Chemical Methods

Chemical Methods

1st Edition - November 30, 2021

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  • Editors: Abdolhossein Hemmat-Sarapardeh, Mahin Schaffie, Mohammad Ranjbar, Mingzhe Dong, Zhaomin Li
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128219324
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128219317

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Chemical Methods, a new release in the Enhanced Oil Recovery series, helps engineers focus on the latest developments in one fast-growing area. Different techniques are described in addition to the latest technologies in data mining and hybrid processes. Beginning with an introduction to chemical concepts and polymer flooding, the book then focuses on more complex content, guiding readers into newer topics involving smart water injection and ionic liquids for EOR. Supported field case studies illustrate a bridge between research and practical application, thus making the book useful for academics and practicing engineers. This series delivers a multi-volume approach that addresses the latest research on various types of EOR. Supported by a full spectrum of contributors, this book gives petroleum engineers and researchers the latest developments and field applications to drive innovation for the future of energy.

Key Features

  • Presents the latest research and practical applications specific to chemical enhanced oil recovery methods
  • Helps users understand new research on available technology, including chemical flooding specific to unconventional reservoirs and hybrid chemical options
  • Includes additional methods, such as data mining applications and economic and environmental considerations


Petroleum engineers; petroleum researchers; enhanced oil recovery researchers; reservoir engineers; researchers understanding unconventional reservoirs

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1: Introduction to chemical enhanced oil recovery
  • Abstract
  • 1.1: Introduction
  • 1.2: Chemical EOR methods
  • 1.3: Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Polymer flooding
  • Abstract
  • 2.1: Introduction
  • 2.2: Classification of EOR polymers
  • 2.3: Polymers features and screening criteria
  • 2.4: Polymer rheology
  • 2.5: Polymer as fracturing fluid in oil reservoir
  • 2.6: Polymer adsorption
  • 2.7: Displacement mechanisms in polymer flooding
  • 2.8: Fractional flow curve analysis
  • 2.9: Polymer flooding performance
  • 2.10: Polymer flooding in heavy oil recovery
  • 2.11: Polymer flooding design and offshore experiences
  • 2.12: Modeling and simulations
  • 2.13: Upscaling
  • 2.14: Laboratory tests and interpretation of the results
  • 2.15: Field cases
  • 2.16: Injection scheme
  • 2.17: Operation problems
  • 2.18: Well pattern
  • 2.19: Surface facilities
  • 2.20: Economics and feasibility study of polymer flooding processes
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Enhanced oil recovery using surfactants
  • Abstract
  • 3.1: Overview
  • 3.2: Types of surfactants
  • 3.3: Chemicals used in surfactant flooding
  • 3.4: Thermal and aqueous stability
  • 3.5: Optimum salinity
  • 3.6: Mechanisms
  • 3.7: Emulsion formation and treatment
  • 3.8: Surfactant retention
  • 3.9: Upscaling
  • 3.10: Screening criteria
  • 3.11: Field cases
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Alkaline flooding
  • Abstract
  • 4.1: Introduction
  • 4.2: Commonly used alkaline agents
  • 4.3: Alkaline reaction
  • 4.4: Mechanisms
  • 4.5: Effect of reservoir condition on alkaline process
  • 4.6: Geology and lithologic variation of reservoir
  • 4.7: Effect of pH
  • 4.8: Salinity effect on alkaline flooding
  • 4.9: Effects of oil composition on alkaline flooding
  • 4.10: Ternary diagram in alkaline flooding
  • 4.11: Success rate and screening criteria
  • 4.12: Displacement efficiency in alkaline process
  • 4.13: Combined flooding processes
  • 4.14: Simulation and modeling
  • 4.15: Application of machine learning
  • 4.16: Surveillance and monitoring of alkaline flooding
  • 4.17: Application conditions of the alkaline flooding project
  • A: Appendix
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Alkaline-surfactant polymer (ASP)
  • Abstract
  • 5.1: Introduction
  • 5.2: Synergy of alkaline, surfactant, and polymer constituents
  • 5.3: Polymer effect
  • 5.4: Emulsion properties and stability
  • 5.5: ASP compatibility
  • 5.6: Mechanism descriptions
  • 5.7: Factors that influence IFT
  • 5.8: Factors that influence wettability
  • 5.9: Phase separation
  • 5.10: Surfactant polymer adsorption
  • 5.11: Modeling and simulations
  • 5.12: Application of machine learning
  • 5.13: Optimization the design of ASP injection
  • 5.14: Chemistry
  • 5.15: Screening criteria
  • 5.16: Laboratory tests
  • 5.17: Field examples and performance
  • 5.18: ASP flooding: Field challenges
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Improved oil recovery by gel technology: Water shutoff and conformance control
  • Abstract
  • 6.1: Introduction
  • 6.2: Excessive water control
  • 6.3: Polymer gels
  • 6.4: In situ gel
  • 6.5: Preformed particle gel (PPG)
  • 6.6: Temperature-activated polymer gel (TAP)
  • 6.7: pH-sensitive microgel
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Smart water injection
  • Abstract
  • 7.1: Basic concepts
  • 7.2: Condition for smart water injection in sandstone reservoirs
  • 7.3: Condition for smart water injection in carbonate reservoirs
  • 7.4: Factors influencing smart water
  • 7.5: Physical and chemical mechanisms of recovery
  • 7.6: Injected and formation brine interaction
  • 7.7: Optimum salinity
  • 7.8: Zeta potential
  • 7.9: Dynamic investigation of contact angle and interfacial tension
  • 7.10: Heterogeneity and fluid diversion
  • 7.11: Effect on relative permeability curve
  • 7.12: Simulation
  • 7.13: Machine learning
  • 7.14: Upscaling
  • 7.15: Screening criteria
  • 7.16: Field study
  • 7.17: Success rate
  • 7.18: Field challenges
  • 7.19: Operation problems
  • 7.20: Economic and environmental feasibility
  • References
  • Chapter 8: A comprehensive review on the use of eco-friendly surfactants in oil industry
  • Abstract
  • 8.1: Overview
  • 8.2: Surfactant
  • 8.3: Surfactant flooding
  • 8.4: Surfactant EOR mechanisms
  • 8.5: Effect of eco-friendly surfactants on the IFT, wettability alteration, and oil recovery
  • 8.6: Other applications of surfactant
  • 8.7: Future perspectives, recommendations, and challenges
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Combination of chemical methods
  • Abstract
  • 9.1: Introduction
  • 9.2: Key components of combined chemical methods
  • 9.3: Combined chemical EOR methods
  • 9.4: Comparison of different methods
  • 9.5: Screening criteria for selecting the combined EOR methods
  • 9.6: Modeling and simulations
  • 9.7: Application of machine learning
  • 9.8: Field applications
  • 9.9: Field challenges
  • 9.10: Economic and environmental feasibility
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Chemical enhanced oil recovery in unconventional reservoirs
  • Abstract
  • 10.1: Introduction
  • 10.2: Unconventional reservoirs description
  • 10.3: Coalbed methane reservoirs
  • 10.4: Heavy oil and tar sands
  • 10.5: Shale oil and gas reservoirs
  • 10.6: Field examples
  • 10.7: Screening criteria/challenging
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Formation damage during chemical flooding
  • Abstract
  • 11.1: Introduction
  • 11.2: Problems associated with different chemical methods
  • 11.3: Combined CEOR processes
  • 11.4: Techniques to mitigate FD during EOR processes
  • 11.5: Identification of risk and opportunity of EOR projects
  • 11.6: Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Gulf Professional Publishing 2021
  • Published: November 30, 2021
  • Imprint: Gulf Professional Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128219324
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128219317

