This monograph condenses the relevant and pertinent literature on blanket and selective CVD of tungsten (W) into a single manageable volume. The book supplies the reader with the necessary background to bring up, fine tune, and successfully maintain a CVD-W process in a production set-up. Materials deposition chemistry, equipment, process technology, developments, and applications are described.


Engineers and technologists in the semiconductor, optoelectronic, optics, cutting tool, refractory fibers, filter and other industries.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction 1.1 Scaling down 1.2 Electrical contacts 1.3 Device reliability 1.4 Contact planarization and design rules 2. The Blanket Tungsten Approach 2.1 Principal steps 2.2 Tungsten adhesion 2.3 Blanket deposition of tungsten 2.4 Etch back of blanket tungsten 2.5 Degree of planarization and the contact diameter 2.6 Blanket tungsten material characterization 3. The Selective Tungsten Approach 3.1 Principal steps 3.2 Types of substrates 3.3 Types of dielectric layers 3.4 Chemistry of selective tungsten 3.5 Mechanisms of selectivity loss 3.6 Electrical characterization 4. Blanket Versus Selective Tungsten 4.1 Feasibility of selective and blanket contact or via fill 4.2 Costs of the contact/via fill process 4.3 World wide status of CVD of tungsten 4.4 Conclusion 5. Tungsten as Interconnect Material 5.1 Weaknesses of aluminum internconnects 5.2 Tungsten interconnects 5.3 Issues of tungsten interconnects 6. The Chemistry of CVD-W and Properties of Tungsten 6.1 CVD tungsten source material 6.2 Experimental deposition rate relations obtained for the H2/WF6 chemistry 6.3 Some properties of tungsten 6.4 Contamination issues in CVD-W 7. The Deposition Equipment 7.1 Hot wall reactors 7.2 Cold wall reactors 7.3 Industrial reactors 7.4 Future reactor developments 8. Miscellaneous 8.1 Tungsten gates 8.2 Selective growth on implanted oxide 8.3 Buried tungsten 8.4 Alterna


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© 1992
William Andrew
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About the author

John E.J. Schmitz

Affiliations and Expertise

Philips Semiconductor; former COO of SEMATECH


"After reading this book, an engineer should have all the necessary background." - European Semiconductor