Chemical Process Equipment - 3rd Edition - ISBN: 9780123969590, 9780123972361

Chemical Process Equipment

3rd Edition

Selection and Design

Authors: James R. Couper W. Roy Penney James R. Fair, PhD
eBook ISBN: 9780123972361
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123969590
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 19th September 2012
Page Count: 864
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Chemical Process Equipment is a results-oriented reference for engineers who specify, design, maintain or run chemical and process plants. This book delivers information on the selection, sizing and operation of process equipment in a format that enables quick and accurate decision making on standard process and equipment choices, saving time, improving productivity, and building understanding. Coverage emphasizes common real-world equipment design rather than experimental or esoteric and focuses on maximizing performance.

Key Features

  • Legacy reference for chemical and related engineers who work with vendors to design, specify and make final equipment selection decisions
  • Copious examples of successful applications, with supporting schematics and data to illustrate the functioning and performance of equipment
  • Provides equipment rating forms and manufacturers’ data, worked examples, valuable shortcut methods, and rules of thumb to demonstrate and support the design process
  • Heavily illustrated with line drawings and schematics to aid understanding, as well as graphs and tables to illustrate performance data


Chemical and process engineers. Industrial and plant engineers

Table of Contents


Preface to the Third Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Preface to the First Edition


0. Rules of Thumb: Summary

Compressors and Vacuum Pumps

Conveyors for Particulate Solids

Cooling Towers

Crystallization From Solution


Distillation and Gas Absorption

Drivers and Power Recovery Equipment

Drying of Solids


Extraction, Liquid-Liquid


Fluidization of Particles with Gases

Heat Exchangers


Mixing and Agitation

Particle Size Enlargement





Size Separation of Particles

Utilities: Common Specifications

Vessels (Drums)

Vessels (Pressure)

Vessels (Storage Tanks)