About the Editors

Abdolhossein Hemmat-Sarapardeh

Abdolhossein Hemmati-Sarapardeh, PhD is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of Kerman. He was previously a visiting scholar at the University of Calgary. He earned a PhD in petroleum engineering from Amirkabir University of Technology, a MSc in hydrocarbon reservoir engineering from the Sharif University of Technology, and a B.Sc in petroleum engineering from the Amirkabir University of Technology. His research interests include enhanced oil recovery processes, heavy oil systems, nanotechnology and applications of intelligent models in the petroleum industry. Abdolhossein has been awarded as a distinguished graduate MSc student, was an honor PhD student, and a recipient of the National Elites Foundation Scholarship. In 2017, he was named Outstanding Reviewer with both Fuel and Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, published by Elsevier. He has published over 50 journal articles, several conference proceedings, and earned one patent in 2016.

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

Mahin Schaffie

Mahin Schaffie is currently Professor of chemical and petroleum engineering at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. She was previously director of department of petroleum engineering as well as energy & environmental engineering research center at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. Her research interests include enhanced oil recovery, nano and biotechnology and separation science and engineering. She earned a MSc in applied technical chemistry, a PhD in chemical and petroleum engineering, and a specialized certificate in environmental engineering, all from the Technical University Clausthal in Germany. She has won many awards and national fundings. Mahin has authored one book, over 25 technical reports, more than120 journal papers and four patents.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mahin Schaffie, Professor of chemical and petroleum engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

Mohammad Ranjbar

Mohammad Ranjbar is currently a professor of mining and petroleum engineering at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. He is also Director of Mineral Industries Research Center at Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman. He earned a PhD in petroleum engineering and a MSc in applied technical chemistry from Technical University Clausthal in Germany. His research interests include surface phenomena, enhanced oil recovery, biotechnology and separation science and engineering. He has won many awards and received funding for over 30 European and national research projects. Mohammad has authored two books, more than 130 journal papers, four international patents and over 45 technical reports.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

Mingzhe Dong

Mingzhe Dong, PhD. P.Eng is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Calgary, and a Distinguished Professor in the School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum. He earned a BASc from Northwest University in China, a MASc from the China University of Petroleum, and a PhD from the University of Waterloo in Canada,all in chemical engineering. His industry and academic research experience include Industry Post-Doctoral Fellow at Imperial Oil in Calgary, Senior Research Engineer at the Saskatchewan Research Council, Professor at University of Regina, and Professor at University of Calgary. His research areas are flow in porous media, interfacial phenomena, enhanced oil recovery, unconventional resources development, and CO2 sequestration. He has co-authored 260 journal papers, 70 conference papers, 35 patents, and over 45 industry and government reports.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor, School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (Huadong), Qingdao, China

Zhaomin Li

Zhaomin Li is currently a Vice President in the College of Petroleum Engineering at the China University of Petroleum (East China). His research interests are in oil production engineering theory and technology, application of foam fluids in oil and gas development, and heavy oil. He is also an Executive Director of the Shandong Petroleum Institute and Vice Chairman of the Shandong Ocean Development Research Association. He has won many awards and received funding for more than 50 national scientific research projects. He has obtained 68 invention patents, including one American PCT patent. He earned a PhD from the China University of Petroleum (Beijing), a MS from Shandong University, and a BS from the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, College of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), China

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  • Armin Sun Oct 17 2021

    Chemical methods

    Seasons 9 and 11