature Dependence of Solubility Product Constant
    • 6.5 Pressure Dependence of Solubility Product Constant
  • Chapter 7: Oxidation and Reduction Mechanisms
    • Abstract
    • 7.1 Oxidation and Reduction (Redox) Reactions
    • 7.2 Redox Potentials
    • 7.3 Eh-pH Diagrams
    • 7.4 Eh-pH Diagram of Water
    • 7.5 Reduction of Iron Oxide and Formation of CBPCs
  • Chapter 8: Crystal Structure, Mineralogy of Orthophosphates
    • Abstract
    • 8.1 Nature of Interatomic Bonds
    • 8.2 Rules for Crystal Structure Formation
    • 8.3 Major Molecular Structures of Phosphates
    • 8.4 Major Mineral Structures of Orthophosphates
    • 8.5 Relevance to Minerals Constituting CBPCs
    • 8.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 9: Magnesium Phosphate Ceramics
    • Abstract
    • 9.1 Solubility Characteristics of MgO and Its Reaction With Acid Phosphates
    • 9.2 Controlling Reaction Rates During Formation of Mg-Phosphate Ceramics
    • 9.3 Fabrication and Properties of Mg-Based Phosphate Ceramics
    • 9.4 Conclusions
  • Chapter 10: Zinc Phosphate Ceramics
    • Abstract
    • 10.1 Solubility Characteristics of Zinc Oxide
    • 10.2 Fomation of Zinc Phosphate Ceramic
    • 10.3 Phase Formation in Zinc Phosphate Cements and their Microstructure
    • 10.4 Properties of Zinc Phosphate Cements
    • 10.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter 11: Aluminum Phosphate Ceramics
    • Abstract
    • 11.1 Solubility Enhancement with Temperature, and Formation of Berlinite Phase
    • 11.2 Formation of Berlinite-Bonded Alumina Ceramics
    • 11.3 Consolidation Model of CBPC Formation
    • 11.4 Conclusions
  • Chapter 12: Iron Phosphate Ceramics
    • Abstract
    • 12.1 Reduction as the Basis for Enhanced Solubility
    • 12.2 Ceramic Formation With Iron Oxides
    • 12.3 Conclusions
  • Chapter 13: Calcium Phosphate Cements
    • Abstract
    • 13.1 Chemistry of Calcium Phosphate Cements
    • 13.2 Calcium Phosphate Cements from Calcium Silicates and Aluminates
    • 13.3 Adhesion Between Portland Cement and CBPCs
    • 13.4 Calcium Phosphate Cements with Biomedical Applications
    • 13.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter 14: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Matrix Composites
    • Abstract
    • 14.1 Recycling Benign Waste Streams in CBPC Value-Added Products
    • 14.2 Fiber Reinforcement of CBPC Products
    • 14.3 Niche Applications
    • 14.4 Conclusions
  • Chapter 15: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Coatings
    • Abstract
    • 15.1 Acid-Base Phosphate Reactions as the Basis for Inorganic Performance Coatings
    • 15.2 Performance Tests for the Coatings
    • 15.3 Chemistry and Composition of CBPC Coatings
    • 15.4 Ceramicrete Corrosion Protection Coatings
    • 15.5 The Case of Delhi Iron Pillar
    • 15.6 Infrared Radiation Reflection and Fire Protection Characteristics of Ceramicrete Coating
    • 15.7 Conclusions
  • Chapter 16: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Borehole Sealant
    • Abstract
    • 16.1 Parameters Affecting CBS Slurry Design
    • 16.2 CBS Engineering Properties in Simulated Down-Hole Environment
    • 16.3 CBS Slurry Design
    • 16.4 Other Properties of CBS
    • 16.5 Effect of Individual Components on Slurry Behavior
    • 16.6 Conclusions
  • Chapter 17: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Nuclear Shields
    • Abstract
    • 17.1 Structure of Atoms and Their Fission
    • 17.2 The Nature of Nuclear Radiation [8]
    • 17.3 Physics of Scattering and Absorption of Radiation by Atoms
    • 17.4 Portland Cement and Steel as Nuclear Shielding Materials
    • 17.5 General Advantages of CBPCs as Nuclear Shielding Materials
    • 17.6 Modeling CBPC Shield Performance
    • 17.7 Effect of Intense Radiation on Microstructure of the Ceramicrete Shield
    • 17.8 Product Concepts and Products
    • 17.9 Conclusions
  • Chapter 18: Applications of CBPCs to Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Immobilization
    • Abstract
    • 18.1 Sources and Nature of Waste Streams in a Nuclear Fuel Cycle
    • 18.2 Nature of Radioactive Contaminants
    • 18.3 Role of Solubility of Radioactive Elements in CBPC Stabilization
    • 18.4 Waste Acceptance Criteria
    • 18.5 Case Studies on Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Streams
    • 18.6 Macroencapsulation of Large Objects
    • 18.7 Vitrification Studies
    • 18.8 Conclusions
  • Chapter 19: Chemically Bonded Phosphate Bioceramics
    • Abstract
    • 19.1 Bone as a Composite Material
    • 19.2 Chemically Bonded Phosphate-Based Bioceramics
    • 19.3 Recent Advances in Calcium Orthophosphate Materials
    • 19.4 Magnesium-Based Bioceramics
    • 19.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter 20: Environmental Implications of Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Products
    • Abstract
    • 20.1 Key Environmental Impact Routes Resulting From Materials Production and Processes
    • 20.2 Components of CBPC Products and Effects on the Environment
    • 20.3 EPA Model of Estimation of Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Release for Ordinary Portland Cement
    • 20.4 Estimation of Energy Consumption and Direct Emissions During Production of CBPC Cements
    • 20.5 Estimation of Environmental Impact of CBPC Coatings
    • 20.6 Conclusions
  • Appendix A: Thermodynamic Properties of Selected Materials
    • A.1 Oxides, Hydroxides, Phosphates
    • A.2 Cations and Anions in Aqueous State
  • Appendix B: Solubility Product Constants
  • Appendix C: List of Minerals and Their Formulae
  • Index


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© Elsevier 2016
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About the Author

Arun S. Wagh

Dr. Arun S. Wagh worked as a full time scientist in Argonne National Laboratory and is currently an adviser on nuclear materials for Argonne. His main research project concerns development of chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for the U.S. Department of Energy for immobilization of radioactive waste and also as nuclear shielding materials. In these efforts he collaborated with several Russian nuclear centers including the Russian Academy of Sciences and P.R. Mayak. Recently, he also collaborated with Kharkov Institute of Physics Technology in Ukraine perfecting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for nuclear applications. While leading these projects, he found a wide range of commercial applications of these materials. He has received several awards for his work including two R & D awards, two Federal Laboratories Consortium awwards, Scientist of the Year award by Chicago Intellectual Properties Lawyers' Association, and Agronne's Pacesetter Award. He is a fellow of American Ceramic Society. To promote commercial applications, currently he has formed his company, Inorganic Polymer Solutions, Inc., and is advising various industries.

Affiliations and Expertise

President, Inorganic Polymer Solutions, Inc., Naperville, IL, USA

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