Membrane Separations

Materials of Construction



1. Introduction

1.1 Process Design

1.2 Equipment

1.3 Categories of Engineering Practice

1.4 Sources of Information for Process Design

1.5 Codes, Standards, and Recommended Practices

1.6 Material and Energy Balances

1.7 Economic Balance

1.8 Design Safety Factors

1.9 Safety of Plant and Environment

1.10 Steam and Power Supply

1.11 Design Basis

1.12 Laboratory and Pilot Plant Work

Other Sources of Information

1.1 Process Design

1.2 Process Equipment

2. Flowsheets

2.1 Block Flowsheets

2.2 Process Flowsheets

2.3 Process and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&ID)

2.4 Utility Flowsheets

2.5 Drawing of Flowsheets


3. Process Control

3.1 The Feedback Control Loop

3.2 Control Loop Performance and Tuning Procedures

3.3 Single Stream Control

3.4 Unit Operation Control


4. Drivers for Moving Equipment

4.1 Motors

4.2 Steam Turbines and Gas Expanders

4.3 Combustion Gas Turbines and Engines


5. Transfer of Solids

5.1 Slurry Transport

5.2 Pneumatic Conveying

5.3 Mechanical Conveyors and Elevators

5.4 Chutes

5.5 Solids Feeders


6. Flow of Fluids

6.1 Properties and Units

6.2 Energy Balance of a Flowing Fluid

6.3 Liquids

6.4 Pipeline Networks

6.5 Optimum Pipe Diameter

6.6 Non-Newtonian Liquids

6.7 Gases

6.8 Liquid-Gas Flow in Pipelines

6.9 Granular and Packed Beds

6.10 Gas-Solid Transfer

6.11 Fluidization of Beds of Particles with Gases


7. Fluid Transport Equipment

7.1 Piping

7.2 Pump Theory

7.3 Pump Characteristics

7.4 Criteria for Selection of Pumps

7.5 Equipment for Gas Transport

7.6 Theory and Calculations of Gas Compression

7.7 Ejector and Vacuum Systems

Glossary for Chapter 7

Terms Concerning Centrifugal And Related Pumps


8. Heat Transfer and Heat Exchangers

8.1 Conduction of Heat

8.2 Mean Temperature Difference

8.3 Heat Transfer Coefficients

8.4 Data of Heat Transfer Coefficients

8.5 Pressure Drop in Heat Exchangers

8.6 Types of Heat Exchangers

8.7 Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

8.8 Condensers

8.9 Reboilers

8.10 Evaporators

8.11 Fired Heaters

8.12 Insulation of Equipment

8.13 Refrigeration


9. Dryers and Cooling Towers

9.1 Interaction of Air and Water

9.2 Rate of Drying

9.3 Classification and General Characteristics of Dryers

9.4 Batch Dryers

9.5 Continuous Tray and Conveyor Belt Dryers

9.6 Rotary Cylindrical Dryers

9.7 Drum Dryers for Solutions and Slurries

9.8 Pneumatic Conveying Dryers

9.9 Flash and Ring Dryers

9.10 Fluidized Bed Dryers

9.11 Spray Dryers

9.12 Cooling Towers


10. Mixing and Agitation

10.1 A Basic Stirred Tank Design

10.2 Vessel Flow Patterns

10.3 Agitator Power Requirements

10.4 Impeller Pumping

10.5 Tank Blending

10.6 Heat Transfer

10.7 Vortex Depth

10.8 Solid Suspension

10.9 Solids Dissolving

10.10 Gas-Liquid Dispersions

10.11 Liquid-Liquid (L-L) Dispersions

10.12 Pipeline Mixers

10.13 Compartmented Columns

10.14 Fast Competitive/Consecutive (C/C) Reactions

10.15 Scale-Up



11. Solid-Liquid Separation

11.1 Processes and Equipment

11.2 Liquid-Particle Characteristics

11.3 Theory of Filtration

11.4 Resistance to Filtration

11.5 Thickening and Clarifying

11.6 Laboratory Testing and Scale-Up

11.7 Illustrations of Equipment

11.8 Applications and Performance of Equipment


12. Disintegration, Agglomeration, and Size Separation of Particulate Solids

12.1 Screening

12.2 Commercial Classification with Streams of Air or Water

12.3 Size Reduction

12.4 Equipment for Size Reduction

12.5 Particle Size Enlargement (Agglomeration)



13. Distillation and Gas Absorption

13.0 Introduction

13.1 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria

13.2 Single-Stage Flash Calculations

13.3 Evaporation or Simple Distillation

13.4 Binary Distillation

13.5 Batch Distillation

13.6 Multicomponent Separation: General Considerations

13.7 Estimation of Reflux and Number of Trays (Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland Method (1932, 1948, 1940))

13.8 Absorption Factor Shortcut Method of Edmister (1947–1949)

13.9 Separations in Packed Towers

13.10 Basis for Computer Evaluation of Multicomponent Separations

13.11 Special Kinds of Distillation Processes

13.12 Tray Towers

13.13 Packed Towers

13.14 Efficiences of Trays and Packings

13.15 Energy Considerations


14. Extraction and Leaching

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Equilibrium Relations

14.3 Calculation of Stage Requirements

14.4 Countercurrent Operation

14.5 Leaching of Solids

14.6 Numerical Calculation of Multicomponent Extraction

14.7 Equipment for Extraction

14.8 Pilot-Testing


15. Adsorption and Ion Exchange

15.1 Adsorption Processes

15.2 Adsorbents

15.3 Adsorption Behavior in Packed Beds

15.4 Regeneration

15.5 Gas Adsorption Cycles

15.6 Adsorption Design and Operating Practices

15.7 Parametric Pumping

15.8 Ion Exchange Processes

15.9 Production Scale Chromatography

General References

16. Crystallization from Solutions and Melts

16.1 Some General Crystallization Concepts

16.2 Importance of the Solubility Curve in Crystallizer Design

16.3 Solubilities and Equilibria

16.4 Crystal Size Distribution

16.5 The Process of Crystallization

16.6 The Ideal Stirred Tank

16.7 Kinds of Crystallizers

16.8 Melt Crystallization and Purification


17. Chemical Reactors

17.1 Design Basis and Space Velocity

17.2 Rate Equations and Operating Modes

17.3 Material and Energy Balances of Reactions

17.4 Nonideal Flow Patterns

17.5 Selection of Catalysts

17.6 Types and Examples of Reactors

17.7 Heat Transfer in Reactors

17.8 Classes of Reaction Processes and Their Equipment

17.9 Biochemical Reactors and Processes


18. Process Vessels

18.1 Drums

18.2 Fractionator Reflux Drums

18.3 Liquid-Liquid Separators

18.4 Gas-Liquid Separators

18.5 Storage Tanks

18.6 Mechanical Design of Process Vessels

18.7 Bins and Hoppers


19. Membrane Separations

19.1 Membrane Processes

19.2 Liquid-Phase Separations

19.3 Gas Permeation

19.4 Membrane Materials and Applications

19.5 Membrane Cells and Equipment Configurations

19.6 Industrial Applications

19.7 Subquality Natural Gas

19.8 The Enhancement of Separation

19.9 Permeability Units

19.10 Derivations and Calculations for Single-Stage Membrane Separations

19.11 Representation of Multistage Membrane Calculations for a Binary System

19.12 Potential Large-Scale Commercialization


20. Gas-Solid Separations

20.1 Gas-Solid Separations

20.2 Foam Separation and Froth Flotation

20.3 Sublimation and Freeze Drying

20.4 Separations by Thermal Diffusion

20.5 Electrochemical Syntheses


21. Costs of Individual Equipment


APPENDIX A: Units, Notation, and General Data

APPENDIX B: Equipment Specification Forms

APPENDIX C: Questionnaires Of Equipment Suppliers



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© Butterworth-Heinemann 2010
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About the Author

James R. Couper

James R. Couper, D.Sc. is Professor Emeritus, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Unviersity of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA

W. Roy Penney

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA

James R. Fair, PhD

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor Emeritus, Department of Chemical Engineering, UT Austin, USA


"They guide especially new engineers in the design and specification of equipment in preparation for buying it, providing only the material they and their collaborators have found of practical use." --Reference and Research Book News, December 2012