Chemical Evolution of the Giant Planets - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125613507, 9781483269764

Chemical Evolution of the Giant Planets

1st Edition

Editors: Cyril Ponnamperuma
eBook ISBN: 9781483269764
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 252
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Description

Chemical Evolution of the Giant Planets is a compilation of papers on the chemical evolution of giant planets, presented at a colloquium sponsored by the Laboratory of Chemical Evolution in October, 1974. The compendium focuses on the interpretation of data provided by the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions, which conducted explorations of the outer planets. Scientists from various disciplines tackle the various aspects of the study of the chemical environment of the giant planets and their satellites. Subjects such as the atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn; chemical abundances in the atmospheres of the giant planets and their satellites; possibility of growth of airborne microbes in outer planetary atmospheres; and the biology on the outer planets are covered in the book. Astronomers, chemists, geologists, and biologists will find the book interesting.

Table of Contents


Contents

List of Contributors

Preface

1 The Two Types of Atmosphere of Jupiter and Saturn

I. Introduction

II. The ±45° Atmosphere

III. The Equatorial Jetstream

IV. The Polar Atmosphere

References

2 Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Chemistry of Adiabatic, Solar-Composition Planetary Atmospheres

I. Introduction

II. Photochemistry

III. Lightning

IV. Proton Irradiation

V. Condensation of Products from Disequilibrium Processes

VI. Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune

VII. Steady-State Abundances of Products

VIII. Conclusions

References

3 Titan's Atmosphere and Surface

I. Introduction

II. Atmospheric Composition

III. Cloud and Haze

IV. Escape and Recycling

V. Thermal Structure

VI. Chemistry

VII. Remarks

References

4 Chemical Abundances in the Atmospheres of the Giant Planets and Their Satellites

I. Introduction

II. Composition

III. Comets

IV. Titan

References

5 Ion Molecule Plasma Chemistry in Reducing Planetary Atmospheres

I. Introduction

II. Principles of Plasma Chemistry

III. Applications of Plasma Chemistry

IV. Conclusion

References

6 Life on the Second Sun

I. A Speculative Bio-Torus

II. Life in the Torus: Thermophiles

III. The Origin of Life in the Bio-Torus

IV. Comments

References

7 Microbial Life at Low Temperatures

I. Introduction

II. Cell Functions Sensitive to "Cold" Temperatures above 0°C

III. Life at Subzero Temperatures

IV. Relevance for Life on Other Planets

References

8 Possibility of Growth of Airborne Microbes in Outer Planetary Atmospheres

I. Introduction

II. Microbial Aerosol Formation

III. Stirred Settling

IV. Rotating Drum

V. Behavior of Bacteria in Air

VI. Metabolism in the Airborne State

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

References

9 Dormant and Resistant Stages of Procaryotic Cells

I. Introduction

II Dormancy and Longevity of Bacterial Endospores

III. Examples of Resting Stages in Procaryotic Cells and Their Resistances to Deleterious Agents

IV. Other Resistance Properties of Resting Cells

V. Return of Resting Cells to Vegetative Growth

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

10 Life in Extreme Environments: Biological Water Requirements

I. Introduction

II. Biological Water Activities

III. Experiments with Neurospora

IV. Jupiter

References

11 Planetary Mission Planning for the Next Decade

I. Introduction

II. The Planetary Mission Model

12 Spin-Scan Imaging—Application to Planetary Missions

I. Introduction

II. Spin-Scan Imaging in Practice

III. Advantages of Spin-Scan Imaging

IV. Spin-Scan Imager System Modeling

V. Spin-Scan Imager Optimization for the Jupiter Orbiter Mission

VI. Summary

References

13 Exploration of the Giant Planets by Infrared Spectroscopy

I. Introduction

II. Surface Composition

HI. Surface Temperature

IV. Vertical Temperature Profile

V. Surface Pressure

VI. Atmospheric Constituents

VII. Vertical Distribution of Constituents

VIII. Other Objectives

IX. General Purpose and Special Purpose Investigations

References

14 Energy Requirements of a Biosphere

I. Introduction

II. Light Conversion in Photosynthesis

III. The Light Harvesting System

IV. Light Saturation

V. Production in Nature

VI. Metabolic Rates, "Dynamic Range"

VII. Anaerobic Life

References

15 Biology on the Outer Planets

I. Introduction

II. The Outer Planets: Physical Aspects

III. Jupiter

IV. Saturn

V. Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto

VI. The Outer Planets: Exobiological Speculations

VII. The Contamination Problem and Conclusions

References

16 Organic Synthesis in a Simulated Jovian Atmosphere of The Planet Jupiter

Subject Index


Details

No. of pages:
252
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1976
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9781483269764

About the Editor

Cyril Ponnamperuma