Some of the more difficult environmental problems facing the Department of Defense (DOD) include (1) chemical weapons destruction, (2) explosive waste remediation, and (3) unexploded ordnance clearance and extraction. It is conceivable that $50 to $100 billion will be spent by DOD for these three programs, offering unusual opportunities for environmental engineering and related firms. Military installations are similar to small cities in terms of population, industrial activities, and some types of contaminated sites. However, some cover an area larger than a small state. DOD has operated industrial facilities on its installations for several decades that have generated, stored, recycled, or disposed of hazardous wastes. Many of these activities have contaminated the nearby soil and groundwater. To study and clean up contaminated sites, DOD established the Installation Restoration Program (IRP) in 1975. In 1984, the IRP was made part of the Defense Environmental Restoration Program. The Secretary of Defense delegated cleanup responsibility to the Army, Navy, the Air Force, and the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). Cleanup actions are usually accomplished under contract with private firms, which are monitored by the services. Most cleanup actions are funded through the Defense Environmental Restoration Account (DERA) and the Base Realignment and Closure Account. Congress established DERA in 1984 to fund the cleanup of inactive contaminated sites on DOD installations. The technology to clean up the conventional hazardous wastes on DOD sites are the same as those utilized for industrial sites, and well-documented by this publisher. However, there are three DOD programs that require the utilization of somewhat unusual or different technologies that have not been as well documented. These three programs are: 1. Chemical weapons destruction


Firms taking part in Department of Defense funded cleanup programs.

Table of Contents

Part I: Chemical Weapons Destruction 1. Introduction 1.1 Lethal Agents: World War I, up to World War II 1.2 Lethal Agents (Nerve Agents): From World War II to date 1.3 Nonlethal Agents 1.4 Proliferation Concerns 1.5 U.S. Army Organizations 2. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program 2.1 Background 2.2 Costs 2.3 Risk Considerations 2.4 Emergency Response/Health/Safety 3. Baseline Incineration 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Baseline Incineration Process 3.3 Operational Difficulties 3.4 Health and Safety 3.5 Air Filtration System 3.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Baseline Incineration 3.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Alternatives to Baseline Incinceration 3.8 Dunnage Incinerator 4. Alternatives to Incineration 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Selected Alternative Technologies 5. Nonstockpile Program 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Materiel and Locations 5.3 Environmental Considerations 5.4 Emergency Destruction Methods for Recovered, Explosively Configured, Chemical Warfare Munitions 6. Canadian Experience 6.1 Waste Inventory 6.2 Operational Concept 6.3 Public Consultation 6.4 Environmental Assessment 6.5 Agent Destruction Operations 6.6 Destruction Process Performance 6.7 Conclusions Part II: Explosive Waste Remediation 7. Introduction 7.1 Types of Explosive Waste 7.2 Sources of Explosive Waste 7.3 Explosive Nature and Safety 7.4 Technology Needs


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© 1996
William Andrew
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About the author

Robert Noyes

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Noyes Publications