Chemical Transport Reactions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483231495, 9781483270593

Chemical Transport Reactions

1st Edition

Authors: Harald Schäfer
eBook ISBN: 9781483270593
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1964
Page Count: 174
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Description

Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products.
The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and crystalline substances with homogeneous regions. The text then elaborates on the reaction process in the gas phase and chemical transport processes as an aid in preparative chemistry.
The manuscript ponders on the use of transport experiments in the determination of thermodynamic values, including determination of quantities transported in the diffusion tube, test of reversibility, and inversion of transport direction.
The book is a vital reference for readers interested in chemical transport reactions.

Table of Contents


Contents

Preface to the English Edition

Preface to the German Edition

1. Introduction and Historical Review

2. Experimental and Theoretical Principles

2.1 Experimental Techniques

2.1.1 Flow Methods

2.1.2 Gas Motion by Diffusion

2.1.3 Gas Motion by Thermal Convection

2.1.4 Annealing and Temperature Gradients

2.2 The Rate Determining Step in the Transport Process

2.2.1 The Gas Motion

2.2.2 The Reaction Rate

2.2.3 Relationship between Gas Diffusion and Reaction Speed

2.3 Calculation of the Transport Effect of Heterogeneous Equilibria for a Gas Motion between Equilibrium Spaces

2.3.1 Flow Method

2.3.2 Diffusion Methods

2.3.3 Gas Motion through Thermal Convection

2.4 The Transport Effect and the Thermodynamic Quantities of the Transport Reaction

3. The Transport of Solid Substances and Its Special Applications

3.1 Examples of Transportable Solid Substances

3.1.1 Elements, T1→T2

3.1.2 Elements, T2→T1

3.1.3 Oxides, T1→T2

3.1.4 Oxides, T2→T1

3.1.5 Sulfides, Selenides, and Tellurides; T2→T1

3.1.6 Halides (T2→T1) and Oxidehalides (T2→T1)

3.1.7 Nitrides, Phosphides, Arsenides, and Antimonides

3.1.8 Transport of Other Compounds

3.2 Separation and Purification of Substances by Means of Material Transport. Purity of Transported Material

3.2.1 The Substances A and A' Occur in a Heterogeneous Mixture

3.2.2 The Substances of A and A' to be Separated Form a Homogeneous Solid Phase

3.2.3 Observed Separation Effects

3.2.4 Improvement of the Purification Effect. Addition of Foreign Substances

3.2.5 Introduction of Impurities by Transport

3.3 Transporting Reagents as Mineralizers

3.3.1 Examples of the Mineralization Effect of Transport Reactions

3.3.2 Remarks on the Tridymite Problem

3.3.3 Equalization and Mineralization Effects on Hot Filaments

3.3.4 Particle Size and Mineralization Effect in the Measurement of Heterogeneous Equilibria

3.3.5 Possibilities of Further Development

3.4 Preparation of Single Crystals 85

3.4.1 Small Single Crystals for X-ray Pattern Photographs

3.4.2 Single-Crystal Filaments (Whiskers)

3.4.3 Larger Single Crystals

3.4.4 Oriented Crystal Growth. Epitaxy

3.5 Crystalline Substances with Homogeneous Regions. Mixed Crystals

4. Information on the Reaction Process in the Gas Phase

4.1 Indications of New Gaseous Compounds

4.2 Systems with a Reversible Transport Direction. Critical Decomposition Points

4.2.1 Influence of the Temperature on the Transport Direction

4.2.2 Influence of the Pressure on the Transport Direction

4.2.3 The Critical Decomposition Point

5. Chemical Transport Processes as an Aid in Preparative Chemistry. Combination of Transport Reactions with Other Processes

5.1 Syntheses in Temperature Gradients

5.2 Promotion of Reactions between Solid Substances by Transport Processes

5.2.1 Examples

5.2.2 Variations

6. The Use of Transport Experiments in the Determination of Thermodynamic values

6.1 Determination of Quantities Transported in the Diffusion Tube

6.2 Test of the Reversibility

6.3 Inversion of the Transport Direction. Critical Decomposition Point

6.3.1 Enthalpy of Formation of Carbon Monosulfide

6.3.2 The Thermal Behavior of Silicon Tetraiodide

6.3.3 The Critical Decomposition Point in the Titanium Transport by the Iodide Method

6.3.4 Niobium Deposition and Niobium Carbide Formation from a Niobium Pentachloride Gas Phase

References

Subject Index

Index of Materials Transported and Transporting Reagents


Details

No. of pages:
174
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1964
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483270593

About the Author

Harald Schäfer